The spillway hydraulic structures
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and is designed to discharge water from the low pressure reservoir of small capacity. The spillway includes placed upstream of the waterworks vertical tubular wall, the bottom of which is connected to discharge pipe from the bottom of the pool, and located above the removable tip cap, which is made in the form of a disk with a folded down edges and provided with which the cone is placed on a Central rod attached to the disk. Which the cone is made in the form of a vertical cross at the Central terminal plates, fastened the lower disk, located perpendicular to the Central rod, provides a uniform distribution of flow across the section of a vertical tubular tip and prevents breakthrough of air in the head due to the artificially formed roll. If you raise the level of the upstream disk with turned down edges breakthrough eliminates air in the head, where a vacuum is created, which provides spillway in sustainable pressure mode. 1 C. p. F.-ly, 2 Il. The invention relates to hydraulic engineering and can be used for the th located upstream of the structures of the vertical chamber, outlet pipe, the vertical part of which is installed inside the chamber, a flexible tube located coaxially within the vertical portion of the outlet pipe, bellows, float tank with calibrated tubes and caps . However, he has a complex structure.Closest to the proposed invention is the spillway containing placed upstream of a vertical tubular wall, the bottom of which is connected to the discharge pipe with the lower water, sealed the movable hood to the racks float and the duct, mounted on the tip .The disadvantage of this spillway is a significant dynamic load during failure of the vacuum, causing vibration of structures, and a significant power vacuum pressure, to overcome which you want the float chamber of a large volume, which significantly increases the intensity.The problem to which the invention is directed, is to create a spillway construction, simple in design and operating without dangerous dynamic loads.The technical result from the use of the invention is expressed in Troubleshooting the result is achieved by in the spillway structure, comprising placed upstream of a vertical tubular wall, the bottom of which is connected to discharge pipe from the bottom of the pool, and located above the removable tip cap, the latter is in the form of a disk with a folded down edges and provided with which the cone is placed on a Central rod attached to the disc, and stratopause taper is provided in the form of a vertical cross at the Central terminal plates, fastened at the bottom of the lower disk, located perpendicular to the Central rod.In Fig. 1 shows the spillway; Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1.The spillway hydraulic structures includes button below dam 1 metal conduit pipe 2, a vertical tubular tip 3 which is located 4 hours with solid mounted at a height a=(0,2 - 0,3)d disk 5 of diameter D=(1,8 - 1,5)d with turned down edges 6 and the Central rod 7, which is fixed, which cone 8 with the additional resistance in the form of lower disk 9. Besides, the water levels upstream of 10.The spillway operates as follows.When lifting ur the aqueous tubular tip 3, and which cone 8 with the additional resistance in the form of lower disk 9 provides a uniform flow distribution over the cross section and excludes centered breakthrough of air in a vertical tube head 3 due to the artificially formed roll. In this case, the spillway operates as a Weir with a thin wall and labouriously flow without dangerous dynamic loads and vibrations.With the further increase of the upstream level 10 flow smoothly changed to the maximum, and the disc 5 with turned down edges 6 breakthrough eliminates air in a vertical tube head 3, where a vacuum is created and provides a work surface in a stable pressure mode.In the fall of the water level upstream of the 10 air flows under the bent down edge 6 and the vacuum breaks, but dangerous dynamic loads are absent, because concentrated breakthrough of air in a vertical tubular tip 3 excluded due to which cone 8 with the additional resistance in the form of lower disk 9, the discharge flow that smoothly changes from maximum to minimum.Flow of water continues until the upstream level 10 will not let the underwater device, which allows to achieve stable discharge mode without dangerous dynamic effects with a smooth change of the flow rate from minimum to maximum. 1. The spillway hydraulic structures, including placed upstream of a vertical tubular wall, the bottom of which is connected to discharge pipe from the bottom of the pool, and located above the head of a removable cap, wherein the removable cap is made in the form of a disk with a folded down edges and provided with which the cone is placed on a Central rod attached to the disk.2. The spillway under item 1, characterized in that cone, which is made in the form of a vertical cross at the Central terminal plates, fastened the lower disk, located perpendicular to the Central rod.
FIELD: building, particularly to protect dams.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming additional water spillaway channel including a number of self-flowing siphons passing over dam crest, wherein the siphons are assembled of prefabricated units which are delivered to dam when water in water pool reaches dangerous level; permanently installing short and long siphon necks are on the dam by positioning short neck of each siphon below water level in upper pool and by locating long neck thereof below water level in lower pool; assembling vacuum plant; connecting suction chamber of vacuum plant with uppermost siphon point by pipeline; evacuating the siphons and filling thereof with water.
