The method of construction of the ice crossing
(57) Abstract:The invention can be used in road construction during the construction of the ice crossing rivers and lakes in the North. The method of construction of the ice crossing is carried out by cleaning from snow and natural numerazione ice with the subsequent formation of the terminal strip when the ice thickness 9-10 cm, with the ice surface of the strip of the roadway crossing clear of snow with each pass of the snow atmospheric sludge, and prolonged snow precipitation produce a circular strip of snow, maintaining the ice surface in pure form, with snow raked to the curb on both sides of the lanes and creates layers of insulation to prevent from skidding and education lanes with a convex arched shape in cross section, at achievement of ice thickness, sufficient for the passage of vehicles on the roadway stripes create a rough surface. The technical result is to increase the carrying capacity of the terminal and the extension of the period of its operation, as well as the creation of safe conditions of traffic. 2 C.p. f-crystals. A known method of construction of the ice crossing, including the freezing of natural ice surface, the formation of lanes for traffic and snow roadsides .The disadvantage of this method of construction of the terminal is insufficient load-carrying capacity due to the uneven thickness zamorajivanie ice along the length of the terminal, resulting due to the dynamic effects of traffic load on the ice in places on the borders of the differences in the thicknesses of the ice cracks, which leads to the formation of a short length of the ice, fully perceiving themselves the impact of traffic load and as a consequence quickly destroyed.Use as an ice crossing natural ice cover of the reservoir, but the buildup of ice thickness occurs slowly and evenly over the entire area of the ice surface, causing the ice crossing can be used for the passage of heavy vehicles only when reaching the ice thickness is not less than 120 cm, and this occurs when the natural freezing of the pond before the end of January - mid February.Closest to the claimed is a method of creating ice crossing at which dostizheniya amount of work on clearing snow can be applied partial purification in the form of combs, and to protect the ice surface from wear and elimination of slippage of the cars on the strip of terminal leave the snow layer 15 cm thick (loose) or 10 cm (when Packed). When this condition occurs only a slight increase in ice thickness (0.5-8 cm/day) .The disadvantage of this terminal is low strength, and is recommended at high intensity close to the ice surface safety transverse flooring boards.The objective of the invention is to increase the carrying capacity of the terminal and the extension of the period of its operation, as well as creating a safe space traffic.The problem is solved due to the fact that the method of construction of the ice crossing by cleaning from snow and natural numerazione ice with the subsequent formation of the terminal strip when the ice thickness 9-10 cm ice surface lanes crossing clear of snow with each pass of the snow atmospheric sludge, and prolonged snow precipitation produce a circular strip of snow, maintaining the ice surface in pure form, with snow raked to the curb on both sides of the lanes and create Soi cross-section, at achievement of ice thickness, sufficient for the passage of vehicles on the roadway stripes create a rough surface.Layers of insulation can be formed from snow or resilient polymeric foam, and the width of the layer is carried out is equal to the width of the roadway ice crossings, and at subzero temperatures rough surface on the roadway lanes can be achieved by scattering of salt, and after the appearance of holes in the ice to produce a scattering of sand particles, filling cavities, and during the thaw scatter only sand particles on the net without snow ice surface of the roadway.The method of construction of the terminal is as follows: when the thickness of the natural ice cover size 9-10 cm produce the strip on the roads from snow, and then the operation is repeated at each sniegsanas, shoveling the snow on the side of the roadway, creating layers of insulation. At the same time from the impact of large negative temperatures on the icy surface of the carriageway, devoid of the insulating layer of snow, there is a natural freezing ice (increased thickness). On the roadside under a layer of sleep is the ITA's on viscous base (water), the cross-sectional change of its thickness (the minimum on the roadside up to the maximum on the axis of the strip) occurs smoothly with points of inflection (with convexity to concavity) on the edges of the lanes.Such a "lenticular" the surface of the lanes is obtained in the longitudinal direction (along the axis of the terminal) due to the fact that the banks caused permanent thermal processes coastal soil and groundwater slew rate of ice thickness less than in the middle of the river or lake.Upon reaching the ice thickness sufficient to pass machines, ice cover give a rough surface or by scattering salt on the road and after the appearance of holes in the ice to produce a scattering of sand particles, filling hollows in the ice and versaldi in him, resulting in a rough surface of the roadway, or the placers only sand particles on the net (without snow) ice surface of the roadway during the period of thaw.In the absence of snow layers of insulation on the side of the roadway formed of resilient polymeric foam, and the width of the layer is the same as the width of the roadway ice crossing.In addition, the carrying capacity of this terminal is 3-5 times higher than known thickened arched form, and traffic safety at this crossing is high, because the adhesion coefficient reaches a value of 0.6-0.8. 