The way to achieve sustainable development and protection of the earth from dangerous space objects and system for achieving sustainable development of civilization

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the cosmic energy, as well as ways and means to protect Earth from dangerous space objects: asteroids, comets, and space debris. In the proposed method, the output component of nuclear warheads (abbreviated in the disarmament process) on the orbit and used to equip the space interceptors, directed to dangerous objects and iron asteroids; the latter is transferred by a series of nuclear explosions in the scope of the Earth, where they were decontaminated and recycled for construction of iron asteroid space energyoindustrial infrastructure of the Earth. This infrastructure includes solar reflectors and platforms, and for the deposition of a reflective layer of material one-time boosters. For the implementation of the transfer and transport operations in a cosmic system at subsequent stages of its development it is assumed the use of such funds: resonant systems of the type "gravelet and systems exchange energy and momentum (cable and rotary pendulum). Thus released by rocket-poison-Pnom disarmament resources are used effectively to introits to energy, specifically environmentally friendly energy supply of the Earth from space. Second, the dependent application is to protect the Earth from falling dangerous space objects - asteroids, comets, and space debris.

It is known that the UN Conference on environment and development (UNCED, 1992) the task of humanity in the XXI century has defined sustainable development - meeting the needs of the existing generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Concept development involves the replacement of quantitative growth to qualitative improvement, which requires a combination of economic development, addressing social and environmental problems. The UN called for a transition to sustainable development means that in terms of easing international tension can be obtained at the expense of redistribution and reduction of military spending. The main areas of action identified in the "Agenda for the XXI century", which includes 16 logo. sectors such as biodiversity, forest resources, sustainable agriculture, atmosphere, oceans, radioactive waste, and so on [1]. But the UN has faced difficulties in reassumes sustainable development, requires integration of the world community, and the inability of the market economy on the basis of known technologies democratic methods to overcome the population explosion in developing countries and unsustainable consumption and production in the industrial. To start practical actions lack of funds. Difficulties are compounded by the need to prevent in a historically short period of time (several decades) anthropogenic habitat degradation caused, in particular, energy.

UNCED has highlighted the socially-oriented world economic development as a way of helping developing countries, most of whom are forced to destroy their natural environment in order to survive. Poverty, low education and management, insufficient energy supply became for them an obstacle in the implementation of environmental management. But the development of modern energy in these countries are limited by its high cost and the lack of staff. In the former camp of socialism complicating the situation is destructive processes, especially in high-tech manufacturing industries, thus limiting the potential Rassam prosperity. It should be noted that the conversion of the military industrial complex and other ways of reallocating military spending, as a rule, it is difficult to refocus on the goal of ecology.

Against this background, the most difficult problem seems to be looming environmental disaster due to too rapid heating of the planet, caused by the accumulation in the atmosphere of greenhouse gases that absorb heat radiated by the Earth into space. About half of the excess absorption is caused by accumulation of carbon dioxide, since more than 80% of the energy humanity produces more intense burning of non-renewable resources - fossil fuels. This structure of world energy is determined while the industrial countries. However, the population explosion in the developing countries and their desire to get closer to the industrial level will be in the XXI century the main factor in the growth of emissions of CO2. In 1990, the fuel consumption in the world was 10 billion tons.T., the forecast WEC, in 2020 it will exceed 19 billion tons.T., that will lead to increased emissions from 5,64 to 11.25 billion tons of carbon equivalent CO2and the share of developing countries will increase from 1,53 up to 5.55 billion tons (from 27% to 49%) [2]. Urbanization and deforestation in developing countries exacerbate this trend. I'm in the city, deprived of modern energy accelerates deforestation because it increases the consumption of firewood. So energy production is the main cause of global warming. One of the main objectives of sustainable development - reconstruction of world energy in the first half of the XXI century. Traditional methods will not suffice because of the physical and technical constraints and the specified socio-economic reasons.

It is recognized that the strategic direction of reconstruction of energy should be an extension of the application of the so called "new" renewable energy sources (RES). However, they are less efficient and more capital-intensive and material-intensive than usual. But many of delegation-members of the UNCED was noted that insufficient attention is paid to the drives and sinks of CO2that appears from the atmosphere in the biogeochemical cycle, largely due to the activity of biota - forests and swamps, and mainly oceanic plankton. Adsorption capacity of the ocean is only a 2.5 - 3 billion tons and effective ways of its increase is not yet proposed. Effect of planting tropical forests can devalue the processes of deforestation in the developing countries of the tropical belt, d is 2">

The most environmentally acceptable and is virtually inexhaustible solar energy. But its application is hindered by low flux density (on the border of the atmosphere 1,36 kW/m2and on the surface rarely exceeds 1 kW/m2on average less than 250 W/m2), irregular in latitudes and volatile during the year and days of receipt, depending on the weather. This is due to the high cost of solar power plants. Especially the road technologically and structurally complex futabatei, but some types of solar power systems, for example, cogeneration, in some areas close to achieving profitability. Although 2020 is expected to increase in the cost of fuel and therefore predict more widespread ures, their share in the global energy balance will remain small [3].

