Method of treatment of female cattle to improve their performance on milk and forage


(57) Abstract:

The invention concerns a method of increasing milk production ability females cloven-footed by assigning effective amounts of the active factor paracobitis for allometric growth phase of their mammary glands prior to first insemination. The active factor is ractopamine or a physiologically acceptable salt. 2 and 6 C.p. f-crystals, 7 PL.

The invention relates to the cultivation of female ungulates to a certain extent to increase their production of milk. This is because the parenchyma, the functional synthesizing the milk section of the mammary glands, have largely developed before the onset of sexual maturity. Studies have been conducted with the aim of increasing development parenchyma. Ironically, the increase in food intake in the period before puberty though and causes an increase in growth rate and earlier onset of puberty, leads to reduced milk production.

You have now created a method of processing artiodactyls, reached and not reached sexual maturity, which leads to an increase parenchymal tissue and strengthen limit the ability of milk production. Actno)ethanol or its physiologically applied salt. For the prototype accepted technical solution for U.S. patent N 4904662, class A 61 K 31/535, 1990.

Active factor, which is used in this method is 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-3(4-hydroxyphenyl) propylamino)ethanol or its physiologically acceptable salt.

This compound has the following formula:


It is known under the name "ractopamine". It has two asymmetric carbon atoms. In the present invention can be used individual isomer, but is preferably a compound comprising a mixture of isomers. The preferred salt is the hydrochloride.

The compounds used in this invention are the subject matter of a patent 4690951 USA, which is included in this description by reference.

The development of the breast is a complex process. A good overview is provided in the production of Feedstuffs April 6, 1992, pages 12, 13 and 17. Briefly, soon after birth to puberty the growth of mammary glands occurs with "allometric" speed, i.e. a speed higher than the overall growth rate of the animal. Look, Acta, Agr. scand 28, 41-46 (1978). During this allometric phase of growth is the growth parenchymal tissue, epithelial tissue with streams, which later will form the processing of milk is maximized by increasing the growth of parenchyma and minimize the growth of the fat layer within this allometric growth phase.

Most desirable for the production of milk in dairy breeds, because the milk intended for sale. Most milk is also desirable for those breeds that practice makes it possible to feed the offspring. Eating milk, offspring gaining more weight.

In this invention the active factor is assigned to females even-toed ungulates within the allometric phase of growth of the breast prior to the first insemination. The age at which individuals reach sexual maturity and are able to reproduce known. Female ungulates usually reach sexual maturity when their size becomes equal to 2/3 of the adult size of this species. This period lasts from 4 to 14 months of age. For sheep and goats sexual maturity is only partially controlled by the size, also it is controlled by seasonality; basically, these individuals reached sexual maturity, when their size becomes equal to 40 - 70% of adult size that is between 5 and 10 months. However, the cycle may slow down during the year if the required size is achieved in late autumn. Buffalo reach sexual maturity at ages 1 to 3 years. In addition, it depends on the individual characteristics of individuals and conditions and the methods, known to those who have experience of studying animal control, namely, by means of analyses of blood samples for progesterone. Preferably this active factor to assign the second part of allometrically phase of growth, which will include the period up to puberty (first estrus) and may include early period after sexual maturity. However, with the approach of sexual maturity, allometric growth phase smoothly into the isomeric phase and the possibility of favourable changes in the development of the mammary glands is reduced. Therefore, preferably, this active agent to designate the period preceding puberty.

The duration of this period will depend on the individual characteristics of cloven-hoofed animals processed. For cloven-hoofed animals, which belong to Bos taurus, this period is usually from 2 to 4 months prior to sexual maturity.

This invention can be applied among dairy breeds belonging to the genus Bos, such as Hoistein, Jersey, Guernsey, Brown Swiss, Ayrshire, Friesian, Dutch Red and White, Danish Red and Nrmande.

This invention can be used for beef breeds, such as Argus, Hereford, Finish Penzgayer, Red Angus, Polled Hereford, Devon, South Devon, Santa Gertrudis, Galloway, Maine-Anjou, Brangus, Brahman, Gelbvien, Charolais and Zimou, and for dairy purposes.

This invention can be applied to other females of cloven-hoofed animals, such as goats, sheep and buffaloes.

This active factor can be used in any way. This compound may be administered orally, the composition of the food, as feed, as an additive or drinking water. The connection may be combined with a physiologically acceptable carrier and an animal can be processed by injection. The connection can be a part of the implant, which is placed subcutaneously and from which the active agent is allocated from time to time. The most preferred method of administration is oral, in food. For these purposes, an effective amount of an active factor is introduced with food containing this factor in the amount of from 5 to 300 ppm, preferably from 20 to 125 ppm.

This invention is illustrated by the following example. In this experiment, were used 40 heifers breed Holstein, have not reached sexual maturity. The average weight and age at the beginning of the study were approximately 249 kg and 244 days (8 months). In accordance with the weight and age of the heifers were divided into pairs, pair - one Chica control, and the other experimental. Heifers were kept in pens of four. For the experimental is denied lasted 70 days.