EFFECT: provision of emergency water discharge over the dam and provision of water level reduction in water pool, prevention of scour creation and dam failure.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the hydraulic devices and can be used for dump of water from ponds, holding basins and water catchers. The device for dump and regulation of withdrawal depth from a holding basin includes tail vertical and horizontal channels, a slide and a stilling pool. For regulation of withdrawal depth, the tail vertical channel is closed by the external cylinder forming the additional tail external channel, placed according to the height of the top end over a height of water in a holding basin and through an aperture is communicating with atmosphere. The device has a screw drive for moving of the external cylinder on height with the flange fixed on bottom bead liquidating decompression funnel at an overflow of water in the tail external channel. The aperture for the communication with atmosphere is protected from pollution and freezing. Dependences on which constructive geometrical parameters of the device are calculated, the tail vertical and external channels, taking into account a migration of water in a holding basin, and an adjustable driving depth of the external cylinder in a holding basin are resulted. If the channels have out-of-round shapes, their sizes should correspond to the hydraulic radiuses equal to hydraulic radiuses of cylindricities of channels.
EFFECT: maintenance of dump of water from the middle layers of a holding basin, which are not polluted by floating substances.
SUBSTANCE: mobile hydropower structure with water-retaining filled shell attached to water flow bed with the help of bed anchors, installed along perimetre, includes generator, turbine, diffuser. At the same time water-retaining filled shell on top is enveloped with a siphon, which supplies water into lower reach to turbine with generator. Turbine is installed on mobile body, which represents a hollow reservoir with holes for installation of diffuser and removal of flow.
EFFECT: possibility to construct a temporary water utilisation system at waterways with considerable flow rate of bottom deposits for local power supply, irrigation, water supply, fish farming, and provision of confinement of forest fires spreading.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, specifically to creation of the water flow and its control using pipes to drive the hydraulic turbines, devices of water systems, and protection of fill dams against washaway. To create water flow the siphon is used, at its ends the gates are installed, and in its top point a hole is made closed by the tight plug. The siphon intake end is lowered in the source water reservoir, and drain end is inserted in beginning of the distribution pipe, its internal diameter is selected higher then outside diameter of the siphon pipe. For the water flow start gates are closed in series, the siphon is filled with water up to plug, hole is tightly closed by plug, and gates are opened. The created water flow is directed in the required or safe for people and environment direction via the distribution pipes, trays or other water ways. The dam protection against washaway (in case of the water overflow over the dam) is performed by means of the siphon gates opening and water overflow over the siphon installed on the dam crest. Method is ensured using the device containing siphon with controlled gates in input and output ends, and with hole in its top point closed by tight plug, distribution pipes, buffer or water discharge devices, trays and water ways. To ensure the required higher intensity of the water flow the single flows of several specified devices installed in common or different source water reservoirs or acting water flows are combined in common rather powerful flow.
EFFECT: possibility of increasing of energy power with significantly lower specific and absolute expenses, and fill dams protection against washaway upon threat of dam pond overfilling.
8 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device for discharge and regulation of water withdrawal depth from a sump includes a discharge vertical elongated bellows 8, a vertical branch pipe 4 in the form of a welded body and a horizontal channel 5, a valve 6 and a water well 7. The bellows 8 has an annular weir 9, connected in the upper part with a screw driver 10 of vertical movement, fixed in the desired position on the cover 11. The bellows 8 consists of rigid rings 12 and a pleated cover 13 of elastic material. The bellows 8 has a diameter larger than the diameter of the outlet horizontal channel 5. The device has an external fixed cylinder 14 with a flange 15. The fixed cylinder 14 comprises an external outlet channel 16, enclosed by a containment grate 17 (grid) fixed with rigid ties 18 to the welded body 4 and a horizontal retraction channel 5. Sediment retractor comprises a water outlet 21 equipped with a shutter 22 with a peak 23 which is connected by a hinge 24 to a change mechanism 25 of the valve 22 for moving the latter in height, in the lower part of the dam 1. The outlet end of the branch pipe 21 with the shutter 22 is located in an additional sediment closed water well 26 with a bottom opening 27 of the pipeline 28. The water well 7 is separated from an additional closed water well 26. If it is necessary to turn off the water, it will be sufficient to move the upper end of the bellows 8 with the weir 9 to the upper end position with the screw driver 10 and fix it. The formation and transportation of the sediment flow occurs actively around the water intake external outlet channel 16 and the fixed cylinder 14 with the flange 15 and the grid 17. As a result of this process, the discharge of the stream from the cleaner layers of reservoirs 19 is constantly stabilizing, which allows increasing the level of environmental safety of external reservoirs.
EFFECT: increased reliability, efficiency and uninterrupted operation of the device.
7 cl, 1 dwg