Known projects of energy supply of the Earth from space, where the efficiency of solar power plants can be 10-15 times higher than on Earth due to the greater uniformity and density of the energy flow. In 1968 by P. Glaser proposed the idea of space solar power station (CCAS) fotostream, transmitting energy from geostationary orbit (GSO) on the Earth microwave beam [4] (similar). With dimensions of 5 x 10 km, mass 35-50 thousand tons, di who would provide the U.S. about 25% of then energy consumption. Held aerospace firms in the U.S. development has demonstrated the technical and economic reality of the project, despite the fact that the cost of SCAS more than an order of magnitude higher than the cost of ground-based thermal power plant (TPP) with the same capacity. Such projects regularly discuss international conferences, publishes a special magazine "Space Power". In Japan, we study the possibility of a cosmic demonstration of the principles of SCES [5].

But SCAS have some significant drawbacks technical, economic and environmental nature. We'll just note the most important. So you can mention the need to create a super-heavy launch vehicles exceeding the Saturn-5 and "Energy", without which you will not be able to provide economically acceptable unit cost of delivery to GSO (no more than $ 100/kg). Known for the high cost of developing and operating such PH, accumulate data on their possible environmental hazards. The cost of rectan and the rest of the ground infrastructure will probably exceed the cost of the orbital element of the energy system and will be much more cost TPP comparable power. Therefore, such a project for developing countries is unacceptable, especially because for a long time on the microwave beam. Risk of electric ray terrestrial objects due to system failures focus and guidance or as a result of damage (for example, falling meteorite, sabotage, etc.,) will reduce the level of security of the future of the world. When placing SCAS GSO may find difficult work there are communications satellites, which will play an increasing role in developing countries in the first half of the XXI century. If you selected other orbits, the effectiveness of CCAS falls, and the weight and cost increases due to the necessity of the application of drives and more powerful transmission systems. Overall restrictions on the delivery from the Ground structural elements result in the need to use as a power frame for SCAS shaped structures, which in turn causes during the construction of the need to move personnel, parts and equipment in the open space. This open construction will involve significant risks, including increased risk of loss with the formation of dangerous space debris.

Over the years, have become clearer and environmental difficulties. The total mass of 60 SCAS Glaser 2.5 to 3 million tons of shipping such mass structures GSO will require more than 150 million tons of rocket fuel. As a result, many is going to lengthen the time space construction and reduce its importance in the problem of sustainable development, even for the USA, moreover, when the scale needed to supply the whole world. The complexity of SCAS will complicate the use of extraterrestrial materials and manufacturing in space in the early stages of the orbital grid, requiring too high initial level of space technologies. Note that traditional and advanced nuclear (for media) and electronuclear (interorbital tugs) cosmic engines (YARD and HEARD) cannot provide orbital construction of hundreds of thousands of tons of extraterrestrial material per year, which is necessary to comply with the concept of sustainable development, for example, to prevent the possibility of catastrophic stroke climate warming and related social conflicts of the future.

Known proposals for lighting Land use system managed space reflectors of sunlight [6] (2 equivalent). The orbital system of the lungs frameless film reflectors deployed and stabilized by centrifugal forces, you can quickly create a scale that will provide coverage of large areas by the standards of the street light (10 Lux). The low weight of such a space energy system (IES) will allow you to launch one missile proton is the case, there are fundamental shortcomings. So low mass reflector leads to increased inhibition of the residual atmosphere and the need to use high orbit - not less than 3-4 thousand km It will excessively increase the illuminated area. The angular size of the Sun about 0.01 and even when the vertical ray falls on the earth diameter "Bunny" will exceed 30 - 40 km, because almost always the beam is tilted, the light spot will increase (more than 50-80 km), then most of the light will be "free". On such a large area of high probability of finding valuable natural biocenoses, light exposure which can cause undesirable consequences. Then KES will not be considered "environmentally friendly". Even if it will be acceptable monetary compensation for environmental damage, reduced economic indicators KES, which will be low because the energy costs of lighting in most countries, less than 2%. The size of the film reflector is unlikely to be much greater than 1 km Illumination 10 Lux huge spot light, even under clear skies, will be able to create at least a dozen reflectors. Hence, the total number will reach hundreds or thousands that will complicate the management of KES. So from all points of view, it is desirable to reduce the light spot at least until the AMI (the population of several hundred thousand people).

Rapid reorientation kilometer rotating mirror is impossible. During the revolution it will likely be retargeted 2-3 times, so the film KES unsuitable for many objects. For mass service will have to increase the number of orbital reflectors or place several reflectors on the massive frame that will deprive film KES advantages. Space attack (micrometeorites, hard UV, ionizing radiation) will limit the durability of the polymer film. You will need frequent diagnosis and replacement mirrors with tilt served in the far orbit or from the scope of the Earth, and it involves additional costs. Stabilized by rotation of the film is under significant stress and with aging may suddenly collapse. Over time, the near-earth space will be filled with moving in random orbits scraps, threatening space flight.