Heifers were fed every day with a mixture of complex composition (% of total DM basis) containing corn silage, or 21.1%, silage alfalfa 15% and additives 60%-a complex mixture plus the feeding of 3.9%. The additives SA-95 and feeding YES-74 are shown in table. 1. A mixture containing ractopamine (composition in table. 2) was mixed with a sufficient number of YES-74 to obtain a mixture containing 184,7 mg ractopamine per 1 kg of feed. A control group of heifers were fed identical feeding without ractopamine. The amount of feeding was such that each diet contained 80 ppm ractopamine. The mixture was given daily. Directly before feeding measured quantities of food remaining from the previous day. The required amount of feed added to fresh food and mixed in food tank directly after feeding.

The weight of the heifers was determined starting from the first day of the study and continued with intervals of 7 days for 70 days of treatment. Weight at the beginning and end of the study defined as an average for two consecutive days weighing. Height at the withers was determined at the beginning and end of the study.

At the end of the study, heifers were exposed Breasts and ovaries were removed. Mammary glands were processed, they removed the medium and b is erwou turn. Then with the dorsal surface of the gland was removed alien fabric (mainly fascia). The remaining, not related to the milk glands, tissue was separated physically from upstream and lateral areas of glands and fat layer. Also removed the growths in breast lymph. Glands were then divided into left and right halves and balanced. The right half of the mammary glands from 36 heifers were divided into parenchymal and neparoxizmalna tissue. Each component was weighed and portions of tissue were submitted for analysis of water by drying in an oven for 24 h at 100oC, lipids by extraction with ether and protein by Kjeldahl method.

Characteristic animals are presented in table. 3. The increase was increased P < 0.07 to 0.13 kg/day heifers, consumed ractopamine. The difference in ADG decreased with increasing processing time. The difference in ADG between the control Chicks and Chicks treated with ractopamine after 28, 42 and 56 days of treatment, amounted to 0.35, 0.20 and 0.17 kg/day. Absorption of dry matter between treatments has led to the fact that the consumption of feed required for one kg gain (P < 0.06 to, was reduced by 8.3%.

The weight of the mammary glands and tissue type are shown in table. 4. The total weight of the mammary glands kontronic glands was not statistically significant.

Similarly, the difference between treatments on the actual weight of the tissue type and the percentage of each tissue type from the total cancer was not statistically significant. However, the mammary glands of heifers used ractopamine weighed slightly less than the 4.7% than cancer control heifers, but contained more parenchyma < 3.1% and less repairengine < 11,8%.

Types of individual tissues were analyzed for protein, lipid, ash and water (PL. 5). The parenchyma of the mammary glands of heifers used ractopamine, contained a lower percentage of lipids P < 0.01, and a higher percentage of protein (P < 0,06), water ( P < 0.01 ) and ash ( P < 0.01) compared with the Breasts of the control heifers. At that time, as there was a decrease of 11.8%, P < 0.2 in weight neverthemore tissue of the mammary glands of heifers used ractopamine, differences in the chemical composition neverthemore tissue was not.

The actual weight of the protein, lipids, ash and water in parenchymal and neverthemore tissues of the mammary glands is presented in table. 6. A statistically significant difference between treatments on the chemical composition of parenchymal and neverthemore tissue was not.

The percentage weight of protein, lipid, ash and water is more protein P < 0,07 and water P < 0.03 and less lipid P < 0.04 to. Consumption of ractopamine decreased P < 0.03 to the total weight of the lipids of the mammary glands, but the effect of ractopamine on protein, ash and water were not statistically significant.

In summary, although the weight gain of 9% heifers used ractopamine, higher than in control heifers 1,55 VS 1.42 kg/day, the parenchyma of the mammary glands of heifers used ractopamine contained less P < lipids and more P > 0.06 protein in the percentage from the base than the control heifers. There was no effect of ractopamine on the content of lipids in neverthemore tissue.

These data show that ractopamine is useful when feeding heifers reached and not reached puberty to increase the gain without the usual increase in fat accumulation in the developing mammary gland.

1. Method of treatment of female cattle to improve their performance in milk production, introducing a specified animals active factor in the phase allometric growth of their Breasts before the first insemination, characterized in that as the active factor using 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propylamino)ethanol or F. the hydrochloride salt.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the active factor is introduced in the second part of phase allometric growth of the mammary glands.

4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the active factor is administered orally with feed containing from 5 to 200 parts per million (ppm) of the active factor.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that these females are cows, but an active factor is introduced into a period of 2 to 4 months prior to their sexual maturity.

6. Pet food, for introducing female cattle during phase allometric growth of their Breasts before their first insemination, containing the active factor in promoting the development of the mammary glands, characterized in that the active factor is 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-(1-methyl-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propylamino)ethanol or its physiologically acceptable salt.

7. Feed on p. 6, characterized in that the active factor is present in the form of hydrochloride salt.

8. Feed on p. 6, characterized in that the active factor is present in an amount of from 6 to 200 parts per million (ppm).


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