(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of construction and can be used for walls of buildings and constructions. Building construction consists of two parallelepipeds, folded so that two adjacent sides they form the grooves, and on the other two tabs. One of the parallelepipeds made rectangular, and the other edges are chamfered, due to this form of triangular grooves on two adjacent sides and triangular projections at opposite sides. In the construction of walls of buildings and structures of the protrusions of one of the designs included in the two adjacent grooves. In turn, in the grooves of this design are the projections of the other two adjacent constructions. The end of the ledge adjacent to the rectangular parallelepiped, can be made flat, is formed in the wall system of interconnected channels. The efficiency of a rectangular parallelepiped can be made non - rectangular corners. If necessary, the education of the window opening a box with beveled edges is performed in the form of Rama. Advantages of the invention are to reduce the complexity of manufacture and Assembly and disassembly, to simplify proizvodstve, as well as all kinds of room isolation. 2 C. p. F.-ly. 8 Il. The invention relates to the construction and involves the installation of building structures for the erection of buildings and structures.Known for building design from wood or other materials, made in the form of a parallelepiped .A disadvantage of the known construction design is the complexity of its bonding with other similar structures for the formation of a solid wall, the necessity of using cement (adhesive) materials or fasteners.Also known constructions, with projections in the form of triangles, trapezoids, on one of the adjacent faces and the corresponding slots on the other [2, 3, 4].The closest analogue is the building design, the form of which is composed of three parallelepipeds so that the average of them creates a rectangular ledge with two adjacent ends, and two extreme form of rectangular slots on the other two sides of the structure . Solid wall with such structures form by push or driving lugs one design in the slots of the other.The disadvantage of this analgo their connector especially when structures made of brittle materials. This leads to increase in complexity as the production of these structures, and the installation and dismantling of constructions of them. In addition, in some cases for reliability there is a need to strengthen or sealing docking structures. In this construction is not provided. In addition, it is not translucent.The objective of the invention is to reduce the complexity of the production structure, as well as installation and dismantling of facilities for them.This object is achieved in that the construction design, the form of which is composed of several parallelepipeds with the formation of protrusions on two adjacent sides and equal them slots on the other two, is made of two parallelepipeds, one of which is rectangular, and the second edges are chamfered. The end of the ledge adjacent to the rectangular parallelepiped, can be made flat. The parallelepipeds can be made in the form of translucent frames, and a rectangular parallelepiped made in the form of metal parts.In Fig. 1 shows a building structure with the flat end of the ledge, front view; Fig.2 - the same, lateral view; Fig.3 - the same, top view; Fig. 4 construction is; in Fig.7 - articulation of adjacent structures with the formation of a hole or seal or fixer of Fig.8 - construction design with a hole (window).The shape of the building structure composed of two parallelepipeds from rectangular 1 and beveled faces 2. The parallelepipeds are connected so that they form on the adjacent faces of the projections 3 and grooves 4.The connection structures in the solid wall is accomplished by the tabs and the slots of each of them with grooves and protrusions neighboring in the horizontal and vertical directions. Thus due to the flat ends of the projections 3 formed a system of interconnected grooves 5 (Fig.7). The formation of the window 6 in the structure (Fig.8).Horizontal ledges for a lower chance of wetting the walls it is advisable to do on the upper ends of the component structures. Solidity (rigidity) collected walls provide overlapping projections 3 and grooves 4. For critical structures in a system of gutters 5 pump the grout.For heat, water and sound insulation in trench 5 stack of elastic material, e.g. rubber. The gasket may be made of a material that combines fastening and teplitz clay or silicate masses using dry pressing with giving them the form with further treatment in autoclaves - for silicate mixtures or drying kiln for ceramic. In this case, the design is solid.When performing construction of wood it is advisable to make a separate parallelepiped rectangular with beveled edges, and then connect them.In Fig.8 shows the implementation structure of the two non-parallelepiped - frames. This solution is used for device translucent barriers, such as greenhouses. Translucent film or glass reinforce between frames. Rectangular frame in order to conserve material also can be made discontinuous, in the form of metal parts, the thickness of which is substantially less than the thickness of the wooden frame with beveled edges.When performing construction of wood is enough for one plate with the ends cut off on the proposed form, or in the case of fiber optic enclosures - two: with rectangular or beveled edges.The proposed form of the cross section faces the most rational. For example, if the most similar shape is triangular, the building structure it is necessary to prepare two parallelepipeds with beveled toward each other faces. In the proposed solution, only one box is what beveled in one direction, and less material goes to waste.The presence of grooves in the walls of the proposed designs ensures their reliability (by injection into the gutter fastening solution), as well as hydro-, heat-and sound insulation. 1. Building design, the form of which is composed of several parallelepipeds with the formation of projections on the adjacent faces and equal to them of the slots on the other two, characterized in that it consists of two parallelepipeds, one of which is rectangular, and the second edges are chamfered.2. Design by p. 1, characterized in that the end face of the protrusion adjacent to the rectangular parallelepiped made flat.3. Design by p. 1, characterized in that the parallelepipeds made in the form of translucent frames, and a rectangular parallelepiped made in the form of metal parts.