Let's see the example of a different kind. Problems can occur, justifying even risky actions. For example, you will need to quickly create a screen for protection against catastrophic development of the greenhouse effect. Enough to obscure 1% of the earth surface, rather a few /O. because it is actually much less) and unit weight of 10 g/m2the total area of the screen should be about 10 million km2and the total mass of the order of 100 million tons Clear that space unable to solve global challenges "head-on". Therefore the CT in addressing the challenges of sustainable development are not mentioned in the outcome of UNCED, although in the days of its operation there, in Rio de Janeiro, was specially convened conference of the International Astronautical Federation, which, however, did not put forward new proposals

Closest to the technical nature of the proposed method is selected as a prototype method [7], offering for commercial development of space to use the opportunities of rocket and nuclear disarmament. The method includes the elimination of nuclear explosives (AVV) in low earth orbit using a downsized under international agreements ICBMs, warheads which these substances were. The use of the most powerful modern tools - nuclear warheads for delivery to Earth of extraterrestrial materials (e.g., asteroids) cheaper and quicker the beginning of the industrialization of space, because weapons-grade uranium few decades will be available at a symbolic price due to the need to reduce nuclear weapons. Launches on the warheads capable of delivering energy part of the charge (uranium-235) low reference orbit. So, to a large extent at the expense of funds allocated for missile-nuclear disarmament, it is possible to create a primary energy basis of the industrialization of space.

The disadvantages of the prototype method: single, albeit long, the nature of the proposed activities, their insufficient did not allow for the development and even maintenance of the achieved level base for this type of technologies and industries (nuclear weapons and rocket-space), remoteness achieve breakeven space construction because of what his rate may be insufficient for timely dissemination of new and other similar technologies in the scope of preventing catastrophic development of the greenhouse effect. It is assumed in the main interaction only Russia and the United States, for example, on a slightly modified the start-2 Treaty, but it is not enough to activate necessary for the sustainable development of the integration process of the world and to achieve other social and geopolitical results for global nuclear disarmament. This requires a number of stages of industrialization space largely based on commercial use of energy sweaty is the, what we destroy in the process of rocket and nuclear disarmament, out-of-date removed from combat duty Intercontinental ballistic missiles used to derive weakly radioactive and non-radioactive components of nuclear missile warheads at an intermediate orbit, where these components are placed in orbital storage, raise the orbit of a long existence and subsequently used to build nuclear warheads, which are mounted on missiles "space-space", placed last in space interceptor displayed in areas along the path of the iron asteroid, at his approach produce the launch of these missiles "space-space", explosions charges change the speed of the asteroid to translate it with heliocentric high geocentric orbit, which is chosen with apogee near the boundary of the scope of the Earth, which produces clearing and fragmentation of the asteroid's gravity retaining debris from scattering and their subsequent delivery means not using nuclear explosions, near-Earth orbit, where iron asteroid produce the elements of the orbital platforms and create from these platforms space energieweg all moving asteroid nuclear explosions, except for a few last, outside the scope of the Earth, radioactive contamination and activation of the surface of the asteroid reduce the ablation products of an explosion of flow of the evaporated material, cleaning produce heating in orbit primary processing, the residual radioactivity of the material reduces the mixing of the surface layer of the bulk material during processing of the asteroid, and these devices interceptor, not fully downloaded controlled nuclear missiles, used to intercept dangerous space objects. As delivery to the following asteroids and accumulation of mass in orbit, for maintenance the interorbital traffic used rotary pendulum device as mounted on the massive grounds retractable rod, causing the rod to rotate in the direction of the orbital angular velocity, combining floating cargo with the ends of the rods on the same orbit and separating from the ends of the rods to another orbit. In the initial stages of deployment of the system to achieve sustainable development of civilization it includes space energoinstal the network as platform with swivel managed reflectors of sunlight, has the personnel, equipment, materials and products, and these beams and structural elements of simple shapes made by spraying asteroid iron on film matrix with subsequent fill up the necessary thickness of the molten iron asteroid, and for the deposition of the reflective layer material used disposable boosters that deliver from Earth platform components and reflectors, and platforms are equipped with windings for magnetizing and massive beams loaded predominantly technological waste and move along the platforms synchronously with their appeal along the orbit to change the parameters of the orbit due to the resonant tidal forces.

The proposed method is as follows. In the process of rocket and nuclear disarmament with the accumulation of AW in earth orbit, for example, by the method [7], are terrestrial and space vehicles search of asteroids from a number of near-Earth (NEAS) with a high content of iron, with reasonable speed relative to the Earth, a small inclination to its orbit, with sizes of the order of 150-250 m (up to 500 m at a particularly low relative velocities). At first it will be asteroids near Earth's orbit, but with the improvement and growth of the system, poizvodstvennaja space debris). To do this, deploy automated ground-based and orbital system asteroid monitoring that can detect dangerous space objects (the EYE) that threaten Earth collision. In the experiment the global system periodically mimic means ABOUT Russia and the USA. Already at this stage it is possible the participation of third countries, which is constantly expanding. At the same time develop training tools in orbit and delivery to asteroids nuclear warheads (P) - space vehicles-interceptors" (CAP) and guided missiles "space - space" (UR), conduct their flight tests (development can be reduced and accelerated through the use of scientific and technical basis available-in-arms high precision, for example, the SDI program). At the same time hold an international biosphere experiments on the action of twilight lighting from orbit at different biocenoses. Preliminary analysis gives us hope that when light in 3-5 LK, for which a sufficient amount of platforms around 300-400 m, will cause a reaction reconfiguration of the biological clock in plants, insects, and other terrestrial and marine animals and changes in their behavior, e.g., time per diem is in the ocean. For these experiments suitable film reflectors [6]. In the same period, conduct active experiments on the "fertilizer" CO2ocean phytoplankton. For example, oil spills and other anthropogenic effects lead to the appearance on the surface of the ocean film that impedes the diffusion of CO2from the air, in order of conversion possible reorientation of production Maritime anti-submarine buoys to create buoys pumps with wave drive for the enrichment of water with carbon dioxide and inject it into the surface layer, where the plankton.