1. The method of construction of the ice crossing by cleaning from snow and natural numerazione ice with the subsequent formation of the terminal strip when the ice thickness 9 - 10 cm, characterized in that the ice surface of the strip of the roadway crossing clear of snow with each pass of the snow atmospheric sludge, and prolonged snow precipitation produce a circular strip of snow, maintaining the ice surface in pure form, with snow raked to the curb on both sides of the lanes and creates layers of insulation to prevent from skidding and education lanes with a convex arched shape in cross section, at achievement of ice thickness sufficient for the passage of vehicles on the roadway stripes create a rough surface.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that at subzero temperatures rough surface on the roadway lanes carried by placer solaini scatter only sand particles on the net without snow ice surface of the roadway.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the layers of insulation formed of resilient polymeric foam, and the width of the layer of insulation perform equal to the width of the roadway crossing.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in designing ramp and propulsion and steering gear and their hydraulic systems. Novelty in proposed water craft is that it is furnished with streamlined carrying frame for fastening devices of propulsion and steering complex installed in hull aft part and formed by two pairs of rigid longitudinal beams hinge secured by inner ends of aft sheet of hull in zone located under loading side coupled by flexible cross beams in each pair and support bar between pairs. Hydraulic heads of propulsors are hinge-mounted on outer ends of each pair of longitudinal beams, being secured on said beams to form additional cross tie between beams. Carrying frame is furnished with power hydraulic cylinders connected with hydraulic system and installed to control position of heads and loading side by turning carrying frame in aft sheet hinge joints. Body of each is provided with upper roller support, being rolling support for each hinged loading side at its opening, and lower platform being rigid base interacting with ground at resting of hinged loading side on head body in loading position of loading side. Novelty in hydraulic system of watercraft is that it is furnished, in additional to propulsor control hydraulic cylinders, with hydraulic cylinders for setting ramps, changing thrust vector, fixing loading side and locking carrying frame. Each hydraulic cylinder, including propulsor position control hydraulic cylinders, are supplied through parallel hydraulic lines connected with main line, with electric control in each line. Invention contains description of design peculiarities of each line providing required modes of operation of watercraft.
EFFECT: improved performance of watercraft and creating of hydraulic system providing required mode of operation of watercraft.
9 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct temporary roads across lakes and other water obstacles.
SUBSTANCE: ice bridge includes cooling plant, pipelines connected to cooling plant. Pipelines are submersed in water and suspended by wire ropes. Cooling plant has reducers for pressure reduction, 10 MPa gaseous nitrogen cylinders and liquid nitrogen cylinders adapted to fill pipelines with liquid and gaseous nitrogen mixture. The pipelines include several coiled sections or formed as straight and finned pipes. The pipelines are arranged in several rows and extend in vertical or horizontal directions. The pipelines are submersed for 0.1-5 m depth and are connected by wire ropes to balloons floating at water surface or to finned pipes driven in ground of river bottom and connected one to another by diaphragms. The cooling plant provides water freezing within 3-5 km range and obtains ice having thickness of 3 m or more.
EFFECT: increased water freezing rate.
FIELD: movable or portable bridges, floating bridges adapted to convey loads over ice cover.
SUBSTANCE: method to transport vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover over ice involves moving vehicle having weight not exceeding load-carrying ability of ice cover at resonance speed; moving vehicle having weight exceeding load-carrying capacity to ice cover line when above vehicle having lesser weight has moved away from ice cover line for distance equal to 2/3 of resonance bending-gravity wave length; initiating above vehicle having larger weight movement with above resonance speed. Resonance bending-gravity wave length is determined from where D is cylindrical stiffness of ice plate, ρ and h - ice density and thickness, g - gravity, H - water body depth.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity of ice cover.
FIELD: floating bridges, for instance temporary bridges for load transportation over ice.
