Mass transfer vacuum column

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used for effective interaction of the gas(vapor) - liquid in the processes of absorption, rectification and particularly vacuum distillation, used in chemical, petrochemical, food and other related industries. The inventive mass transfer vacuum column includes a vertical housing with tiered located inside the centrifugal lattices with perforations in the form of arched slots camber up with tangentially directed axes, arranged in concentric circles, and located between the centrifugal lattices centripetal perforated grilles, made in the form of cones, oriented upside down with perforations in the form of arched slots bulge upwards, with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the periphery to the center in the same direction. Centrifugal lattice is made in the form of cones, oriented vertices upwards, forming an acute angle to the horizontal and above them are reflective perforated disks in the form of truncated cones, oriented up a large base with a Central hole is of sa camber up with axes, directed at an acute angle to the radius from the centre to the periphery in the same direction. Over centripetal grilles installed reflective perforated cone, oriented vertices up with angles to form a horizontal, lower angles forming a centrifugal lattices, with an outer diameter less than the inner diameter of the casing, perforating the reflective cone is made in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the center to the periphery in the same direction, and the angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centripetal gratings 2 times more angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centrifugal lattices. The proposed design mass transfer vacuum columns due to their distinctive elements provides the solution of the technical problem to improve the efficiency of mass transfer between the gas(vapor) and liquid. 11 Il.

The invention relates to the structures of mass transfer columns for interacting systems the gas (vapor)-liquid intended for the processes of absorption, rectification and particularly vacuum distillation, and may find application in chemical, petrochemical, gas is slight pressure from the beginning cylindrical body, a distribution grid, the packing layer on the grate supporting a distribution grid, the packing layer on the lattice, "redistributor" liquid Packed columns, made in the form of sending of a truncated cone to the peripheral part of the column, set a smaller base down, with arched grooves cut on the surface of the cone bulge up, evenly spaced concentric circles with tangentially directed axes with respect to the axis of the cone, the smaller base of the cone along its perimeter made bent up at an acute angle petals towards the exhaust outlets of the arched slots (USSR author's certificate N 1321438, class B 01 D 3/22, 1987).

The lack of known mass transfer column is the uneven distribution of the liquid over the cross section of the column at different heights of the nozzle layer on the support grid, which reduces the efficiency of mass transfer between the gas (vapor) and liquid.

Closest to the claimed technical essence and the achieved effect is a mass transfer column comprising a vertical housing with tiered located inside the centrifugal gratings, with perforations circles, and located between the centrifugal lattices centripetal perforated grilles, made in the form of cones, with perforations (USSR author's certificate N 1755858, class B 01 D 3/22, 3/32, 1992).

A disadvantage of the known mass transfer column is the low efficiency of mass transfer between the gas (vapor) and liquid.

To improve the efficiency of mass transfer mass transfer in vacuum column comprising a vertical housing with tiered located inside the centrifugal lattices with perforations in the form of arched slots camber up with tangentially directed axes, arranged in concentric circles located between the centrifugal lattices centripetal perforated grilles, made in the form of cones, oriented upside down, with perforations in the form of arched slots bulge upwards, with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the periphery to the center in the same direction, centrifugal lattice is made in the form of cones, oriented peaks up, with forming an acute angle to the horizontal and above them are reflective perforated disks in the form of truncated cones oriented large base is, made in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to the radius from the centre to the periphery in the same direction, over centripetal grilles installed reflective perforated cones oriented vertices up with angles to form a horizontal, lower angle forming a centrifugal lattices, with an outer diameter less than the inner diameter of the casing, perforating the reflective cone is made in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the center to the periphery in the same direction, and the angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centripetal gratings 2 times more angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centrifugal arrays.

Mass transfer vacuum column (Fig. 1 - 11) includes a vertical cylindrical casing 1, tiered located at the height of the inside of the centrifugal contact grid 2 made in the form of cones, oriented peaks up to forming an acute angle to the horizontal, with the diameters of the bases adjacent to the diameter of the housing 1, with the perforations made in the form of arched slots 3 bulge up, placed on the chopped cones, oriented large grounds up adjacent to the walls of the housing 1, forming an acute angle to the horizontal, mounted asymmetrically on centrifugal bars 2, with bores for the passage of fluid and arched slits 5, performed by the bulge up with axes directed at an acute angle to the radius from the centre to the periphery and in the same direction under centrifugal bars 2 installed centripetal grating 6 in the form of cones, oriented foundations up, closely adjacent to the inner walls of the housing 1, forming an acute angle to the horizontal, twice as large, than for centrifugal gratings 2, with perforations in the form of arched slots 7, performed by the bulge upwards and arranged in concentric circles with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the periphery to the center and in the same direction on each radial grating 6 asymmetrically installed reflective cone 8, oriented with the top up, the base diameter of which is less than the internal diameter of the column, with an acute angle of inclination of the generatrix to the horizontal less than the angle of inclination of the generatrix of the centrifugal grating 2, the reflective cone 8 is made in one and the same direction, the outer edges of the reflective cone is equally removed from the casing wall 1 and the surface of the radial grating 8 and rigidly fixed between the supporting poles 10.

