Device for the construction of a monochromatic image

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention provides a high information content by increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image. The inventive device includes spaced along the beam of the interference filter, projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and recording system containing a fiber-optical element connected to one or a group of photodetectors. Convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with a ring-shaped transparent areas. Concave component is made in the form of a hemisphere with the Central and peripheral inlet holes of equal diameter. The number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of their opposing spaced openings concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filters. The filters are located on the surfaces of concentric meniscus. The common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of the menisci combined with the center Oronogo instrumentation, namely, devices for remote sensing, intended in particular to obtain monochromatic images of the upper atmosphere when performing studies of magnetospheric-ionospheric processes that appear in Aurora.

Recently in remote sensing are used in various optical and opto-electronic devices [1 - 3], has two major drawbacks. One of these disadvantages is a small angular field in space objects. Another significant drawback is the low spectral filtering ability, reducing the quality of formed monochromatic images.

Of the known devices is the closest to the technical nature of the invention is a device [4] to build a monochromatic image, designed for studies of the Aurora (auroral emissions) with the spacecraft "Viking". This device is selected as a prototype and is located along the beam of the interference filter on a plane substrate, the projecting lens containing two concentric optical component in the overall system, includes sequentially located microchannel plate and a fiber - optical element connected to the two-dimensional CCD. This device, intended for use in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, generates an image located on a sphere concentric to a common center of curvature of the mirrors and having a radius approximately equal to the focal distance of the projecting lens.

The disadvantages of this device are small angular field, as well as the impossibility of obtaining monochromatic (with a strip of 15 - 30 ) images of the upper layers of the atmosphere within the boundaries of the auroral oval. In particular, the last of the above mentioned disadvantages due to the fact that installed at the entrance of the optical system is flat interference filter at the operating field of view 25osignificantly deteriorate its characteristics for inclined beams of rays coming at an angle of 12.5oto the axis of the system. However, the interference filter is greatly increased spectral bandwidth, and for inclined beams of rays, the maximum bandwidth of the filter is shifted in the wavelength region of the spectrum in relation to the spectral position of the maximum, which corresponds the volumes. Both of these lack does not allow to provide high information content in remote sensing.

The objective of the invention is the increase in the information content of remote sensing, building a monochromatic image.

The technical result of the tasks are increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image. This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed device for the construction of a monochromatic image, consisting of spaced along the beam of the interference filter, the projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and optically coupled with the lens recording system containing a fiber-optical element connected to one or a group of photodetectors, a convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with the annular transparent zone, the inner diameter of each of which is equal to the diameter of the entrance pupil D, and the outer Dndetermine the ratio

< / BR>
where r3is the radius of the convex component;

r4the reference input holes of equal diameter DIdetermined from the relation

< / BR>
moreover, the geometric location of their centers are of a circle with an angular step of the centers of these holes is determined from the relation

< / BR>
While the number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of them located opposite inlet concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filter on spherical substrates in the form of concentric meniscus, the common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of which are aligned with the center of the entrance pupil.

In the inventive device, the spherical interference filter may be applied to either a convex or concave surface concentric meniscus, which is not only to serve as a substrate for such a filter, but also to correct the spherical aberration of the projecting lens. A similar function in the proposed device makes a hollow transparent sphere, which serves as a substrate for the mirror hemisphere convex lens component and at the same time is an aberration compensator distortion monochromatic image is worn on one of the surfaces of concentric spherical meniscus interference filter, concentric with the center of the entrance pupil, retains its characteristics (bandwidth and the spectral position of the maximum bandwidth) for both axial and off-axis (inclined) beams of rays. The latter circumstance leads to a significant improvement in spectral filtering capacity of the device.

For protection of the interference filter from bad weather and mechanical influences can, without compromising the quality of the formed image, perform the concentric meniscus in the form of a doublet, i.e., in the form of two concentric optical elements, separated by a thin air gap. Thus the total thickness of both concentric optical elements equal to the thickness of the original concentric meniscus. In this case, the interference filter can be placed inside the doublet on one of the spherical surfaces of the components of this doublet concentric optical elements.

