Device for metallothermic rare and rare earth metals, alloys and alloys on their basis

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to metallurgy for the production of rare and rare earth metals, alloys and alloys of rare earth and transition metals method metallotrejderskogo recovery. The device can be used to obtain other materials used for manufacturing of high-energy magnets. It contains a lined metal crucible with an outlet channel and a tube made from a component of the obtained alloy or the original charge, the inflator, as well as additional capacity is provided in the upper part with an outlet channel, and at the bottom with metal reservoir, the volume of which is equal to the volume of the resulting ingot. In this device, the metal fills the metal reservoir and the slag remains in additional capacity, massive metal reservoir provides a fast and directional solidification of the metal, alloy or ligatures, excluding separation of components and phases in the system. The surface of the ingot has no slag inclusions, the structure of the ingot is uniform, so the alloys without additional remelting can be used for making magnets by powder metallurgy methods. 1 Il.

The invention Oh and transition metals method metallotrejderskogo recovery. The device can be used to obtain other materials used for manufacturing of high-energy magnets.

A known device for producing metal zirconium, consisting of a graphite crucible at the bottom of which has a metal reservoir. The inner surface of the crucible is covered with a protective layer of calcium fluoride with a thickness of 0.4-0.6 mm [1]. The zirconium crucible receive metallothermic recovery of zirconium tetrafluoride chips of metallic calcium. The crucible tested to obtain alloys of rare-earth metals - iron-boron alloying additive. The crucible poteryatsa layer fluorspar. Then the crucible is filled with the mixture of a mixture of fluorides of rare-earth metals, iron, ferroboron, and other alloying additives in various chemical forms and shavings of metallic calcium. Whereupon the latter is installed in the retort, which is sealed, vacuumized, filled with argon, and then activates a secondary reaction of the known recovery methods. As a result of regenerative melting apparatus is formed ingot metal alloy (REM-iron-boron alloying additive) or ligatures REM-iron, which is covered with a layer of insulating slag. When recovering a mixture of fluoride slashlove cooling and crystallization of various zones of the molten metal results in uneven distribution of REM, in particular neodymium in the ingot, which affects the properties obtained from these alloys and master alloys magnets. For example, the bottom of the ingot in contact with the cold powder of calcium fluoride, and the top of the ingot from a melt of calcium fluoride. To eliminate uneven distribution (neodymium) height of last ingot melt in an induction furnace, and this leads to higher alloy or alloys due to the additional energy consumption, snap, loss of REM and the emergence of costly turnovers REM. When remelting ingots from the smelting reduction plants last melted in a crucible, heated by the inductor, and then poured into a copper or water-cooled mold. Alloys of rare-earth metals-iron-boron alloying elements can be synthesized from components in the induction furnace, however, this method and apparatus have the same disadvantages as in the melting alloys or alloys, obtained by metallothermic recovery.

The closest in technical essence is a device (apparatus) for obtaining ingots of uranium metal [2,3]. Apparatus for producing uranium metal consists of a reactor and recovery of the metal reservoir. The reactor recovery made of meom in which is tightly fitted to the exhaust cone valve for release of the molten metal. After rehabilitation melting reactor recovery is installed on a metal reservoir with the lifting of the valve and draining molten uranium in the mold (metal reservoir). The metal reservoir. to prevent contamination of uranium lined with refractory material. For' re-use of the device must again be futurewall the metal reservoir and to avoid inadvertent discharge of molten uranium to adjust the valve.

The drawbacks are the need for fitting and adjustment of valve used for draining molten metal before each restore operation, and the metal reservoir lining.

The task of the invention is to improve the efficiency of the device, improving the quality of ingots and getting alloys and alloys with a uniform distribution of components and phases, which can eliminate the remelting ingots from the smelting reduction plants, and also to reduce the cost of alloys of rare-earth metals-iron-boron alloying additive and ligatures REM-iron (cobalt).

The problem is solved in that Izv the exhaust channel, tube and metal reservoir, provided with an additional capacity provided in the upper part with an outlet channel, and at the bottom with metal reservoir. While the metal reservoir has a volume equal to the volume of the obtained ingot, and the tube is made of alloy material or a component thereof.

The drawing shows a longitudinal section of the proposed device.

The device comprises a refractory-lined metal crucible 1 with the exhaust channel 2. The lining of the calcium fluoride 3 includes a box of siliconized graphite 4, the exhaust channel 2 which is covered by the tube 5 made of a component of the obtained alloy or component of the charge. The inflator 6 is placed in the upper part of the charge 7. The capacity of 8, made of siliconized graphite, in the upper part communicated with the discharge channel 2, and at the bottom with metal reservoir 9. Massive metal reservoir 9 of the water-cooled copper or steel perform collapsible, having a volume equal to the volume of the resulting alloy. Movable support 10 is provided for transporting the device to the retort 11. The retort 11 is a pipe for evacuating and filling with an inert gas (not shown).

The device operates as follows.

using tubular insert, installed coaxially in the crucible 1, provide the annular gap of at least 15 mm, and in this gap fall asleep calcium fluoride, compacting it as sleep. The hole in the conical bottom cover tube 5 made of alloy or component thereof. In the crucible 1 poured the mixture and remove the tubular insert.

On a portable rack 10 install the metal reservoir 9, the upper end of which is placed a capacity of 8, combining holes to provide communication of the cavities. After installation of the crucible 1 with the charge on the upper end of the vessel 8 the stand 10 with the device Assembly is placed in the retort 11. Connect the inflator to the food, retort, vacuum and filled with inert gas. Using electric blasting initiate the reaction t recovery. In metallothermic reactions in the crucible is formed of molten metal and slag. The molten metal accumulates in cone box 4, problemset tube 5 and flows into the metal reservoir 9 and the slag remains in the vessel 8. Massive metal reservoir 9 provides a fast and directional solidification of the metal, alloy or ligatures, and this eliminates the separation of components and phases in the system. After cooling, the device is removed from the retort 11, disassemble metallopro the ne, therefore, the alloys without additional remelting can be used for making magnets by powder metallurgy methods. Device for making alloys and master alloys was industrial inspection at the Siberian chemical combine.

Device for metallothermic rare and rare earth metals, alloys and alloys on their basis, including lined crucible with the exhaust pipe, a tube and a metal reservoir, characterized in that it has additional capacity provided in the upper part with an outlet channel, and at the bottom with metal reservoir, while the metal reservoir has a volume equal to the volume of the obtained ingot, and the tube is made of alloy material or a component of the charge.

 

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