Device for the construction of a monochromatic image
(57) Abstract:The invention provides a high information content by increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image. The inventive device includes spaced along the beam of the interference filter, projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and recording system containing a fiber-optical element connected to one or a group of photodetectors. Convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with a ring-shaped transparent areas. Concave component is made in the form of a hemisphere with the Central and peripheral inlet holes of equal diameter. The number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of their opposing spaced openings concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filters. The filters are located on the surfaces of concentric meniscus. The common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of the menisci combined with the center Oronogo instrumentation, namely, devices for remote sensing, intended in particular to obtain monochromatic images of the upper atmosphere when performing studies of magnetospheric-ionospheric processes that appear in Aurora.Recently in remote sensing are used in various optical and opto-electronic devices [1 - 3], has two major drawbacks. One of these disadvantages is a small angular field in space objects. Another significant drawback is the low spectral filtering ability, reducing the quality of formed monochromatic images.Of the known devices is the closest to the technical nature of the invention is a device  to build a monochromatic image, designed for studies of the Aurora (auroral emissions) with the spacecraft "Viking". This device is selected as a prototype and is located along the beam of the interference filter on a plane substrate, the projecting lens containing two concentric optical component in the overall system, includes sequentially located microchannel plate and a fiber - optical element connected to the two-dimensional CCD. This device, intended for use in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum, generates an image located on a sphere concentric to a common center of curvature of the mirrors and having a radius approximately equal to the focal distance of the projecting lens.The disadvantages of this device are small angular field, as well as the impossibility of obtaining monochromatic (with a strip of 15 - 30 ) images of the upper layers of the atmosphere within the boundaries of the auroral oval. In particular, the last of the above mentioned disadvantages due to the fact that installed at the entrance of the optical system is flat interference filter at the operating field of view 25osignificantly deteriorate its characteristics for inclined beams of rays coming at an angle of 12.5oto the axis of the system. However, the interference filter is greatly increased spectral bandwidth, and for inclined beams of rays, the maximum bandwidth of the filter is shifted in the wavelength region of the spectrum in relation to the spectral position of the maximum, which corresponds the volumes. Both of these lack does not allow to provide high information content in remote sensing.The objective of the invention is the increase in the information content of remote sensing, building a monochromatic image.The technical result of the tasks are increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image. This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the proposed device for the construction of a monochromatic image, consisting of spaced along the beam of the interference filter, the projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and optically coupled with the lens recording system containing a fiber-optical element connected to one or a group of photodetectors, a convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with the annular transparent zone, the inner diameter of each of which is equal to the diameter of the entrance pupil D, and the outer Dndetermine the ratio
< / BR>where r3is the radius of the convex component;
r4the reference input holes of equal diameter DIdetermined from the relation
< / BR>moreover, the geometric location of their centers are of a circle with an angular step of the centers of these holes is determined from the relation
< / BR>While the number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of them located opposite inlet concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filter on spherical substrates in the form of concentric meniscus, the common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of which are aligned with the center of the entrance pupil.In the inventive device, the spherical interference filter may be applied to either a convex or concave surface concentric meniscus, which is not only to serve as a substrate for such a filter, but also to correct the spherical aberration of the projecting lens. A similar function in the proposed device makes a hollow transparent sphere, which serves as a substrate for the mirror hemisphere convex lens component and at the same time is an aberration compensator distortion monochromatic image is worn on one of the surfaces of concentric spherical meniscus interference filter, concentric with the center of the entrance pupil, retains its characteristics (bandwidth and the spectral position of the maximum bandwidth) for both axial and off-axis (inclined) beams of rays. The latter circumstance leads to a significant improvement in spectral filtering capacity of the device.For protection of the interference filter from bad weather and mechanical influences can, without compromising the quality of the formed image, perform the concentric meniscus in the form of a doublet, i.e., in the form of two concentric optical elements, separated by a thin air gap. Thus the total thickness of both concentric optical elements equal to the thickness of the original concentric meniscus. In this case, the interference filter can be placed inside the doublet on one of the spherical surfaces of the components of this doublet concentric optical elements.The convex component of its transparent areas surrounding the mirror circles forming around the annular transparent zone, intended for passage through a hollow transparent sphere of those rays, which previously reflected from the concave mirror to the intended receipt rays in the lens. The combination of a common center of curvature of the surfaces of each of these concentric meniscus with the center of the entrance