The method of tracking as fusion welding and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to welding equipment and can be used for monitoring, adaptive management, research, training, and certification in various types of fusion welding and related technologies. The main objective of the method and device tracking quality fusion welding is the expansion in the number of diagnosed conditions thermal image, characterizing the quality of the heat trail ahead melting. The method is due to the fact that in addition to the optical shaping, converting the infrared signal of the heat trace to electrical threshold signal forming deviations from the interface and the depth of penetration of the entered logical, differential-integral, threshold processing with the appropriate orientation of the position-sensitive pyroelectric transducer and protective screen. The device, consisting of a transducer infrared radiation, series-connected operational and Executive units, supplemented by a switch block modeling of welding, unit test signal and recording control expert unit with Sauveterre fusion. 2 S. and 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il.

The invention relates to the welding technique and can be used for monitoring, adaptive management, research, training, and certification in various types of fusion welding and related technologies.

Among the most effective ways of tracking quality fusion welding is known for the use of electrical measurement and control of infrared radiation (ISR).

Limitations in the use of many methods of measuring the electrical parameters of the welding process with different complexity of the technical implementation (ed. St. N 1834762, B 23 K 9/10, 1993, the patent of Russian Federation N 2016722, B 23 K 9/10, 1994) is the specialization for certain types of automatic welding, in the absence of predictive control the geometry of the movement of penetration, the inability to detect defects that are not associated with controlled electrical properties.

A common shortcoming of many control methods IKI is the complexity of the specialized technical implementation. It is inherent, for example, methods ("JEEE Troms. Rob. and Atom." N 1 1992, p. 86-93), private decision tasks using sophisticated thermal imaging scanning of the image field and its computer obrabotka demand-side monitoring of the weld root.

There is a method of tracking as fusion welding (ed. St. N 1009664, B 23 K 9/10), which consists in forming optical IKI before the welding tool and converting it into an informative signal Converter, determining the deviation of the welding tool in the formation of the output actuating signals. This method is chosen as the closest analogue. Its disadvantage is of limited use in automatic welding, the lack of control of discontinuities and rapid control path interface, and forecast variance movement and depth of penetration.

You know the tracking device quality fusion welding (ed. St. N 1773623, B 23 K 9/10, 25.12.91), containing along the joint from the weld root, groups, temperature sensors, connected to the complex scheme of electronic processing. Specialization limits the scope of such a device.

You know the tracking device quality fusion welding (ed. St. N 1009664, B 23 K 9/10) containing Converter IKI, sizerandy on thermal footprint before the welding tool, and the outputs of the Converter IKI connected to inputs of the operational block, outputs connected to ligacheva analogue. Disadvantages it is of limited use without control defects discontinuities, advanced control path interface, and forecast deviations of the geometry of the movement and depth of penetration.

The basis of the invention the task is improving the way track quality fusion welding, which due to the change of techniques, operations and monitoring provides the following technical result. In various manufacturing and field conditions with different degrees of mechanization, automation, and even their absence, in a variety of technologies is tracking not only for deviations of the joint angles and depth of penetration, but also manifest the possibility of angular differences from the linear anomalies, control and labelling of discontinuities, control the beginning and the availability of advanced welding control tack, endings welding closed (groove), open joints, forecast these signs, an imitation of these signals for training and certification through the test signal sequence and / or modeling of the source signals. When using pyroelectric positional sensitivity simplified technical implementation. Atali equipment, technologies and welded structures; the introduction of adaptive control stick electrode welding, gas-shielded, submerged arc welding, for related technologies welding, etc.

The problem is solved in that in the method of tracking quality fusion welding comprising forming optical infrared radiation heat trace before the welding tool and converting it into an informative electric signal Converter, determining the deviation of the welding tool from the interface, the formation of the output actuating signals, according to the invention determine the value of the modulus of the electric signal, when the value of the modulus of the electric signal is equal to or more specified technology threshold value determines when the ignition of the arc, differentiate the value of the modulus of the electric signal when the differentiated value of the module of the electric signal is larger or equal to the second specified technology threshold value to detect the presence of discontinuities, to determine the changes of the angles of doing the welding tool of the amplitude selection of the electrical signal to determine the depth of penetration of the amplitude selection module elektricheskaya signal.

The angle formed by the infrared radiation on the transducer relative to changes in the welding process the length of the consumable electrode set including obtaining sufficient sensitivity of the transducer at the beginning of the weld cycle and protect the inverter from the arc at the end of welding.

The Converter protects the screen from sprinkling flux.

