A device for determining the distance between two located on the same level points, mainly for controlling the position of crane tracks cranes
(57) Abstract:A device for determining the distance between two located on the same level points, mainly for controlling the position of crane tracks cranes, relates to the field measurements. The device contains one flexible string of a certain length, the ends of which are connected via elastic elements with the clamping elements, one of which has a readout node, made in the form of an optoelectronic transducer pivotally mounted thereon a reflector optically connected with the Converter and using a pull - up with one of the elastic elements. The reflector may be made in the form of an isosceles mirror prism of optical glass with a transparent base facing the optoelectronic transducer and mirror faces, inclined at an angle of 45o. The higher accuracy of control is achieved by using as the reference node optoelectronic transducer that combines the source and receiver directional radiation that allows you to use an SLR lens, and when used as a radiation detector cameras to ensure the accuracy, equal to its nom Converter, in addition to the processing unit, the recording unit information that allows you to combine the process of monitoring and recording results with the movement of the clamping elements. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to the field of measurements, in particular for controlling the position of crane tracks in terms mainly of bridge cranes.It is known device  for measuring linear dimensions, containing a measuring element mounted on one end of the clamping element and the tensioning device mounted on the other end of the measuring element made in the form of the slide and cooperating spring along the axis of the sleeve, provided with clamping elements.The disadvantage of this device is that it does not provide an accurate determination of distances, mainly controlling the position of crane tracks cranes in the plan. This is due to the fact that the measuring element is made of a hard and when determining distances over long spans of its deflection will result in significant measurement errors. In addition, the known device does not allow measurement while moving the crane.The closest in technical essence to salve points, containing at least one flexible string of a certain length, the clamping elements attached to the ends of the yarn and the reference node.The disadvantage of this device is the low control accuracy, the inconvenience of operation, the impossibility of writing reading reading site. This is due to the complexity of the visual readings of the reference node when using the unit at high altitudes, and lack of equipment for recording the results of measurements when moving the crane.Comparative analysis of the prototype shows that the inventive device further comprises elastic elements for connection of the ends of the flexible strands with the corresponding clamping elements, one of which has a readout node, made in the form of an optoelectronic transducer on the housing, which is rigidly mounted rack with swivel hanging on the reflector, optically associated with the optoelectronic transducer and connected by means of thrust with one of the elastic elements.In addition, the optoelectronic Converter comprises a directional radiation and optically connected through the system focus to the first input of the processing unit is on, the reflector is made in the form of an isosceles mirror prism of optical glass having a transparent base, which is facing the optoelectronic Converter and the mirror face is inclined to the base at an angle of 45oC.In addition, the processing unit contains connected in series camera, the preprocessing block information block input computing unit and output unit, and output unit output connected to the input of the unit recording information.Thus, the proposed device meets the criterion of "novelty".A comparison of the proposed device with other technical solutions shows that all the elements of the device are widely known. However, their use in this respect to determine the distance between the two located on the same level points, mainly for controlling the position of crane tracks cranes in the plan, leads to increased accuracy and reduced time control.Increasing the accuracy of determining the distance between two located on the same level points, mainly for controlling the position of crane tracks cranes in the plan is provided PR is edenia reflected from isosceles mirror reflector of the beam, when using cameras with an accuracy equal to its resolution. In addition, the improved accuracy is achieved by combining optoelectronic transducer directional radiation and optically linked via the focusing system to the first input of the processing unit information screen, and the output processing unit connected to the input of the recording unit information that allows the use of a reflector made in the form of an isosceles mirror prism of optical glass having a transparent base, which is facing the optoelectronic Converter and the mirror face is inclined to the base at an angle of 45oC.The reduction of the process time of the control distance in plan is provided as a consequence of the use in optoelectronic Converter of the processing unit, which contains connected in series camera, the preprocessing block information block input computing unit and output