pupil, i.e. the center of the mirror circle convex component allows to minimize shielding of the Central part of the entrance pupil, and therefore, increase the effective aperture of the projecting lens.In the proposed device for a hollow transparent sphere installed fiber-optic element. In the inventive device projecting lens forms the image of an infinitely far object near the last optical surface of the lens, on the input surface of the fiber-optic element, which is made in the form of a concave hemisphere with radius closest to the focal length of the lens f'. The choice of that form for the entrance surface of the optical fiber element associated with the provision of aberration correction (in particular the compensation of curvature of the image), which in turn allows to increase the angular field of the device as a whole. The output surface of the fiber optic element may be a plane closely joined or photocathode vacuum PE is a, for example, the area of the image of the two-dimensional CCD array.The proposed device can be attributed to the optical system with synthesized angular field, and this means that the total angular field consists of angular field component parts projecting lens, designed as a single unit. Consequently, at the output of the system can be used or a single photodetector with a large reception area (or photo) or a group of photodetectors, in which the size of each sensitive area (each photocathode) determined by the angular field of the component parts of the lens, and the total surface area of all sensitive sites (photocathodes) will correspond to the total angular field of the optical system as a whole. Synthesized angular field of the proposed optical system determined the maximum allowable value of each of the angular field 2w parts projecting lens, and
< / BR>where r1and r2the radii of respectively the first and second optical surfaces concentric meniscus.All formulae calculated on the basis of the conditions for the simultaneous optimal agreement is terouanne corner of the field, placement on the convex component of the required number of mirror circles and the annular transparent zone formed around each of them, perform the mutual orientation of the convex and concave components, in which opposing each mirror circle convex component is located an inlet opening in Bogota component is installed before opening spherical of the interference filter on the substrate in the form of concentric meniscus, and passing through a lens of the required quantity of radiation energy at a given screening and the exclusion of unwanted clipping. When this is taken into account the fact that the order of the elements, the concentric meniscus coated spherical interference filter, an inlet opening in Bogota mirror component and the annular transparent zone mirrored around the inside of it on the convex mirror component is a centered axial-symmetric sequence.Convex component projecting lens has an important feature: formed therein annular transparent zone intersect each other so that the ring part of each one is the amount of space between the inlet holes is common to beams of rays, passed through each of these openings and then reflected from opposite these holes are located mirrored circles convex component, and then incident on the mirror surface of the concave component.Valuable property is offered to the device attaches to the combination of the surface image of the lens from the last optical surface, making it blistatelnoy. This fact allows a simple technique to correct the field curvature (the curvature of the image).This technique is based on the violation of concentricity blistatelnoy the refractive surface of the lens and convert it to the corrective force element, similar to the lens Smith. The results of all remaining elementary aberrations were not changed significantly in the direction of increasing .Based on the above, the claimed combination can solve the task: to create a device with a high information content by increasing the angular field while enhancing the quality monochromatic image.In Fig. 1 shows a General view of the device in cross section;
in Fig. 2 - circuit race Fig. 3 - scheme of arrangement of the input holes on MAGNETOM mirror lens component;
in Fig. 4 - arrangement of the mirror circles and the annular transparent zone formed around each of these circles on the convex mirror lens component;
in Fig. 5 is an optical diagram of a device with swing beams in the main section;
in Fig. 6 is a table with the design options of the device;
in Fig. 7 is graphs of the residual aberrations of the lens system.Device for the construction of a monochromatic image (Fig. 1) contains consistently located spherical interference filter 1, deposited on a substrate in the form of concentric meniscus 2, the projecting lens, which owns concentric convex and concave mirror components 3 and 4, and a hollow transparent sphere 5 coated with a convex mirror component 3, and a recording system consisting of a fiber-optical element 6 and the group of the photodetectors 7. Concave component 4 made in the form of a hemisphere with the Central and peripheral holes 8 (Fig. 3), opposite to which on the convex component 3 are mirrored circles 9 representing a convex glass lens is ptx2">Device for the construction of a monochromatic image is as follows.Parallel bundles of rays from an object enter the optical system through the holes 8, each of which is placed a spherical interference filter 1 on the substrate in the form of concentric meniscus 2, through which the bundles of rays fall on the convex reflective elements, i.e., the mirror 9 circles convex component 3, the mirror surface of which is coated on the external surface of the hollow transparent sphere 5.After reflection from the mirror circles 9 consider the beam then is reflected from the mirror surface of the concave component 4, after which the beams go through annular transparent zone 10 to the hollow transparent sphere 5, through which the beams of rays forming the image of the object on a concave input surface of the fiber-optic element 6, the transmitting this image to the photosensitive sites working group of the photodetector 7. As such photodetectors may be used, in particular a two-dimensional CCD array.The video signals received from the various receivers of the working group, then added, for example, the Proposed device is constructive simplicity. It is a concentric grouped around one transparent sphere two nested into each other hard hemispheres respectively