Conversion of infrared radiation into an electrical signal is performed by the pyroelectric Converter with positional sensitivity.

During research, production of equipment, training and personnel certification, certification of equipment, technologies, materials, welded at the position of the welding tool, welding equipment or their models generate diagnostic signals thermal footprint welding and forecast of its changes from the primary electrical signal or (and) of modeled primary electric signal and / or of the test electrical signal.

The task is solved in that the tracking device quality fusion welding, containing Converter infrared radiation, sizerandy on the heat is but a switch, the Executive block, block modeling of welding and block test signal, a recording unit, and the unit of analysis used an operating unit for determining the moment of ignition of the arc, the presence of discontinuities, changes in the angles of doing the welding tool and its deviations from the junction, the depth of penetration, the availability of pot holders and end joints, and the thunk of infrared radiation through the first input switch connected to the input of the operational block, the output of which through the Executive unit is connected with the control system of welding and the registration unit, the second and third inputs of the switch are connected, respectively, with unit simulation of welding and block test signal, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of blocks register, output control welding is connected to the input of the recording unit.

In Fig. 1 shows a block diagram of a tracking device for quality fusion welding, which implements the inventive method in the control circuit, diagnostics, control and certification of Fig. 2 - the location of the transducer 4, object 2 and control examples of welding consumable stick electrode (Fig. 2.1) and corner welding in shielding gas (Fig.2.2), and PR is the control system welding, which can be used in various automated systems technician when configuring or worker-welder.

Unit 2, the object of control by welding, is a structure of the technological process, characterized by technology 2.1; equipment 2.2, including welding tool 2.2.1; welding and provide welding materials 2.3; welded construction and 2.4, the result of the interaction 2.2.1 and 2.3; heat after 2.5 melting.

Thermosensory diagnostic device tracking quality fusion welding 3 includes serially connected inverter IKI 4, switch 5, the operation unit 6 diagnosing thermal image of the weld, Executive block 7 status signals of the object 2, block modeling of the weld 8, the block test signal 9, the recording unit 10.

In the device 3 Converter IKI 4 is implemented diafragmirovanija standard position-sensitive pyroelectric sensor with two differential included sensitive paraelemental and electronic amplifier of electric signals of the sensor.

Unit 7 generates signals of adaptive management, visual and / or sound is concerning the input of the switch 5 is connected to the unit 8 modeling of object 2, the third block of the test signal 9, and to output the operation unit 6.

Unit 8 welding simulation model of the heat trace 8.1 melting in the simplest implementation is a driver that simulates a primary electrical signal from the Converter 4, the recorded recording unit 10.

Block test signal 9 in the simplest implementation, as the block 8 is a driver that simulates a primary electrical signal thermal footprint, but with artificially introduced test signals diagnostic characteristics thermal image fusion. Unit 9 can be both Autonomous and connected, as shown by the dotted line in Fig.1, with the output of block 10.

The unit 10 includes a means of visual recording characteristics of the technological process of welding, including primary electrical signal generated IKI heat trace preceding fusion. Unit 10 together with its relations with blocks 1,2,7,8 and 9 in figure 1 is intended to provide not only training, but interrelated types of certification of welders C1 (certification), equipment C2, C3 technologies, materials, C4, welded C5.

In Fig. 2 predstavleniya burner of Fig.2.2), the fastening mechanism 14 of the inverter, the protective screen 15, the angle 16 area 17 overview of the heat trace 2.5 melting.

For welding consumable electrode according to Fig.2.1, the inverter 4 with the protective screen 15 is mounted by means of clamping mechanism 14 on the end piece of the electrode 12. The angle 16 and the aperture of the transducer 4 ahead of future fusion installed so as to provide maximum sensitivity with regard to speed, the trajectory of the welding tool 13, the material of the welded components and modes of penetration. In the field of view of the transducer 4 is the maximum area of review 17. However, the angle 1 6 and the position of the protective screen 15 are selected so that, according to technology minimum remaining piece of the electrode 12 at the end of the weld cycle protect the inverter 4 from the direct effects of the arc. Thus the maximum area of review 17 in the beginning of the cycle with the largest distance to the Converter 4 is compensated during the welding process, the reduction of area 17 and the distance decreases, the combustion unit electrode 12.

Unlike welding stick electrode at the corner welding in shielding gas according to Fig.2.2 the Sam the technology to establish a reliable screen protection the inverter 4 from the direct effects of the arc and molten metal.

When welding under flux action of the arc on the Converter 4 is substantially less. The role of the screen 15 is in the protection area of review 17 from the sprinkling of flux.