unit, and output unit output connected to the input of the recording unit information that allows you to combine process control the distance and record the results with the movement of the clamping elements of the device. In addition, Aline.All the above allows to conclude that the technical solutions according to the criterion of "significant differences".In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the device for determining the distance between two located on the same level points, mainly for controlling the position of crane tracks cranes in plan; Fig.2 is a diagram illustrating the operation of the device using prismatic mirror reflector of Fig. 3 is a diagram of an optoelectronic transducer; Fig. 4 is a block circuit pre-processing of Fig. 5 is a wiring diagram of thrust to the optical reflector and the elastic element of Fig. 6 is a variant of the attachment of the elastic elements to the clamping.The device (Fig. 1) consists of two clamping members 1 and 2, the elastic elements 5 and 6 in the form of a cylindrical tension springs, which are connected with the ends of the flexible strands 7 of a certain length and through the brackets 3 and 4 with the corresponding clamping elements. On the clamping element 1 is the reference node in the form of optoelectronic Converter 8, the rack 9 which is hinged reflector 10 in the form of an isosceles mirror prism, which, in turn, is connected by a thrust 11 with the spring 5. Opticheskie axis of the radiation detector intersects the plane 13 of the second mirror faces of the prism.The device during its use for control of crane tracks cranes operates as follows. Mark crane path control points. The clamping members 1 and 2 mounted on a rail crane path 14 in the place in which the distance between the vertical axes of the rails is known, and with tie rods 15 and 16 are connected to a bridge crane 17. By means of a spring 6 nut 18 to produce the tension of the flexible strands 7 so that the beam 19 (Fig. 3) directional radiation 20 passed through the plane 12 of the prism 10 and reflected from the vertical edge 13 of the beam 21 from shining onto the screen 22. The final configuration produced by an adjusting screw 23 (Fig. 5) so that the spot position of the reflected beam was closest to the center of the screen. After you configure the device before the movement in the processing unit records the position of the spot of the reflected beam (zero counts). When the movement of the crane on the crane track in the deviations of the latter from the base position in the plane is a compression or tension spring 5, which is converted by means of thrust 11 in angular displacement prismatic reflector hinged to the rack 9. Displacement of one or the other, or is the motor 10 relative to the suspension point on the angle Q, that, in turn, leads to the deviation of the reflected beam 21 at the same angle Q, i.e., the deviation H, the reflected beam will be proportional to the amount of displacement H, and can be determined from the relation
H = RK/H (1) ,
R is the distance between the vertical end surface of the optoelectronic transducer and a vertical axis passing through the suspension point of the reflector; K is the size of the prism holder.In the marked points of the crane path record of the measurement results. When recording the deviation of H from the center of the screen spot of the reflected beam when there is a displacement of the crane path from the basic provisions in the plan.The processing unit calculates the distance of the crane path plan based
L = aH (2)
where a is the known distance in the initial measurement.The calculated values are recorded in the memory unit recording information.The processing unit consists of a camera 24, block 25 pre-processing unit 26 digital input unit 29 of the recording information, and the first, second and third outputs of the cameras are connected to first, second and third whadda information the output of which is connected to the input of the computing unit, and its output to the input block output data, the output unit to output information from the input unit recording information.The processing unit operates as follows. The position of the light spot on the screen 22 is read by the camera and the optical axis of the camera is always perpendicular to the plane of the screen and passes through its center. At the outputs of the camera signals are formed on the first fk - framing on the second fc - horizontal sync and on the third fs - values of the video signal. These signals are fed to first, second and third inputs of the block preprocessing information. In the block, the video signal is converted into digital signals X0, X1, X2,..., Xn, each of which consists of one-bit code signal read from the line X0, and a multi-bit code address lines X1, X2,..., Xn. The signal X0 is set to "0" if the line was not of high value, and "1" if it was.At the input of the preprocessing block information code is formed of Ajthe sum of line numbers within which was the output signal fs, which is consistent with the level of logical units, and code Bjthe number of rows in the pre is the time, appropriate personnel sync fk. These codes through the block input is entered into the computing device, where the calculated coordinate of Xjcenter of the light spot on the screen within the frame:
Xj= Aj/Bj< / BR>These values of Xjequal to H, in the data block is converted into values of H and distance dependency (1) and (2) and through the output unit 28 are recorded in the memory unit 29 writes the cue point of the crane track.The preprocessing block information (Fig. 4) consists of a counter 30, a threshold element 31, the trigger 32, the first block diagrams And 33, a second counter 34 which is accumulating adder 35 and second 36 and third blocks 37 And schemes, and the first output - output frame synchronization unit 24 (camera) is connected to the outputs of the installation in the "0" of the first and second counters, accumulating adder and common inputs of the second and third inputs of the circuits And the second input - output horizontal synchronization unit 24 is connected to the even-numbered input of the first counter and the first input of the trigger, the output of which is connected to the even-numbered input of the second counter, the parallel outputs of the second counter connected to inputs of the second unit circuits And parallel outputs what about the adder, and its outputs with the inputs of the second unit circuits And the outputs of the second and third blocks of circuits And connected to the first input block input.The unit works as follows. The vertical synchronizing signal sets the counters 30 and 34 in the zero state, the signal line synchronization submitted to the counting input of the counter 30 will generate for each row number in binary code and sets the trigger is in state "0". The video signal from the third output of the camera unit 24, is quantized to eight levels is input to the threshold element, the threshold is chosen so that weak signals caused by lateral illumination of the lens was not passed to the input of the trigger. Then in the presence of the lit area within row (scan line) at the output of the threshold element is formed by a logical signal "1", this signal is fed to the counting input of the counter 34, which will be formed code the number of rows, within which was the light spot from the screen.Simultaneously, the signal of logic "1" trigger is fed to the common input of the first unit circuits And, on the second inputs of the first input circuits And whose output will be successively formed codes line numbers, soot on "0" signal frame synchronization. In the adder within the frame will be generated code amount line numbers corresponding to the illuminated area of the screen (Ajand the counter 34 - code the number of rows of Bjcorresponding to the illuminated area of the screen.Moreover, depending on the conditions of propagation of radiation quantum generator values Ajand Bjmay be different. But their ratio, calculated in block 27 will correspond to the center of the field of illumination of the screen. The signal from the accumulating adder of the second counter through the second and third block diagrams And signal the vertical scan is read at the first input block input.The entire device is implemented on standard elements. A source of monochromatic directional radiation - quantum generator LH - 72-1, the input block is a standard device 15 KA - 60/8-0/0, computing unit 15 W-16-012, the output device "-2" 15 KC-180-032, the unit recording information - chip non-volatile memory 16-01 PP1 or 573 PN 10.Sources of information:
1. SU, author's certificate N 1546828, CL G 01 B 5/14, 1990.2. SU, author's certificate N 1163131, CL G 01 B 5/14, 1985. 1. A device for determining the distance between two located on the same level t is about the device further comprises elastic elements for connection of the ends of the flexible strands with the corresponding clamping elements, one of which has a readout node, made in the form of an optoelectronic transducer on the housing, which is rigidly mounted rack with swivel hanging on the reflector, optically associated with the optoelectronic transducer and connected by means of thrust with one of the elastic elements.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the optoelectronic Converter comprises a directional radiation and optically connected through the system focus to the first input of the processing unit information screen, and the output processing unit connected to the input of the unit recording information.3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the reflector is made in the form of an isosceles mirror prism of optical glass having a transparent base, which is facing the optoelectronic Converter and the mirror face is inclined to the base at an angle of 45o.4. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the processing unit contains connected in series camera, the preprocessing block information block input computing unit and output unit, and output unit output connected to the input of the recording unit is
SUBSTANCE: device has radiation source in form of light diode, mounted on one of objects, and multi-element linear photo detector, mounted on another object. Photo detector is made in form of two pairs of multi-element linear photo detectors distanced from each other, light-sensitive lines of which in each pair are mounted at angle α1, relatively to other pair, and between light diode and each pair of linear photo detectors objective and device are mounted, the latter being used for forming light mark image from light diode in form of cross in plane of each pair of linear photo-detectors, made in form of no less than two cylindrical lens bitmaps, not screening each other, angle between symmetry planes of which is α2.
EFFECT: higher precision.