located on them spherical interference filters on substrates in the form of concentric meniscus holes and mirror areas. To improve the technology of manufacture of the device its hollow transparent sphere can be made integral, i.e. consisting of two halves that are glued or connected to an optical contact. This device has circular symmetry, resulting in ease of Assembly and alignment and is almost pristraivaemy.Adjacent lens elements into force of the circular symmetry are identical. The device has a high image quality. This can be achieved synthesized angular field until 180oC. Material for making concave lens component can be selected composite material such as carbon - carbon. In addition, this concave component can be performed in glass-to-metal titanium or beryllium basis.The design parameters of an example implementation of a device for the lens focal length of 17.9 mm is ispolzovaniem multilayer dielectric mirrors and is intended to highlight the wavelength 0,5577 μm. Diagram of the lens such device is shown in Fig. 5, and graphics residual aberration in Fig. 7.The transverse spherical aberration of the lens is minimized; the lens has a small amount of astigmatism, coma and distortion. The location of the entrance pupil coincides with each mirror around on the convex component projecting lens.In addition to providing synthesized corner of the field, i.e. shirokougolnost, the device has the additional technical advantages, which include spatial invariance, reliability, nerastraivaites.Device for the construction of a monochromatic image is supposed to be used in remote sensing space and terrestrial objects in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectral regions with a simple rearrangement of the operating range at large angular fields.Perhaps the use of the device as the device is circular, for example, in computer vision systems in robotics for otsuvstviya adaptive robots.The sources of information.1. Goetz, A. F. H., J. Wellmann, B., Barnes W. L. Optical remote sensing of the Earth - Proc. of the IEEE June the USSR "Instrumentation", so XXXI, No. 12, 1988.3. Avanesov G. A., Chikov K. N. et al. Television observation of Phobos. - Nature, v.341, N 6243, 19 October 1989, p.p.585-587.4. Anger, C. D. , Rabey S. K., Broadfoot, A. L., Brown R. G., L. Cogger L., R. Gattinger, J. W. Haslett, King R. A., McEwen D. HJ, T. Murphree, S., Richardson, E. H., Sandell, B. R., Smith K., Jones F. V. An ultraviolet auroral imager for the Viking Spacecraft. - Geophys.Res. Lett., v.l4, N 4, 1987, p.p.387-390.5. Rusyns M. M. Composition of optical systems. - Leningrad: Mashinostroenie, 1989. Device for the construction of a monochromatic image, consisting of spaced along the beam of the interference filter, the projecting lens containing concentric convex and concave mirror components, and optically coupled with the lens of the recording system that includes the optical element, wherein the fiber optic element is connected with one or a group of photodetectors, a convex lens component is made in the form printed on the outer surface of the hollow transparent sphere mirrored hemisphere with the annular transparent zone, the inner diameter of each of which is equal to the diameter of the entrance pupil D and outer diameter Dndetermine the ratio
< / BR>where r3is the radius of the convex component;
r4is the radius of the concave component,
and concave is I determined from the relation
moreover, the geometric location of their centers are of a circle with an angular step of the centers of these holes is determined from the relation
< / BR>while the number of ring-shaped transparent areas on the convex component is equal to the number of the opposed them located inlet concave component and respectively equal to the number installed in front of the entrance holes of the interference filter substrates in the form of concentric meniscus, the common center of curvature of the optical surfaces of each of which are aligned with the center of the entrance pupil.
SUBSTANCE: device has circular metallic plate, in which a periodic matrix of rectangular slits is cut. Plate is positioned in such a way, that a falling beam of millimeter-long waves falls at an angle of 45° relatively to plate surface. Polarization of falling beam is parallel to plate surface. When direction of plate is such, that electric field is perpendicular to slits (i.e. electric field is directed transversely to lesser dimension of slits), plate transfers almost 100% of falling power. If the plate rotates around its axis for 90° (while keeping angle between falling beam and plate equal to 45°) in such a way, that falling electric field is parallel to slits, then plate transfers 0% and reflects almost 100% of falling power at an angle of 90° relatively to falling beam. By changing rotation angle between 0° and 90° both reflected and passed power can be continuously varied between values 0% and 100% from falling power. Light divider has cooling device for taking heat, absorbed from magnetic waves, away from edge of metallic plate.
EFFECT: continuous variation of reflected and passed power.
11 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: image generation devices - displays.
SUBSTANCE: claimed device contains a light source, liquid-crystalline panel, and also redirecting film and stack of optical wave conductors positioned between the first two parts, where optical wave conductors are made in form of films, first ends of which are oriented towards the light source, and second ends are extended relatively to one another with creation of toothed surface, which is connected to first toothed surface of redirecting film, second surface of which is connected to liquid-crystalline panel, where the teeth of both connected surfaces have to faces.
EFFECT: increased brightness of image.
6 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: light conducting optical element, which includes at least one light supplying base, which is equipped with at least two surfaces located parallel to each other; optical means that are used for entering light beams into the base by total internal reflection so that the light would strike one of the above surfaces, set of one or more partially reflecting surfaces located inside of the base, the surfaces of which are not parallel to the above base surfaces; the partially reflecting surfaces being flat surfaces selectively reflecting at an angle, which are crossed by part of beams several times before exiting the base in the required direction.