At the next stage are active (with the use of space assets) research several asteroids selected as the first candidates for delivery to the Ground, continuing the search for more suitable, for example, with lower velocities relative to the Earth or lesser inclination to its orbit; equip some with UR TONGUE for testing nuclear experiments on asteroids, install them on the STOOL, which immediately lead to the far orbit generation fuel engines for security assurances against the use of these LANGUAGES in order of nuclear terrorism or blackmail, or some other security measures); conduct experimental nuclear vsraw, to study their composition and properties, to test and to do among them the final choice. At the same time study "aftereffect" biosphere experiments and begin the development of control algorithms biocenoses (if necessary, with repeated experiments).

To preserve strategic security in the world and accumulation of P in orbits for future stages of cosmic construction, develop internationally agreed sustainable ICBMs. are in compliance with non-proliferation of missiles and nuclear technology is allowed to have nuclear powers agree to perform the duties of maintaining regional and global stability. The design of missiles and warheads must provide for the secure delivery of nuclear components into orbit as the standard end of life.

In search operations and delivery of asteroids important role of ground-based optical-electronic and radar equipment. Along with the refinement of orbits of NEAS, radar illumination and control of the Earth will be useful in "attack" asteroid nuclear weapons at ranges of up to 25-30 million kilometers To a few months to provide ultra-precise measurements of speed, position and condition of the AST the project in the USSR and the USA systems, space surveillance and missile warning, partly these systems and the results of the above experiments on their application.

In the next step, making the necessary structural improvements technical equipment and adjustments to the schedule, the next convergence the selected asteroid with the Earth and start to delivery and deployment of transport, energy, technology, and orbital information group for processing. From CAP high maneuverability is not required, since they are proactively sent to the interception point on the trajectory GCC. They are loaded by a large number (several tens) UR, P, which will be the impulse engines asteroid applied outside the scope of the Land, to minimize the risk of dangerous situations in case of destruction of GCC. In several approaches (depending on the initial velocity and position of the orbit) speed roaming GCC equal to the orbital velocity of the Earth and the last nuclear explosions enter it in the scope of Earth to the orbit of the primary processing

From this point you need to start to build and then maintain the "alert" system, which can be called asteroid patrol (And the nuclear explosions, the asteroid may suddenly break up and some debris can threaten to fall to the Ground. Asteroid patrol create so that qualitatively and quantitatively he could parry a similar situation, rejecting or destroying these fragments. For economic reasons, for AP use part of the FECES toward the next transport operation, for example, several recent at the moment the CAP, not fully downloaded UR-AMI - their speed and agility increased to intercept suddenly arisen at short range the EYE. Long-term persistence CAP and UR on alert is not required, as is their frequent replacement of the validation characteristics. Information needs space construction, including security, will promptly discover the EYE than is available to self-protection system of the Earth. This will be solved the problem of the protection from the EYE, which, despite its scientific value, it is difficult to put a technical challenge because of the extremely rare collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth, which makes it impossible for long-term maintenance of the necessary readiness.

Returning to the example of the quick create screen from greenhouse disaster is: several million tons of silicate waste asteroid installed in the center of nuclear charge can be placed on orbit and, if necessary, to vaporize the explosion, wrapping the planet for years or decades (depending on height) reflecting aerosol screen. Similarly, naturally we need a lunar base, when with increasing size of the orbital platforms will need a more durable steel. Given the rate of destruction of nature, our only moon sorry to be used for commercial purposes. Limited production of alloying elements will keep for science its surface, and for tourism landscape.

Primary processing of asteroid includes clearing of induced radioactivity and unwanted impurities, for example, by heating the surface of the focused sunlight or other heat source. For these purposes, applicable, for example, particle accelerators, powered by solar or nuclear power plants and the film mirrors /6/, which marks given the desired shape. The proximity to the boundary of the scope of Land will help to remove contaminants in the external space, in particular, by choosing the proper direction and evaporation rate vapor, i.e., the heating temperature. Therefore, the orbit of the primary processing it is advisable to choose the HEO.

Radiation safety in the process Sodeistvie from the scope of the Earth, so the fission fragments, contaminated and activated products of evaporation and destruction of the asteroid are on heliocentric orbits and negligible the probability of them on the Ground in a state of high activity due to the huge volumes in which they are distributed and significant periods of time between close approaches with the Earth. Since the source of energy in LANG ICBM is mostly uranium-235, the most dangerous long-lived transuranium nuclides are not formed, and most of the fission fragments have a half-life less than 30 years and after 500 - 600 years will be non-hazardous. Contamination of the surface of the asteroid is small due to the ablation of sparse dense explosion products flow of the evaporated material, also absorbing a significant proportion of the neutrons. The accumulation of activation limit, vaporizing surface layer subsequent explosions (total delivery will be required to vaporize about 80% of the mass of the asteroid). The thickness of the activated layer of the share of m, i.e., less than one percent of the final size of the asteroid, and the mass of radioactive material even less due to the recession neutron flux exponentially on the thickness of the layer. Technological waste is non-hazardous, since high ptx2">

With regard to radiation hazards for construction and operating personnel, it is not removed by the cleaning part of the activity will mix with the bulk of the further production stages, and for the better protection of the personnel processing asteroid starting from the side opposite to the explosions. The greatest danger is the cobalt content in the material of iron asteroid of about 0.5%, and the half-life 5,27 year. The duration of the processing of an asteroid about 10 years - during this time the activity of iron and Nickel will be negligible, cobalt fell almost 4 times, and most importantly, will be delivered the next asteroid that will allow the remnants of the previous leave on for 10 to 20 years to decay.

