The method of applying a coating of noble metals as well as nickel, copper, mercury, indium, bismuth and antimony in metal parts
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field of deposition of thin metal coatings on metal parts, specifically for the application of gold, silver, platinum, palladium, Nickel, mercury, indium, bismuth and antimony, and can be used in microelectronics, electrical and reflective devices, and also in the jewelry industry. The method of coating is that as metalliser solution for covered products take a solution nationistic metal salts, such as nitrates, halides, sulfates, acetates, Axalto in an organic solvent, chemically compatible with the metal salts and technologically secure. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table. The invention relates to the field of application of thin-layer metallic coatings for various applications, including protective and decorative metal parts and, particularly, to a coating of noble metals (silver, gold, platinum, palladium or their alloys with each other, and alloying additives, as well as Nickel, copper, mercury, indium, bismuth and antimony on parts of copper and copper alloys, Nickel and its alloys, black, kalogeridis, the electrical contacts, the switching elements, wires, cables, microwave equipment (waveguides, resonators), reflective devices (reflectors), as well as in the jewelry business .Thin-layer Nickel and copper coatings are used as an intermediate sublayer when applying other coatings to ensure strong adhesion of the coating to the substrate, as well as for decorative articles, apparatus, devices in almost all industries.Coating of indium and bismuth are used as anti-friction layer in the bearings, to increase the reflectivity of the mirrors and reflectors. These coatings, and layers of antimony and mercury are used in semiconductor technology .Known methods of applying these coatings. Of these the most widespread and common electroplating method, in which the metal part after pre-treatment (degreasing, chemical etching or activation, rinsing) polarize cathode in the electrolyte solution, and the anodes are made of overlapping metal, with details is the electrodeposition of metallic coatings. Most high-quality coverage of the call, including potassium cyanide [1, 2, 3].The disadvantages of electroplating method is the complexity of the coating process, due to the bulkiness of the equipment (power supply, measuring devices), the slowness of the process (hours, days), as well as the complexity of the recycling and disposal of waste. Known electroplating methods of coating of noble metals on metal parts using nationistic electrolytes (genesisintermedia, radamisty, pyrophosphates, iodide, bromide, sulphamate, ethanolamine), i.e., aqueous solutions nationistic compounds of noble metals. However, marianista electrolytes or does not provide coverage of the required quality (uneven floor, unsatisfactory adhesive strength), or ethnologica (prone to decomposition, low outputs metal precipitation current). In this regard, in industry, to cover the noble metals are widely used cyanide electrolytes [1, 2].Also known chemical methods of applying metallic coatings without the use of electric current. An example would be the way gilding products of Nickel and its alloys . According atomki pre-treatment with acid and washing with deionized water, immersed in the heated solution, containing dicyanoaurate potassium, cyanide of potassium, phosphate and water. This way, as the closest in technical essence to offer, we accepted for the prototype.The disadvantages of the prototype method are unsatisfactory adhesive strength of the coating and environmental hazard. The main and fundamental drawback of the prototype method is unsatisfactory adhesive strength of the coating. It is associated with the chemical interaction between the surface of the metal substrate with water, thus inevitably formed or gas bubbles (hydrogen), or an oxide film, is both durable prevents the adhesion of the coating to the substrate. This leads to slezanie coating of parts (i.e., marriage) or in the process of obtaining coverage or in the operation of the products, for example, with the closure and opening of the electrical contact.Environmental hazard way connected with the use of toxic aqueous solutions of cyanide, which leads to the need for disposal of hazardous waste, because the wastewater discharge of cyanide compounds without their prior disposal is prohibited. Thus, using the method-prototype cyanide inevitably requires utilis isih energy.In the invention, the technical solution lies in the fact that in the known method of applying a thin metallic coating on metal parts, including degreasing, chemical etching or activation, washing and processing of the prepared parts metallorum solution, as metalliser solution