The convex component of its transparent areas surrounding the mirror circles forming around the annular transparent zone, intended for passage through a hollow transparent sphere of those rays, which previously reflected from the concave mirror to the intended receipt rays in the lens. The combination of a common center of curvature of the surfaces of each of these concentric meniscus with the center of the entrance pupil, i.e. the center of the mirror circle convex component allows to minimize shielding of the Central part of the entrance pupil, and therefore, increase the effective aperture of the projecting lens.

In the proposed device for a hollow transparent sphere installed fiber-optic element. In the inventive device projecting lens forms the image of an infinitely far object near the last optical surface of the lens, on the input surface of the fiber-optic element, which is made in the form of a concave hemisphere with radius closest to the focal length of the lens f'. The choice of that form for the entrance surface of the optical fiber element associated with the provision of aberration correction (in particular the compensation of curvature of the image), which in turn allows to increase the angular field of the device as a whole. The output surface of the fiber optic element may be a plane closely joined or photocathode vacuum PE is a, for example, the area of the image of the two-dimensional CCD array.

The proposed device can be attributed to the optical system with synthesized angular field, and this means that the total angular field consists of angular field component parts projecting lens, designed as a single unit. Consequently, at the output of the system can be used or a single photodetector with a large reception area (or photo) or a group of photodetectors, in which the size of each sensitive area (each photocathode) determined by the angular field of the component parts of the lens, and the total surface area of all sensitive sites (photocathodes) will correspond to the total angular field of the optical system as a whole. Synthesized angular field of the proposed optical system determined the maximum allowable value of each of the angular field 2w parts projecting lens, and

< / BR>
where r1and r2the radii of respectively the first and second optical surfaces concentric meniscus.

All formulae calculated on the basis of the conditions for the simultaneous optimal agreement is terouanne corner of the field, placement on the convex component of the required number of mirror circles and the annular transparent zone formed around each of them, perform the mutual orientation of the convex and concave components, in which opposing each mirror circle convex component is located an inlet opening in Bogota component is installed before opening spherical of the interference filter on the substrate in the form of concentric meniscus, and passing through a lens of the required quantity of radiation energy at a given screening and the exclusion of unwanted clipping. When this is taken into account the fact that the order of the elements, the concentric meniscus coated spherical interference filter, an inlet opening in Bogota mirror component and the annular transparent zone mirrored around the inside of it on the convex mirror component is a centered axial-symmetric sequence.

Convex component projecting lens has an important feature: formed therein annular transparent zone intersect each other so that the ring part of each one is the amount of space between the inlet holes is common to beams of rays, passed through each of these openings and then reflected from opposite these holes are located mirrored circles convex component, and then incident on the mirror surface of the concave component.

Valuable property is offered to the device attaches to the combination of the surface image of the lens from the last optical surface, making it blistatelnoy. This fact allows a simple technique to correct the field curvature (the curvature of the image).

This technique is based on the violation of concentricity blistatelnoy the refractive surface of the lens and convert it to the corrective force element, similar to the lens Smith. The results of all remaining elementary aberrations were not changed significantly in the direction of increasing [5].

Based on the above, the claimed combination can solve the task: to create a device with a high information content by increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image.

In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the device in cross section;

in Fig. 2 - circuit race Fig. 3 - scheme of arrangement of the input holes on MAGNETOM mirror lens component;

in Fig. 4 - arrangement of the mirror circles and the annular transparent zone formed around each of these circles on the convex mirror lens component;

in Fig. 5 is an optical diagram of a device with swing beams in the main section;

in Fig. 6 is a table with the design options of the device;

in Fig. 7 is graphs of the residual aberrations of the lens system.

Device for the construction of a monochromatic image (Fig. 1) contains consistently located spherical interference filter 1, deposited on a substrate in the form of concentric meniscus 2, the projecting lens, which owns concentric convex and concave mirror components 3 and 4, and a hollow transparent sphere 5 coated with a convex mirror component 3, and a recording system consisting of a fiber-optical element 6 and the group of the photodetectors 7. Concave component 4 made in the form of a hemisphere with the Central and peripheral holes 8 (Fig. 3), opposite to which on the convex component 3 are mirrored circles 9 representing a convex glass lens is ptx2">

Device for the construction of a monochromatic image is as follows.