After cleaning and detailed analysis of the asteroid crushed into fragments for transportation of non-explosive means. Destruction can be accomplished nuclear charge type created for mining. These LANGUAGES do not induce strong radioactivity. During long distance transport GCC (5-6 approaches of approximately 10 years, from hundreds to thousands of nuclear explosions), its properties will be so well understood, that the fragmentation can be combined with the last explosion that can capture NEAS in the sphere of action which was Boulos then monitor many difficult to observe small celestial bodies, moving on chaotic trajectories. If you use a partial crushing, it is possible to use conventional EXPLOSIVES, the choice will mainly depend on the specific schedule of the supply space construction. The asteroid crushed into pieces having a weight of from hundred up to about 10 thousand tons acceptable for carriage on more near-Earth orbit.

Delivery of parts NEAS for further processing is carried out using orbital transport group, which is created from various space vehicles (CCC) for transportation of large masses within the scope of the Land, including devices with aedu for a large distance from the Earth, with remote control chemical fuels for operations in near-earth space, motors with heating of the working fluid from an external source (elektroraketnymi or solar). CCC with solar sails. For a variety of tasks in different stages of creation KEYS require different CTS. So Aadu necessary since delivery of the first asteroid in the scope of Earth (orbit with an altitude of about 900 thousand km). Remote control chemical fuels used for operations closest to the Earth, where environmental requirements are a priority, and high traction while passing past the moon. Heatable do in the intermediate cases. Solar sails when applicable valid very long transportation, for example, accumulation of waste asteroid in the selected storage areas. For processing of the asteroid will need several technological areas. Cleaning and crushing is the 1st of them. Closer to the construction zone should be at least the sections on making purified ingots of iron asteroid (2nd) and parts of the orbital platforms (3rd redistribution). The area of the 3rd redistribution to minimize transport costs are chosen so that the cycle making the most of large parts or small parties coincided with the frequency approaches the construction platforms.

Impurities in iron asteroid and other waste are of great importance for the subsequent development KEYS. For example, silicate inclusion can then be used for the production of silicon fotomature and transition to production of large quantities of electricity at least for their own needs. Therefore, the area of the 2nd redistribution appropriate place so that it is easier to move the waste into one of the libration points of the Earth-Moon", where their accumulation and retention associated with m is RA, the mass of the substance will be helpful to place on them as a stabilizer used in combination with flywheels, known as the "girtin" in the system of orientation, stabilization and maintenance of orbital altitude. The balancer is a filled waste containers that move along the platform, changing its alignment ("dumbbell" effect). The pitch correction carried out by moving the balancer synchronously treatment platform in an elliptical orbit (like a swing) using resonant tidal forces. By increasing the relative mass of the balancer system capabilities correction will grow and will in part compensate for atmospheric braking and lowering the perigee orbits without the cost of reactive mass. For these operations apply also winding for magnetizing the iron platforms, using the interaction with the magnetic field of the Earth. The magnetic forces are used for joining structural elements to ensure accurate installation and retention during Assembly and welding of the parts to be delivered from the zone of the 3rd redistribution to build platforms. Magnetic collection inevitable construction debris will prevent the spread of technological orbits and improve the use of materialdata reduction reaction mass, delivered from Earth. Drilling operations refers to the feasibility of specific options for creating groups KEYS and is not included in the invention.

The scale of the initial operations of the space construction is the fact that be the elimination of ICBMs have warheads energy, equivalent to about 1.5 billion tons of rocket fuel H2+O2that at a characteristic speed to 10 km/s can provide, in principle, the delivery of the scope of the Land mass of only 10-20 million tons This corresponds to a small (150-250 m) iron asteroid material which is sufficient to create at first a small number (for example, 24 - 36) orbital platforms size of about one kilometer, forming a first KEYS. On platforms set movable reflectors of sunlight made them of iron asteroid and coating aluminum reflective layer. At this point, the aluminum is produced by processing enclosures missiles to deliver Earth elements, which initially cannot be manufactured on orbit, for example, electrical and electronics.