4 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: nuclear power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in order to check component 10 such as nuclear fuel pellet of any diameter and length for perpendicularity and to obtain measurement results stable with time, this component is placed on supporting surface and distances separating diametrically opposite generating lines of component from read-our rod T, T' are measured at two different levels and in two measuring planes P, P' normal to one another by means of two pairs of laser micrometers A1, A2; B1, B2. Maximal deviation of component under check from perpendicularity is calculated on them.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of component check for perpendicularity.
12 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: railway transport; permanent way testing facilities.
SUBSTANCE: method of pulling contact system cable comes to the following: each rail 6 is read off by means of distance pickup 16 placed over rail and moved continuously in longitudinal direction of track and scanning in plane 20 passing square to longitudinal direction of track. Problem points of measurement 25 on rail defining geometry of switch are recorded as measurement values in polar system of coordinates. Polar coordinates for measurement values are converted into Cartesian coordinates and information is recorded in memory at continuous measurements of distance by means of measuring wheel after which lateral section for switch 1 is calculated basing on recorded measurement values. Actual measurement values are compared in definite points of measurement 25 with preset values of at least two of enumerated parameters kept in memory, namely, width of clearance between counter-rail and running rail, through clearance or state of tongue as to its wear, minimum width between edge of guide rail and side edge of running rail in curve, width of gauge and/or distance between counter-rails or guide surfaces and deviation of obtained values from preset values. In device for noncontact measurement of lateral section or rail-to-rail distance of track, each pickup 16 is arranged in area over corresponding rail 6 being essentially laser scanner 17 for reading problem points of measurement 25 defining geometry of switch which is made for reciprocation at angle of scanning (α).
EFFECT: provision of quick and accurate determination and evaluation of measurands of vital importance for switch.
4 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measuring engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises irradiating the object by a mono-pulse laser, using comparator, focusing the radiation at a point on the object and two points on the measuring base, and receiving the sound signal by means of acoustical aerial. The emitter, receiver, and aerial are arranged along the optical axis of the focusing system. The device comprises focusing system for the laser emitter and comparator with the measuring base. The receiver of the acoustical signals has a wide-band high-frequency aerial. The axes of the aerial, acoustical receiver, measuring base, and focusing system are axially aligned.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy.
10 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises generator of electromagnetic oscillation, first directed member, first channel for transmitting signals connected with the aerial, phase detector, computer, second directed member, and second channel for transmitting signals.
EFFECT: enhanced precision.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to instrumentation and can be used for example to measure radial clearances between blade ends of rotating rotor and stator of turbine machine. The device for measuring radial clearances between moving blade tips of rotating rotor and stator of turbine machine contains lateral vision endoscope with photo camera and additional probe with source of light. The probe is installed in stator hole over moving blade tips to illuminate them with narrow light beam the axis of which is located in focal plane of endoscope and is directed to ends of moving blades.
EFFECT: increase in accuracy of radial clearance measurement and eliminating axial rotor clearance offset error.
SUBSTANCE: method involves generation of laser radiation which is directed onto the measured object. Radiation reflected from the surface of the object is "collected" by a condenser, one focus of which lies on the surface of the object, and the other lies on the sensitive area of a photodiode. The time scale for measuring time instants is created by oscillations of a main generator. The laser is launched periodically, in multiples of the period of the main generator. The response signal of the photodiode is used to measure its position on the time scale in a selected period for launching the laser. For this purpose, the control voltage of a vernier generator is measured, as a result of which the vernier generator changes generation frequency. Consequently, the slope of the linear function of mutual phase shift of two generators. The time instant for changing the frequency of the vernier generator is determined analytically as the projection on the time axis of the point of intersection of linear functions of mutual phase shift of two generators, calculated before and after changing the control voltage. Each of the two parametres of the linear functions is calculated through accumulation and analysis of whole numbers of periods of the main generator, which are noted by changing the phase difference of the shift function, the period of the main generator which is noted by changing the phase difference. This period is "spanned" by the period of the vernier generator if it exceeds the period of the main generator, or the period of the vernier generator "fits" inside the period of the main generator if it less than the period of the latter. Processing of the formed array of numbers in order to obtain both parametres of the linear function of mutual phase shift of two generators is carried out using the theory of non-Euclidean continued fraction difference.
EFFECT: wider field of use.