Unit 6 together with the switch 5, the modelling unit 8, unit test signals 9 and the recording control expert unit 10 may be implemented as software (computer or using microprocessors processing). In some cases, specialized application-specific device 3 can be simplified by conventional electric switch 5 and an analog implementation of the operational unit 6 on the basis of differentiating, integrating and logical elements, switches and Comparators.

The method of tracking as fusion welding and examined its relationship structure of the device for its implementation can be realized in the circuit of Fig.1, according to examples of the different types of welding according to Fig.2 and examples of the operating processing for specific types of technologies as follows.

When the ignition of the arc stream is optically formed IKI thermal footprint ahead of the moving melt zone review 17 according to the established corner 16 enters preobrazovatelyakh 6. According to the transformation algorithm module of the magnitude of this signal (Ux) is compared with a minimum threshold U0 and upon reaching it, a signal will appear "welding", corresponding to the ignition, the presence of the arc. In the absence of arcs such a signal will not be and the Executive unit 7 is not formed for system 1 and the block 10.

Differentiating unit 6 module rapidly changing signal (Ux) with subsequent comparison (Ud) with a threshold U1, control discontinuities. The reason of its occurrence is the poor quality of the coating of the electrode, changes in the supply of protective gas, violations of the modes and States of the welded surfaces. All this manifests itself by a sharp increase in signal. The achievement of the signal (Ud) threshold U1 determines the signal "Adhesion" generated by the unit 7 for marking anomalous area when you register in the block 10 and to ensure the operational welding system 1.

In surfacing mode signal defect discontinuities through the system 1 increase the layer fusion. Thus operatively conducting non-destructive testing of the weld cladding eliminate defects discontinuities simultaneously with hardening, increasing the worn layer.

Asymmetrical square 17 otnositel is potentially included two sensitive elements, that corresponds to the signal of a certain polarity. When the deviation of the welding tool 13 in the other side of the junction 18 increases the illumination of the other pyroelectric sensor and changes the sign of the signal Ux. If the sign of the Ux speaks of the direction of movement of the tool 13 relative to teplootdayuschey interface 18, the amplitude of the Ux on the size of the deviations from the interface.

If, for example, when the angular welding (see Fig. 2.2) changes the angles of doing the welding tool, such fluctuations can produce large changes of the signals Ux than the corresponding deviations from the junction. According to the sign and magnitude of these deviations, the output signal of the block 6 are formed unit 7 to control their elimination in the system 1 and the register unit 10.

With increase in heat input from two sides of the junction 18 of the primary signals Ux square review 17 increase in absolute value. When differential pyroelectric positional sensitivity of the transducer 4 alternating Ux. Diagnosis of maximum penetration (burn-through) in the block 6 is the control time T achieve this signal Ux(Ti), Ux(Ti+1) threshold U4>0, U4'<0. In another implementation positional procastinate signals from one polamoshna of problematic. The signal of the conventional burn-through output unit 6 is formed by the block 7 to resolve system 1 and the registration unit 10.

In a similar way by defining (Ux) in block 6 reduction of normal penetration to the threshold value (U5) in block 7 form a signal of lack of fusion for the normalization of penetration in the system 1 and the register unit 10.

When we approach the tack Converter 4 also registers with the space 17, the growth of IKI by overlap teplootdayuschey interface 18. In block 6, as in the case of burnout, but with a different, usually lower threshold level (U6) and additional monitoring for the duration of Tn is the definition of a diagnostic sign of potholders. Forming unit 7, the signal is sent for testing in the system 1 and the block 10.

The formation of blocks 6 and 7 for system 1 and unit 10 signal diagnosis finishing welding of closed joint in contrast to the tone pot is on achieving a higher threshold (U7) and exceeding a time threshold T>Tn.

When using pyroelectric positional sensitivity in comparison with the complicated less reliable dual-Fi re system closest analogue is simplified optical-rasshirenie applications.

Considered the formation of the diagnostic signs of deviations from the joint angles of doing the welding tool and a nominal depth of oplavlenija and approach to the tack or end of the welding closed joint can prognozirovaniya by differentiation of the primary electrical signal heat Ux footprint melting.

When forming the priority signal discontinuities blocked the development of signal deviations from the junction and corners, burnout, pot holders, end joint, if they don't form a separate specially designed for them(and) sensor(s) in the Converter 4.

When in the field of view 17 zero signal from the end of the symmetrical or asymmetrical (one end of the workpiece 11) buff with a duration of more than a threshold unit 6 passes through the block 7 in the system 1 and the block 10 signal the end of a joint.