For solving problems of sustainable development, in particular, to limit the effects of climate change, keratella, providing the system with the possibility of further economic growth (estimated to be not less than 700-1000 km2you will need to be completed by 2030-2040 year. The necessary performance without exceeding permissible cargo into space will provide technology based on the application of a layer of iron on film polymer base. From the Earth is delivered "media", i.e., forming the matrix, for example, foil balloon in size and shape corresponding to the element platform (for example, sections of tubular beams of the frame to which the first metal coating sprayed, and after reaching a sufficient thickness, pour over a thick layer of iron. As an energy source for metallurgical operations at the first stage can be applied polymer film mirrors in combination with nuclear power plants, the supply of electron-tucanae equipment for melting and welding. Further technological mirrors desired accuracy can be produced at the place of the asteroid iron and mirror reflectors. To strengthen sprayed and cast parts can be known magnetic pulse methods. Hollow parts, similar to the above beam can effectively handle drobestruynoy high-quality balls ball bearings. High performance and durability of the equipment for these technologies will provide the total weight of products in tens of thousands or more times its own weight of process equipment. This will allow for construction to maintain traffic flow from the Land in an environmentally acceptable limits.

Use on earth such a clean source of energy is possible because cloud is basically not absorb and scatter light. Directing reflectors KEYS cities, agricultural lands, commercial zones of the oceans and seas, you can solve many socio-economic and environmental problems of sustainable development has not yet reached the "initial energy level of light intensity from orbit (40-50 W/m2). Preliminary analysis gives reason to hope that already in the beginning of creation KEYS, with appropriate stimulation of biological Sciences, the management of large (hundreds of km2economic converted biocenoses, which will improve the productivity and sustainability of agricultural technologies to reduce post-harvest losses, will help restore fish stocks oceans, etc. This will help in the initial stages to temporarily do without complex nazimocracy the following asteroids and increasing platforms will provide coverage of areas of disasters, major cities, optimization of sowing and harvesting of crops, intensification growth forests, wetlands, polar phytoplankton, i.e. the impact on the greenhouse effect through sinks and reservoirs of CO2. Possible struggle with the ozone holes. The growth of biological knowledge will allow you to apply KEYS to enhance biodiversity in natural ecosystems. The prospect of increasing the efficiency created independently KEYS terrestrial solar ures will contribute to their dissemination. Light streams in tens of W/m2will increase the efficiency of such low-temperature solar plants as water heaters, installation of small and average capacity for decentralized energy supply in developing countries, water-lifting devices with actuators made of alloys with shape memory. Alloys with shape memory (one of high technology, where Russia has the largest production), contributing to the reorientation of one of the military branches will help to solve important for many tropical developing countries social problem prevention-bilharzia - diseases of the tens of millions of people using river water. Another example is the use of the relatively small additional heating of the lagoons of atolls, helping to solve difficult energy problems of small island States - regions relating to the least developed. You can give many such examples of empowerment conversion and diversification in the early stages of the industrialization of space. Related results will be: the widening and deepening of nuclear disarmament, the reduction of accumulation on the Ground wastes of nuclear power while maintaining safe and the development of high space-rocket and nuclear technology, the widening and deepening of international cooperation, the growing integration of the world community and a more uniform development of all countries, including through the transfer of advanced technologies to developing countries, development in the XXI century the Solar system.

Through the use of extraterrestrial materials, the traffic from the Earth, will not likely exceed acceptable environmental limits and the next 20-25 years will begin to decline due to the development of extraterrestrial production, creating bezrassadnyj systems orbit correction, stabilization and orientation of the platforms, the development of such orbit-to-orbit transportation. This will help to improve environmental and economic performance at later stages of orbitalmodule interorbital tugs. The rest is technically complex items of equipment platforms and tugs. If successful, the selection of the asteroid reactive mass part can be extracted from it, but during the processing of the first few asteroids significant share of the substances have to be transported from Earth. After displaying low orbit delivery to the place of use may be tethered transport, i.e. installed on a solid base winch with a long rope, with a power drive and power unit. Technology for cable systems known. When lifting it consists of lowering a rope to the side of the planet, attaching to it the cargo, pulling winch to the platform, move the remote from the planet side of the platform and climb the rope to a higher orbit. The pulling rope provides so-called "dumbbell" effect, due to the fact that below the platform speed wire less, and above it more orbital velocity corresponding to the given height. When lowering the load operations are performed in reverse order.

The cable and winch - simple products. The equipment for their fabrication is easy and can be mastered in the early stages of space construction, stimulating the development of orbital production and this presonal, equipment and transport routes. The ability to manufacture most of the structural elements and move them to the place of Assembly in the closed space beams, will simplify and make safer construction. A separate part of the beam, the filled material asteroid (waste) and used as intermediate storage or attached to the piece of the asteroid used as the basis for a winch. Cable conveyors are useful and orbital platforms. Expand the use of such orbit-to-orbit transportation will create an additional incentive for the development of orbital production not only for own needs of the space group, but for the Earth as to stabilize the orbits of such systems it is desirable to have approximately equal flows in both directions. Although the cost of fuel to stabilize relatively small, but still give a contribution to a busy schedule of LV.

The more solid the Foundation, the larger the cargo can move the cable system. The rate of accumulation of mass in orbit will determine the moment whether to proceed on such orbit-to-orbit transport, which will increase the efficiency boosters, enabling flight tank ICBM more than double the load PH. But cable system will give you less gain, because the difference of the orbital velocity of the rope and the load speed on top of a ballistic trajectory is too large for the achievable strength of the rope, hitch and most of the cargo that will require some increase in speed.