SUBSTANCE: structure includes ice blanket in which vertical holes are drilled for the full bridge structure length so that the holes are located from both bridge sides. Reinforced concrete blocks connected to ropes are inserted through the holes so that the blocks are located under the ice blanket. Discs having diameters exceeding hole diameters are connected to upper block ends. Rope lengths are selected to prevent ice blanket movement in upward direction with respect to initial ice position if flexural-gravity waves are generated in ice blanket.
EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: bridge crossing equipment; ferries and floating bridges.
SUBSTANCE: proposed motor unit includes displacement hull with joints in sides, engine mounted inside hull and water-jet propeller, two hinged pontoons which are articulated with hull and mechanism for opening and folding the pontoons. Each hinged pontoon is provided with torsion-loaded swivel hydrostatic shield on external side which is articulated with hinged pontoon in area of its bottom; hinged pontoons are also provided with mechanism for turning the shield; this mechanism is made in form of hydraulic cylinder with rod secured in hull of hinged pontoon. Thrust roller secured on end of rod is received by guide of hydrostatic shield.
EFFECT: reduced resistance of shuttle ferry due to improved streamlining of projecting lower part of motor unit.
FIELD: bridge construction, particularly floating bridges, for example, pontoon bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method involves unloading land-based and river-based pontoon sections on ice, expanding the pontoon sections in temporary bridge location area; sealing pontoons of each pontoon section by means of top and bottom jointing means; moving each pontoon section to temporary bridge construction site over ice; serially jointing pontoon sections with each other along temporary bridge length and breaking ice by blasting charges spaced from bridge axis. Longitudinal grooves are created in ice from each bridge side with the use of ice-cutters so that ice thickness in groove bottom area is not more than 10 cm. After that elongated charges including several detonating fuse strings are laid in the grooves. The grooves are filled with wet snow or water and elongated charges are blasted to break ice in each groove. After that ice under bridge sections is broken by vehicle movement over the bridge.
EFFECT: decreased time and increased safety of temporary bridge construction.
FIELD: construction industry; bridges.
SUBSTANCE: method of pontoon bridge equipping at high flow speed is performed using set of railway pontoon ribbon bridge and differs in the fat that bridge stiffness on water obstacle is provided by anchors which are installed on bridge top and bottom sides and are attached to bottom of outer pontoons with the help of ropes which pass through lugs fixed on rings welded to deck and bottom of outer pontoons.
EFFECT: increasing vertical component of hydrodynamic forces, reducing the different of member to top or bottom sides, and improving pontoon bridge reliability.
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: ice crossing construction method refers to ice-technology industry, and can be used when designing ice crossing meant for load transportation. Snow shall be removed from ice surface, and the latter shall be covered with air-tight film. Space between ice surface and film is ventilated with fan cold ambient air. Cold air flow intensifies heat exchange on ice surface and provides its fast cooling, and thickness increase.
EFFECT: fast putting into operation of ice crossing.
FIELD: construction, road construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of bridge engineering and is intended for erection of pontoon bridges over water obstacles on a tight schedule and with the least material and labour expenses. It is achieved by the fact that pontoon bridge comprises pontoons open at the bottom, on which bridge supports are mounted to carry spans and road way, and spacers that connect peripheral parts of pontoon to fixed anchors on soil, and every pontoon is arranged in the form of packet of vertically oriented adjacent tanks that are inverted upwards with their bottoms and are connected to system of air supply and its pressure control in every of them, at that spacers are located on the opposite sides of pontoon to form triangular figures with every of them, which are oriented in crossing planes, and have dampers and/or control mechanisms, preferably with remote control, their stretching in process of bridge erection and/or its operation. At that vertically oriented tanks form rows of cells in section with horizontal plane, which are evenly located on at least part of section area.
EFFECT: higher reliability of pontoon bridge operation at different dynamic effect at it, also from wave and wind loads due to provision of stability in pontoons that carry spans and provision of their controlled submersion at specified depth.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: transport, construction.
SUBSTANCE: method of producing ice ferry consists in cleaning ice surface of snow, placing a layer of heat-isolation material through the cut, along the ice ferry routed, and pressing aforesaid layer to the ice layer lower surface. A continuous layer of ice floats is placed between the ice surface lower surface and the said heat-isolation material.
EFFECT: higher load-carrying capacity of ice ferry.