SUBSTANCE: decorative lattice comprises two layers of identical rings or sheet metal with identical diameters of holes. The specified layers are laid onto each other with any arbitrary placement of centres of rings or holes and any arbitrary angular displacement.
EFFECT: increased bending strength.
SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.
EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.
13 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building structure consisting of blocks relates to construction industry and can be used for erection of buildings and structures. A building structure is made of rectangular blocks with projections and corresponding grooves on working surfaces; with that, the building structure includes two types of blocks that are different as to manufacturing material, one of which is made from corrosion resistant metal, and the other one from heavy expanded-clay concrete. The building structure is made of blocks laid in rows as per a "projection-groove" principle; with that, the base is made of blocks from corrosion resistant metal and fixed on a foundation; then, rows of blocks are laid, which are made from expanded-clay concrete. Erection of the structure ends with a row of blocks from corrosion resistant metal. Besides, its erection method is described.
EFFECT: improving stability, strength and seismic resistant of a structure.
3 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials industry, particularly to making concrete wall panels or blocks. Wall panel comprises interconnected bearing layer on the basis of light concrete and heat-insulating layer of porous material. Connection of layers is made in the form of a plastic plate dowels with cutouts at their ends provided with transverse armature rods of composite material. Each rod is arranged approximately in the middle part of dowel section. Head of each dowel is located on the outer side of heat-insulating layer. Transverse armature rod extends beyond dowel body on both sides at approximately 4÷5 of its diameter perpendicular to dowel axis and is located inside the bearing layer at the distance of 1/4÷2/3 of its thickness from upper surface of heat-insulating layer. Crude mixture for making the base layer of wall panel contains following components, wt%: hemihydrate gypsum 62-72, portland cement 18-25, pulp and paper industry waste (scope) (in terms of dry substance) 0.5-12, technical lignosulfonates (in terms of dry substance) 0.15-1.5, soda ash 0.05-0.2, quartz sand - the rest up to 100 %, with water - cement ratio of 2.7-3.5. Method of wall panel making includes laying and attachment of heat-insulating and bearing layers. First, on the horizontal surface of the shape heat-insulating material is placed stitched with plastic dowels with cutouts at their ends. Dowels are installed in the direction to the upper side with end of dowel output by value equal to approximately 3/4 of thickness of bearing layer, in an amount of no less than 5 PCs per 1.0 m2 of horizontal area of heat-insulating layer. Then approximately in the middle of each dowel section armature rod of composite material is inserted perpendicular to its axis, and raw material mixture is poured upon heat-insulating material.
EFFECT: technical result consists in speeding of process of wall panel production, increasing reliability of its heat-insulating and bearing layers and reducing power consumption during production.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of two elements: a panel-frame consisting of a crossbar and racks, made of heavy concrete, including reinforcing articles and parts, and an element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane. Wherein the element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane is represented by a liner made of light or cellular concrete with retainers on the surfaces connected to the panel-frame. A method for manufacturing the wall panel is also described.
EFFECT: reductiing the weight and material intensity of load-bearing and self-supporting wall panels, reducing the labour intensity of the wall panel manufacturing, increasing the industriality of construction and increasing the strength of the contact seams between the composite elements of the wall panel.
7 cl, 9 dwg