When mastered the production of long beams of high-strength alloy steels, such interorbital transportation will improve the transition to the rotary pendulum devices, representing fixed on the massive grounds retractable rod. Rod rotate in the direction of the orbital angular velocity, i.e., the end directed to the Earth, moves opposite to the orbital motion at a peripheral speed of up to several hundred meters per second. It is equipped with a shock absorber with a large stroke, which moved goods connected in one position of the rod and separated in another. The device will allow the cargo to orbit at lower speeds than cable, which will improve the capacity of all media types and will reduce the unit cost of removal. The ability to control the speed and angle cast by separating cargo from the rod will expand the service area. Shipping cost on high is supplemented flax translation cost of the goods, for example in the geostationary orbit in 4-5 times the cost of the launch into low orbit.

As development KEYS will expand its capabilities, but will also increase the demands on the quality of lighting from orbit (brightness, smoothness "on-off", uniformity, spectral composition, and so on). When the dimensions of the platforms reach several km further growth, it is advisable to combine with the increasing number of platforms and orbits. Probably, the initial network KEYS should be organized in the form of 3 deployed at 120 degrees elliptical sun - and geosynchronous orbits with a period of 2 to 3 hours, perigee in the densely populated Northern hemisphere and apogee in the South. When the dimensions of the platforms 300-500 m this network is able to carry out only mentioned control biosphere impact. Upon reaching kilometer size options will expand to simultaneous illumination from one platform multiple cities. Exceeding 5 km, the platform will be on stage agronomic impacts (for example, provision of earlier sowing), support and stimulation of the proliferation of low-temperature solar energy. The irradiation intensity at this stage will be close to 40-50 W/m2. In the southern hemisphere, less populated and less plastino, what started this program in the twentieth century or in the first years of the XXI-th, i.e., without excessive risk to miss the timing of the rise of global anthropogenic crises, it is possible to keep the traffic from the Earth in the likely environmentally acceptable limits - no more than 25-30 thousand tons per year in the next 10 -20 years. and because he is 3/4 of the fuel and working fluid, with the introduction of such orbit-to-orbit transport he will fall faster than before will be delivered to a large mass of any extraterrestrial matter.

Maximum platform size, taking into account the reserves of strength in the life of the century, will be approximately 15x20 or 20x30 km, which corresponds to the energy stage of development KEYS (150-200 W/m2or more), if not previously be shown environmental safety and economic feasibility of using microwave energy transfer to the Earth, which would reach this stage earlier (according to the method of [4]). Technique of microwave transmission will be worked out sooner due to the orbital transfer lines "space-space") to power the engines of the CCC. If it turns out the inexpediency of full transition to microwave transmission, power stage can be performed in different ways depending who and flexible response compensating factor irreversibility of capital investment, simplify the initial choice of development path and its future changes. So if demographic and economic situation on the Ground is stabilized and will continue to grow urbanization will require faster to increase the number of platforms on the old and new orbits. If you prevail, the trend of merging cities with their small number, we must quickly increase the size of the platforms. If the impact KEYS on the way humanity will begin a defining impact on the development of energy and planning, you will need to create swarms of platforms connected by flexible connections or to organize them, choosing orbit so that there is a "thickening" over specific areas which will have evroenergosberezhenie centers (AAPC) providing environmentally safe operation of civilization.

AAPC may represent a complex of greenhouses with an area of about 1000 km2in the Northern hemisphere and more than 2000 km2in the South (in accordance with the diameter of the illuminated area) placed near it industry and more remote residential areas. The total area of the ever-changing platforms over complexion clear days in a year. But a special way of organizing the allocation of greenhouses heated air pipes of large diameter, it is possible to provide the local dissipation of clouds that will allow freer to choose the location of AAPC. These tubes can be placed powerful wind energy plant, which converts about 1% of the incoming light energy into electricity [8]. During the day the energy comes from natural sunlight and light from CAIS, night - out lighting from KEYS and heat accumulated in the soil of the greenhouse. Therefore, the mode of operation of the wind turbines will be quite uniform, which will increase their effectiveness. Wind energy is not the only source of energy for AAPC. More energy can be obtained by processing green mass of plants in liquid or gaseous fuel and placing fotomature on the part of the illuminated area. This will be provided as own needs AAPC, for example, mechanical energy for movement and soil treatment, water supply, delivery of fertilizers and other materials (mainly transport), and part of the needs of cities - satellites in motor fuel. In this case, the advantage is not only in expanding the use of NCA long distances.

Assume that by the end of the XXI century the world population will stabilize at close to 10 billion people, living mainly in the cities. KEYS and AAPC will allow you to avoid the development of megacities and to have the size of cities, placed around AAPC, at the level close to the socio-ecological optimum (200-300 thousand people). Lighting from space will allow you to get at least 10-15 kg of biomass with 1 m2the greenhouse at 2-3 crops per year, and not have to create redundant due to seasonal load processing capacity. In the Northern hemisphere one AAPC will provide food and partly by the energy of not less than 20-25 million people. Probably, over time, an increasing proportion of the population will seek to live closer to nature. Scattered in picturesque places a large area of the group of cottages and farms, separated by a distance of several hundred meters to several kilometers and is surrounded by a partly natural, and mostly managed vegetation, are KEYS optimal infrastructure, complementary urban conglomerates around AAPC. The combination of photoelectromagnetic, solar heating, lights, garden, forest and pond management of these areas will create a distributed grid, min is conducted at this time to migrate to the platform KEYS an essential part of most hazardous industries. However, the solution of these problems is more likely in the XXII century.