Centripetal grating 6 and the reflective disks 4 are made with external flanging for fixing their spacer rings 11, which are tightly press them flanging to the wall of the housing 1. Spacer ring 11 is made in the form of a split ring of metal rod, the ends of which are attached to the bearing plate 12 and 13, one 12 of which is attached a stop screw 14 passing freely into the hole of the other bearing plate 13, on both sides of which the stop screw 14 screwed the nuts 15 and 16 so that the nut 15 between the thrust plates 12 and 13 is screwed all the way into the plate 13 and the spacer ring 11 is pressed tightly against the inner wall of the housing 1. The axis of the screw 14 and the spacer ring 11 is displaced inside the circumference of the spacer ring 11 and upwards relative to the horizontal plane for trouble-free maintenance of nuts 15 and 16 and the smooth installation of the ring 11.

Centripetal grid 6 is connected rigidly with a reflective cones 8 remote bolts 17 with a nut

Gas (vapor) enters the body 1 of the column from the bottom and moves upward, passes through the arched slot 7 centripetal grating 6 in the direction from the periphery to the center, drags and moves in the same direction of the fluid, where it flows down through the arched slot 7, interacting closely with her at the same time, resulting in heat and mass transfer between the gas (vapor) and liquid, then a gas (steam) goes up, passing through the arched slot 9 reflective cone 8 in the direction from the center to the periphery at an acute angle to the radius and carries the liquid, partially falling from above with centrifugal grating 2, the walls of the casing and to the surface of the centripetal grating 6. Gas (steam) with reflective cone 8 is fed in tangentially directed arched slot 3 centrifugal grating 2 and drags received from above the liquid, the result is a regularly rotating two-phase flow of gas (vapor) and liquid, this liquid makes the radial-circular motion from the center to the periphery, flows through the arched slot 3 down, and gas (steam) is a spiral upward movement and comes in an arched slot 5 conical reflective disk 4 on which a gas (steam) captures and moves ICU 2, and gas (steam) goes up under upstream centripetal bars 6 and so On of the conical reflective disc 4 and the reflective cone 8, the liquid enters with a gas (steam) coming from the bottom due to mechanical entrainment.

As centrifugal gratings 2 under the reflective disk 4 fluid moves from the center to the periphery and in contact with the gas (steam), moving (cross flow up and centripetal lattices under 6 reflective cones 8 fluid moves from the periphery to the centre and is in contact with the gas (steam), moving cross-talk up, when this is achieved a high degree of turbulence interaction phases and favorable flow pattern, providing maximum driving force of the process and high efficiency of mass transfer between phases.

Technical advantages of the invention lie in the provision of cross-flow of liquid and gas (vapor) in distributive lattices and countercurrent to the movement of gas (vapor) and liquid between the gratings in collisions between phases and turbulence in phases, which ensures an increase in the driving force of the process.

This increases the efficiency of mass transfer between gas (promoe reflux ratio in terms of rectification, that will reduce the consumption of steam for rectification and to reduce the cost of separation products.

Mass transfer vacuum column comprising a vertical housing with tiered located inside the centrifugal lattices with perforations in the form of cooking slots camber up with tangentially directed axes, arranged in concentric circles located between the centrifugal lattices centripetal perforated grilles, made in the form of cones, oriented upside down, with perfomace in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the periphery to the center in the same direction, characterized in that the centrifugal lattice is made in the form of cones, oriented peaks up, with an acute angle abracosa to the horizontal and above them are reflective perforated disks in the form of truncated cones, oriented up a large base, with a Central hole and an outer diameter adjacent to the walls of the column, with the perforations made in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to the radius from the periphery to the center in one of the tires up, with angles to form a horizontal, lower angles forming a centrifugal lattices, with an outer diameter less than the inner diameter of the casing, perforating the reflective cone is made in the form of arched slots bump up with the axes directed at an acute angle to form from the center to the periphery in the same direction, and the angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centripetal gratings 2 times more angle to the horizontal generatrix of the cone centrifugal lattices.

 

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