In addition to the monitoring, prediction, diagnosis and adaptive management, research, commissioning, training, qualification and certification of the effectiveness of the device 3 is significantly increased due to the introduction of blocks 8 and 9, 10 with their relationships.

Recorded by the unit 10 from the output of the Converter 4 according to the relevant species is forced into blocks 8 and 9 for reproducing an electrical signal. On their basis can not only be simulated through blocks 5-7 specific welding process, but also reproduced by the model supplements the technical situation that is difficult to obtain in production at the moment, or economically. Thus, through the device 3 can improve the efficiency of setting and adjusting welding equipment 2.2.

In addition, the signal detection device 3 in the unit 10 ensures that the work equipment and based on it increases the effectiveness of repairs.

In addition, registration in block 10 of the welding tool 13 and modes of equipment 2.2 possible, informative diagnosing thermal image fusion, by means of the device 3 to provide effective training of welders or engineers automated equipment. In addition, the registration unit 10 results contributes to their certification (certification C1 in Fig. 1).

Equipment certification C2 on the selected modes and technologies, materials and certification C1 is performed by the communication device 3 with the recording unit 10. In the welding process are recorded not only pasportizirovana parameters blasting CLASS="ptx2">

Certification technology C3 on certifications C1, C2, selected materials and quality control of the welded connection is provided by the operation device 3 in the circuit is the same relationships of the blocks 1 to 10.

Materials certification C4 is determined by the certifications C1-C3, quality control of welded joints and thermosensory diagnosis device 3.

Certification of the resulting weldment C5 characterized certifications C1-C4 and thermosensory diagnosis by the device 3.

Thus, in comparison with the closest analogue significantly expanded the circle formed in the welding process diagnostic features dynamic States of thermal image, characterizing the quality of the melt. Entered informative signs discontinuities, welding (arc), an abnormal angle of conduction of the welding tool, the approach to tack to the end of the welding joints. Provided their predictions. Basic application operations, techniques and monitoring implemented the relevant performance and position of the transducer IKI and protection, algorithmic processing of the primary electrical signal using the model, pre test the Cove and their relationships. All this allows not only to increase the efficiency of diagnosis and adaptive management, fusion welding, and a number of related technologies, but also efficiently provide appropriate research when choosing the best tools and welding conditions, commissioning, adjustment and repair of welding equipment, training, certification of welders and fitters, certification of equipment, materials, technologies and welded structures.

1. The method of tracking as fusion welding, comprising forming optical infrared radiation heat trace before the welding tool and converting it into an informative electric signal Converter, determining the deviation of the welding tool from the interface, the formation of the output actuating signals, characterized in that to determine the value of the modulus of the electric signal, determine the moment of ignition of the arc when the value of the modulus of an electrical signal equal to or greater than the first specified technology threshold differentiating the value of the modulus of the electric signal when values of the differentiated values of the modulus of the electric signal is equal to or greater second specified on the technology of pmenta by amplitude selection of the electrical signal, determine the depth of penetration, determine the presence of potholders and end joints by means of amplitude and temporal selection module electrical signal.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the angle formed by the radiation Converter relative to changes in the welding process the length of the consumable electrode set including obtaining sufficient sensitivity of the transducer at the beginning of the weld cycle and protect the inverter from the arc at the end of welding.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the Converter protects the screen from sprinkling flux.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the conversion of infrared radiation into an electrical signal is performed by the pyroelectric Converter with positional sensitivity.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that during research, production of equipment, training and personnel certification, certification of equipment, technologies, materials, welded at the position of the welding tool, welding equipment or models form the diagnostic signals of the heat track and forecast of its changes from the primary electrical signal and/or the tracking Device quality fusion welding, containing Converter infrared radiation, sizerandy on thermal footprint before the welding tool, the unit of analysis, the control system of the welding, characterized in that it is provided with a switch actuating block, block modeling of welding and block test signal, a recording unit, and the unit of analysis used an operating unit for determining the moment of ignition of the arc, the presence of discontinuities, changes in the angles of doing the welding tool and its deviations from the junction, the depth of penetration, the availability of pot holders and end joints, and the thunk of infrared radiation through the first input switch connected to the input of the operational block, out of which, through the Executive unit is connected with the control system of welding and the registration unit, the second and third inputs of the switch are connected respectively with the modelling unit welding unit and the test signal, the inputs of which are connected to the outputs of the registration unit, the output control welding is connected to the input of the recording unit.

 

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