Parallel bundles of rays from an object enter the optical system through the holes 8, each of which is placed a spherical interference filter 1 on the substrate in the form of concentric meniscus 2, through which the bundles of rays fall on the convex reflective elements, i.e., the mirror 9 circles convex component 3, the mirror surface of which is coated on the external surface of the hollow transparent sphere 5.

After reflection from the mirror circles 9 consider the beam then is reflected from the mirror surface of the concave component 4, after which the beams go through annular transparent zone 10 to the hollow transparent sphere 5, through which the beams of rays forming the image of the object on a concave input surface of the fiber-optic element 6, the transmitting this image to the photosensitive sites working group of the photodetector 7. As such photodetectors may be used, in particular a two-dimensional CCD array.

The video signals received from the various receivers of the working group, then added, for example, the Proposed device is constructive simplicity. It is a concentric grouped around one transparent sphere two nested into each other hard hemispheres respectively located on them spherical interference filters on substrates in the form of concentric meniscus holes and mirror areas. To improve the technology of manufacture of the device its hollow transparent sphere can be made integral, i.e. consisting of two halves that are glued or connected to an optical contact. This device has circular symmetry, resulting in ease of Assembly and alignment and is almost pristraivaemy.

Adjacent lens elements into force of the circular symmetry are identical. The device has a high image quality. This can be achieved synthesized angular field until 180oC. Material for making concave lens component can be selected composite material such as carbon - carbon. In addition, this concave component can be performed in glass-to-metal titanium or beryllium basis.

The design parameters of an example implementation of a device for the lens focal length of 17.9 mm is ispolzovaniem multilayer dielectric mirrors and is intended to highlight the wavelength 0,5577 μm. Diagram of the lens such device is shown in Fig. 5, and graphics residual aberration in Fig. 7.

The transverse spherical aberration of the lens is minimized; the lens has a small amount of astigmatism, coma and distortion. The location of the entrance pupil coincides with each mirror around on the convex component projecting lens.

In addition to providing synthesized corner of the field, i.e. shirokougolnost, the device has the additional technical advantages, which include spatial invariance, reliability, nerastraivaites.

Device for the construction of a monochromatic image is supposed to be used in remote sensing space and terrestrial objects in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectral regions with a simple rearrangement of the operating range at large angular fields.

Perhaps the use of the device as the device is circular, for example, in computer vision systems in robotics for otsuvstviya adaptive robots.

The sources of information.

1. Goetz, A. F. H., J. Wellmann, B., Barnes W. L. Optical remote sensing of the Earth - Proc. of the IEEE June the USSR "Instrumentation", so XXXI, No. 12, 1988.

3. Avanesov G. A., Chikov K. N. et al. Television observation of Phobos. - Nature, v.341, N 6243, 19 October 1989, p.p.585-587.

4. Anger, C. D. , Rabey S. K., Broadfoot, A. L., Brown R. G., L. Cogger L., R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, King R. A., McEwen D. HJ, T. Murphree, S., Richardson, E. H., Sandell, B. R., Smith K., Jones F. V. An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking Spacecraft. - Geophys.Res. Lett., v.l4, N 4, 1987, p.p.387-390.

5. Rusyns M. M. Composition of optical systems. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1989.

Device for the construction of a monochromatic image, consisting of spaced along the beam of the interference filter, the projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and optically coupled with the lens of the recording system that includes the optical element, wherein the fiber optic element is connected with one or a group of photodetectors, a convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with the annular transparent zone, the inner diameter of each of which is equal to the diameter of the entrance pupil D and outer diameter Dndetermine the ratio

< / BR>
where r3is the radius of the convex component;

r4is the radius of the concave component,

and concave is I determined from the relation

DI= Dr4/r3,

moreover, the geometric location of their centers are of a circle with an angular step of the centers of these holes is determined from the relation

< / BR>
while the number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of the opposed them located inlet concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filter substrates in the form of concentric meniscus, the common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of which are aligned with the center of the entrance pupil.

 

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