a solution take nationistic metal salts, specifically, nitrates, halides, sulfates, acetates, oxalates, in an organic solvent, chemically compatible with the metal salts and technologically secure.For each case, an organic solvent, selected from the following groups: trialkylphosphine, for example, triethylphosphate, tributyl phosphate, sulfur-containing solvents, for example, sulfolane, dimethylsulfoxide, acetic acid, ethylene glycol, propylene carbonate, or their solutions in each other. The metallation process is carried out at 20 - 150oC.Significant difference between the proposed solution from the prototype method is, firstly, the inclusion in metallurgy solution nationistic metal salts, for example, specifically, nitrates, halides, sulfates, acetates, oxalates, instead of poisonous cyanide compounds that safely increases razlagaemogo method is the preparation metalliser solution-based organic solvent. The role of organic solvent is to dissolve compounds of metals of the coating and the substrate and to protect the surface of the metal substrate from corrosion, from the formation therein of gas bubbles and passive films, which leads to an increase in the adhesion strength of the coating. However, from the variety of organic solvents only provide some of the performance of the proposed technical solutions. The organic solvent must meet three characteristics specified in the claims. First, he must dissolve these marianista metal salts. So, for example, hydrocarbons (n-hexane, n-heptane, kerosene, diesel oil) are not dissolved metal salts and therefore unusable. Secondly, the organic solvent must be compatible with the specified asianstyle salts of metals, i.e. the solution during operation must be chemically resistant. And finally, thirdly, the organic solvent must be technologically safe from the point of view of pozarovzryvobezopasnost and physiological effect on a living organism. So, for example, acetonitrile and hexamethylphosphoramide satisfy the first and second characteristics and metallurgy solution based on each of microphase, because it applies to flammable liquids (because 81,6oC, high volatility), and hexamethylphosphoramide is a strong mutagen and refers to substances hazardous to health. All mentioned in the formula characteristics satisfies a narrow group of organic solvents, providing the efficiency of the proposed technical solutions.The coating when heated from 20 to 150oC speeds up the process.In addition to these metallurgy solution may contain various brightening agent additives.Below is the data of the prototype method and specific examples of implementation of the proposed method.Example. Metal parts degreasing standard techniques , washed with water, treated with one of the known solutions for chemical polishing , bringing the surface to a mirror finish, washed in water and then in an organic solvent, on the basis of which is composed metallurgy solution. Immediately after leaching detail process metallorum solution. Preparatory operations (degreasing, chemical polishing, cleaning and operation of the metallation is to be mechanical in the tvii vibration or ultrasonic vibrations. The finished coating after washing and drying can be processed by known methods of improving the properties of the coating, namely mechanical (surface finishing process, krzewina) thermal or chemical treatment. For example, the silver coating can be protected from tarnishing processing in chromate solutions (chromate) [1, 4].Specific examples of the preparation of thin metal coatings on metal substrates listed in the table.The proposed method of applying metal coatings on metal parts allows comparison with the method of the prototype:
a) increase the adhesive strength of the coating;
b) to improve process safety by eliminating from it the poisonous cyanide;
C) to protect the environment and to facilitate the disposal of waste.So, for gold coating prepared according to the prototype method, the adhesion strength was 10 - 35 kg/cm2while the present method 63 - 90 kg/cm2. Increased adhesive strength is confirmed also in the operation of the coatings. For example, the contact device with a silver coating prepared on a copper substrate by the present method with the standard ispytaniyami coating obtained by a known method.Determination of the adhesion strength of the coatings deposited on metal substrates was performed according to GOST 27890-88 by measuring the force required to tear the film in the direction perpendicular to its surface. Samples for testing were obtained by gluing with epoxy glue two steel bases rectangular in between flat metal plate of the same shape are printed on its surface coating.Sources of information