In the XXI century in the presence of an extensive network KEYS. more urgent and simple task than rebuilding the lifestyle of the population, will be the exploration of the Solar system. It will be possible to manufacture on a large orbit interplanetary ships payload in millions of tons, providing a means of nuclear explosions manned missions to distant planets, creating near-earth orbits and moons research and production complexes. Of course, the explosive uses of nuclear energy are only acceptable on the original barbarian stage where efficiency is measured in percent, but shows the history of technology, this stage is inevitable. The goal is to complete it in minimum time with maximum benefit. Nuclear explosions satisfy at least two conditions: provide a rapid development of the resources of the Solar system, which more than cover the costs and losses; will generate the need to save these costs, i.e., will stimulate the development of better methods of moving in space mass in the millions and billions of tons. Therefore, although in the description of the ultimate goal, the task of our time is the initial E. (VOL. l) the report of the UN Conference on environment and development. Rio de Janeiro. 3 - 14 June 1992, Vol. 1. Resolutions adopted at the Conference.

2. E/C. 13/1994/2 UN. The economic and Social Council. The Committee on new and renewable sources of energy and on energy for development (new York. 7 - February 18, 1994). Energy and sustainable development: issues concerning the General energy development, with a particular focus on developing countries. Changing global energy model.

3. E/C. 13/1994/3 of the United Nations. The economic and Social Council. The Committee on new and renewable sources of energy and on energy for development (new York. 7 - February 18, 1994). Energy and sustainable development: new and renewable sources of energy.

4. Glaser R. E. Method and Apparatus for Converting Solar Radiation to Electrical Power. United States Patent 3 781 647. Dec.23. 1973

see also:

Science. 1968. Vol. 168. Glaser R. E. Power from the Sun: its future.

"Rocketry and space", so 17. N l, Jan. 1979:

c.l76 - P. E. Glaser. Perspectives of space solar power;

S. 190 - D. L. Gregory. Different approaches to the problem of electricity production;

C. 200 - B. O'leary. Construction of solar space power stations mo, S. Sasaki, I., Naruto, C. A. Vanke "Work space research Institute of Japan in the field of cosmic energy".

6. Koshelev, C. A., Melnikov, C. M., Zaitsev, S. Y., Krivolapov O. Y. large Space structures formed by centrifugal forces / In Proc. of Rocket and space technology. Ser.XII. Century 4. - M., STIC Search. GANTI-4. 1992.

see also: C. S. Syromyatnikov, V. N. Branes, C. A. Koshelev and other spacecraft with a solar sail. A. S. USSR N 1758988. Declared 16.11.89.

7. Rosnovski A. A. Way of liquidation of facilities containing nuclear substances. The patent of Russian Federation N 2041140 from 09.08.95.

8. Belyaev, Yu M hot air power. The patent of Russian Federation N 2018761 from 30.08.94.

1. The way to achieve sustainable development and protection of the Earth from dangerous space objects, including the use of disposable in the process of rocket and nuclear disarmament served a term which can be removed from combat duty mezhkontinentalnyh ballistic missiles for removing weakly radioactive and non-radioactive components of nuclear missile warheads at an intermediate orbit, characterized in that the specified components are placed in orbital storage, raise the orbit dlitelnoye "space - space", placed last in space interceptor displayed in areas along the path of the iron asteroid, at his approach produce the launch of these missiles "space - space", the explosions of the charges change the speed of the asteroid to translate it with heliocentric high geocentric orbit, which is chosen with apogee near the boundary of the scope of the Earth, which produces clearing and fragmentation of the asteroid's gravity retaining debris from scattering and their subsequent delivery means not using nuclear explosions, close to Earth's orbit, where iron asteroid produce the elements of the orbital platforms and create from these platforms space energoinstal network, supplying the Earth with clean energy, and radiation safety is provided for all moving asteroid nuclear explosions, except the last few, outside the scope of the Earth, radioactive contamination and activation of the surface of the asteroid reduce the ablation products of an explosion of flow of the evaporated material, cleaning produce heating in orbit primary processing, the residual radioactivity of the material reduce peremeshivaniya interceptor, fully loaded with missiles with nuclear warheads, used to intercept dangerous space objects.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the delivery of the following asteroids and accumulation of mass in orbit to servicing transfer traffic is used for the rotary pendulum device as mounted on the massive grounds retractable rod, causing the rod to rotate in the direction of the orbital angular velocity, combining floating cargo with the ends of the rods on the same orbit and separating from the ends of the rods to another orbit.

3. System to achieve sustainable development of civilization, containing orbital means of supply of Land, characterized in that in the initial stages of deployment of this system it includes space energoinstal the network as platform with swivel managed reflectors of sunlight mounted on the hollow beams with large diameter located inside the highways and facilities for personnel, equipment, materials and products, and these beams and structural elements of simple shapes made by spraying asteroid iron on film matrix with pooltown material disposable boosters, delivering from Earth platform components and reflectors, and platforms are equipped with means for magnetizing them and massive beams loaded predominantly technological waste and move along the platforms synchronously with their appeal along the orbit to change the parameters of the orbit due to the resonant tidal forces.

 

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