EFFECT: provision of wide field of view and increase of eye movement area with device fixed.
44 cl, 36 dwg
SUBSTANCE: optical substrate contains three-dimensional surface preset by the first function of surface pattern, modulated second function of surface pattern. The first function of surface pattern can be described by length, width and vertex angle with optical characteristics for formation of, at least, one output mirror component. The second function of surface pattern can be described by geometry with, at least, pseudorandom characteristic for modulation of the first function of surface pattern, at least, by phase along length of the first function of surface pattern. At that the phase presents horizontal position of peak along width. The surface of optical substrate creates mirror and scattered light from input light beam. The three-dimensional surface can have value of correlation function which is less than approximately 37 percent of initial throughout the length of correlation about 1 cm or less.
EFFECT: brightness increase is provided.
46 cl, 41 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method for separation of combined surface and volume electromagnet waves of terahertz range, which includes preliminary shaping of groove with smoothened edges on sample surface, at that groove axis is perpendicular to plane of incidence that crosses track of surface electromagnet wave (SEW) rays bundle and having size along track that is less that SEW spread length, and further direction of combined waves to groove, differs by the fact that groove is shaped in the form of regular cone half, axis of which lies in the plane of sample surface, at that angle of SEW deviation from incidence plane that contains volume wave, is equal to the following: γ=arcsin[tg(α)-(π-2)-k'], where α is angle between generatrix and cone axis, k' is actual part of SEW refraction index.
EFFECT: provision of spatial separation of SEW and volume wave by means of SEW direction variation.
SUBSTANCE: optical system of spectrum divider for IR-area of spectrum comprising flat-parallel plate with spectrum-dividing coat installed at the angle of 45 degrees to optical axis differs by the fact that plate is located in convergent bundle of beams in space for objective image, downstream compensator of aberrations is installed comprising two lenses: the first one located along with beams travel is positive with convex first surface and cylindrical second surface, the second one is plano-concave that it inverted with its concavity to image and displaced in meridional plane along with direction perpendicular to optical axis.
EFFECT: creation of optical system of spectrum divider for instruments that operate simultaneously in two different ranges of spectrum IR-area with simultaneous increase of aberrations correction quality and reduction of instrument dimensions.
3 dwg, 4 tbl
FIELD: technological processes, metal working.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of laser processing of materials, in particular, to device of multiway laser processing and may be used in production of large number of products at single laser complex, also in process of laser cutting, welding, pad welding and selective sintering. Device comprises N+1 lasers of initial beam division system and system of beam convergence, which is arranged in the form of set of N+1 telescopes, every of which is optically connected to laser. Telescopes are arranged with the possibility of independent rotation and displacement in two mutually perpendicular planes.
EFFECT: provision of multiple rise of efficiency of laser technological complexes, reduced power inputs at high quality of product.
SUBSTANCE: device has a laser and, optically connected to the laser, a system for dividing the initial beam, a beam convergence system, galvano scanner with a focus lens and a telescope-radiation homogeniser, fitted on the beam path in front of the system for dividing the initial beam. The system for dividing the initial beam and the beam convergence system are in form of mirror matrices. The mirrors in the matrices have equal surface area and can independently rotate and move in two mutually perpendicular planes. Mirrors in the matrix of the beam convergence system can additionally move in the plane of the matrix.
EFFECT: multiple increase in efficiency of laser beam machines and reduced power consumption at high quality of the product.
SUBSTANCE: method involves image preprocessing using a video processor 13 to eliminate geometric distortions, resulting from the geometry of the optical system; formation of an image of the cabin space on a monitor screen 1 and projection using a reproduction lens 2 onto a holographic diffuser 3, which is an assembly of two diffusers (4, 6), turned about each other and joined by a layer of immersion transparent substance 5, and which forms a scattering indicatrix so as to provide a given viewing area with the required image contrast. Principal beams are directed near the optical axis of the system using a collective lens 7, placed in front of the holographic diffuser. The image is then directed to the viewing area of the driver 12 using a holographic beam splitter 9, placed on the windscreen 10.
EFFECT: increased reliability and provision for safe driving conditions.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mirrors/filters are placed in space so as to create a collinear matrix group of rectangular beams through successive reflections and/or transmissions from several optical frequencies emitted by a defined number of radiation sources. The top step consists of matrix of mirrors/filters with size m x n in p items superimposed with each other. The bottom step is a matrix from m mirrors/filters built into p rows with possibility of addressing outgoing beams to columns of matrices of the top step. The mirrors/filters of the matrices have characteristics which enable transmission of spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it and/or transmission of the spectra of optical frequencies of the incoming beam or part of it to the next mirror/filter.
EFFECT: optimisation of the process of frequency-address light beam routing.
5 cl, 11 dwg