1. P. M. Vyacheslavov and other electroplating of precious and rare metals. L.: Engineering, 1970.2. Electroplating. /Directory. M.: Metallurgy, 1987.3. Application 62-23996. Japan. class. C 25 D 3/46, publ. 31.01.87.4. Galvanic coatings in engineering. /Directory. M.: Mashinostroenie, 1985, T. 1, S. 224. 1. Method of applying coatings of noble metals as well as Nickel, copper, mercury, indium, bismuth and antimony in metal parts, including degreasing, chemical etching and/or activation, washing and processing of prepared parts metallorum solution, characterized in that as metalliser solution a solution take nationistic metal salts, for example nitrates, Galya fact, what organic solvent taken from the group trialkylphosphates, for example trimethyl-, tributyl phosphate, or serosoderjaschei solvents, such as sulfolane, dimethyl sulfoxide, and/or acetic acid and/or ethylene glycol and/or propylene carbonate.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the processing of prepared parts metallorum solution is carried out at 20 - 150oC.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to electrolytic metallurgy and can be used at preparation of phosphonic complex electrolytes for electrochemical and chemical copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt coating. The method includes solution of such compounds in water, which are the source of cations of metals, and solution of a compound, which is the source of anion of nitrilotri(methylene phosphonic) acid; at that as sources of cations of metals and anion of nitrilotri(methylene phosphonic) acid crystal nitrilotri-(methylenphosphonates)(2-) of metals are used from the group containing copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt.
EFFECT: facilitates preparation of complex phosphonic electrolytes and solutions of specified composition and concentration not containing undesirable impurities, it also facilitates upgraded processibility of the method of preparation of electrolytes and solutions, and expands an arsenal of existing methods of preparation of nitrilotri-(methylenphosphonates) electrolytes and solutions for coating with metals and alloys.
5 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to methods formation of component coating by chemical conversion for dielectrics, semiconductors and electronegative metals (iron, aluminium, titanium and their alloys), as well as combined ceramic-metal materials and can be used in radio engineering industry, in instrument engineering and for manufacturing of printed-circuit boards and decoration of wax, plastisol and other products. The first version of the method involves component surface processing in sorption stabilising solution in ratio as follows, g/l: SiO2 - (35-45)×10-3, Al2O3 - (0.5-10)×10-3, MgO - (0.5-10)×10-3, HF - (0.5-1)×10-3, water - the rest. It is followed with sensitisation, activation in solution containing palladium chloride and hydrochloric acid, and metal plating. The second version of the method involves sensitisation of component surface in sorption stabilising solution in ratio as follows, g/l: SiO2 - (35-45)×10-3, Al2O3 - (0.5-10)×10-3, MgO - (0.5-10)×10-3, HF - (0.5-1)×10-3, water - the rest.
EFFECT: improved plating quality ensured with higher catalytic activity of processed surface and reduced palladium content in solution for activation.
2 cl, 8 tbl, 8 ex
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to technology for production of metalised woven and nonwoven materials, and may be used for production of catalysts, and also for production of decorative and finishing materials. Method includes previous chemical activation of coated material surface, using as activator glyoxal acid and/or oxalic acid. Then chemical metallisation is carried out, which is realised from solution containing bluestone. Stabiliser used is tetraethylene glycol, and reducer - glyoxal. Sodium hydroxide is used in solution to maintain required acidity.
EFFECT: invention provides for production of metalised dispersed woven and nonwoven materials using simplified technology, with simultaneous cheapening and provision of production safety due to use of proposed ingredients and their certain ratio.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to chemical application of metal coating. The procedure consists in bringing substrate into contact with a bath containing a surface active substance, reducer and metal chosen from a group Ag, Cu, Pd and Co. Also temperature of the bath is higher, than temperature of dimness of solution present in the bath in form of at least two phases. The bath contains water solution of silver salt, substituted alkylene-oxide compound, boric acid, reducer and complex former. The procedure includes silicon surface etching, immersion of silicon surface into the above described bath, leaving silicon surface till silver coating forms on it and extracting silicon surface coated with silver from the bath.
EFFECT: increased visual reflex and electrical conductivity.
34 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: in the method parts of copper or its alloys are treated in a solution containing 6-10 wt % H2SO4, 4-8 wt % Na2Cr2O7 and water - balance, for 10-60 min., afterwards flushed with water. Further parts are etched in 18-25% solution of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, after which parts without preliminary washing are treated in a working aqueous solution, containing sulfuric or hydrochloric acid, thiourea, stannum bichloride dihydrate, previously soaked at 17-30°C for 1-30 days.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to produce high-quality tin coatings with increased corrosion resistance on parts of copper or its alloys.
3 cl, 6 ex
SUBSTANCE: method contains the following stages: a) physical processing to reduce the surface tension of a substrate before metallisation; b) non-electrolytic metallisation of the substrate surface, processed at stage a) by sputtering one or several redox solutions in the form of aerosol(s), and c) production of a decorative layer on the metallised surface. A device contains a module of physical processing, selected from the following types of processing: processing by flame, processing by crown discharge, processing by plasma and their combinations, to reduce the surface tension, a module of non-electric metallisation and a module of a decorative layer production. The claimed method is used to obtain such products as: vials from hollow glass, in particular, for cosmetic purposes, automobile components, components for household electronics or for the application in aviation, or components for electronics in the form of an electricity-conducting path, antennas of radio-frequency identification or a component with an electromagnetic coating for screening.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to process a lot of substrates, provides quality adhesion of layers and makes it possible to obtain decorative coatings.
10 cl, 4 dwg, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of metal layers of coating and can be used in production of semiconductors. Claimed is composition for application of metal layer, which contains source of metal ions and at least one suppressing agent, which is obtained by reaction of amine compound, containing active functional amino groups, with mixture of ethylene oxide and at least one compound, selected from C3 and C4 alkylene oxides, to obtain random copolymers of ethylene oxide and at least one more of C3 and C4 alkylene oxides, with said suppressing agent having molecular weight 6000 g/mol and higher, and content of ethylene oxide in copolymer of ethylene oxide and C3-C4 alkylene oxide being from 30 to 70%. Also claimed is method of electrolytic application of metal layer on substrate by contact of electrolytic bath for application of metal layer, containing said composition, with substrate, and creation of current density in substrate for period of time, sufficient for application of metal layer on substrate.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to obtain coating layer providing voidless filling of surface elements of nanometer and micrometer scale.
15 cl, 12 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to application of metal layers of coating and can be used in production of semiconductors. Claimed is composition for application of metal layer, which contains source of metal ions and at least one suppressing agent, which is obtained by reaction of amine compound, containing at least three active functional amino groups, with mixture of ethylene oxide and at least one compound, selected from C3 and C4 alkylene oxides, to obtain random copolymers of ethylene oxide and at least one more of C3 and C4 alkylene oxides, with content of ethylene oxide in copolymer of ethylene oxide and C3-C4 alkylene oxide constituting from 30 to 70%. Also claimed is method of electrolytic application of metal layer on substrate by contact of electrolytic bath for application of metal layer, containing said composition, with substrate, and creation of current density in substrate for period of time, sufficient for application of metal layer on substrate.
EFFECT: inventions make it possible to obtain coating layer providing voidless filling of surface elements of nanometer and micrometer scale.
14 cl, 15 dwg, 1 tbl, 12 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sealing of micro holes in metallic coating produced by chemical reduction. This process includes the application of metallic coating ply on substrate by chemical reduction comprises defects like micro holes which allow fluid communication between substrate and ambient medium. Ply of setting epoxy sealant is sprayed over said metallic coating ply to fill aforesaid defects. Note here that said setting sealant features viscosity of 20-1200 cP at ambient temperature. Setting of applied sealant is performed and notable portion of applied sealant cover ply is removed to get the article. This article includes the metallic coating ply on substrate produced by chemical reduction with no defects like micro holes which allow fluid communication between substrate and ambient medium.
EFFECT: higher mechanical strength and protective properties, ease of processing.
10 cl, 5 dwg