Apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery halides of metals

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to metallurgy to obtain alloys of rare earth and rare metals by the method of calcium thermal recovery and can be used for making alloys and alloys of the composition of the iron-Neodym-boron and other employees for the manufacture of high-energy magnets. The device includes a housing with a lid, lined crucible is installed on the upper end of the insulating element with filling and device for initiation of the reaction, the base insulating element is perforated and provided with legarrea the substrate legkousvoyaemogo or fusible material. The device improves reliability by reducing thermal loads on the housing wall and the crucible and reduce the impact on them of the reaction products, as well as to make more full use of the heat of reaction due to the additional insulating layer of backfill. 2 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the metallurgy of alloys of rare earth and rare metals, obtained by the method of calcium thermal recovery. The apparatus can be used for making alloys and alloys of the composition of the VC is at for the production of magnetic alloy by calcium thermal recovery charge, containing halides of rare earth elements, iron and boron [1], which includes a housing with a lid, lined crucible, a heating element, connections input and output of argon. A mixture of powders of metal halide, calcium, iron, ferroboron, and additives are loaded into the crucible and through the heating element is heated to a temperature at which the active interaction of the halide with calcium. The process is conducted in an argon atmosphere.

The surface of the cover and the housing in the process of reduction reaction are subjected to significant erosion, caused by the combined action of temperature (thermal shock) and the reaction products, which leads to contamination of the ingot products of erosion. In addition to the significant loss of internal heat of reaction through the walls of the upper zone of the housing and cover to reduce the product yield in the ingot.

Known apparatus for the recovery of the halides of the metals calcium [2] containing steel case with lid, lined with refractory crucible is installed on the upper end of the insulating element with a filling of CaO2. The apparatus is heated to the temperature of the reaction excitation recovery. In this apparatus the surface of the upper zone of the reaction crucible and housing, as dejnost and causing "pollution" alloy products of erosion. In addition, the surface of the upper belt of the crucible and the apparatus are a source of heat loss responses.

The task of the invention is to reduce the impact on the housing wall and the crucible of the reaction products, as well as creating conditions for the most complete recovery of the metal halide.

The problem is solved in that in the known apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery halides of metals, comprising a housing with a lid, lined crucible is installed on the upper end of the insulating element with a filling, and a device for initiating the reaction, the base insulating element is perforated and provided with legkorazdrazhimoy substrate made of legkousvoyaemogo or fusible material.

The drawing shows apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery of the halides of the metals section.

Apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery of the metal halide comprises a cylindrical housing 1 with a cooling jacket 2 and a bottom 3 with built-in heat exchanger 4. The housing 1 by means of a spacer 5 and the cover 6 are sealed and provided with a nozzle 7 for evacuating apparatus and feed it with an inert gas. the Glu. In the crucible 8 downloaded the reaction mixture 10, the surface of which has a device for initiating the reaction of recovery, including the actual initiator - nichrome coil 11 connected to the electric terminals 12, and thermite mixture 13. The number of spirals 11, the composition and quantity of thermite mixture 13 is determined by the magnitude of the regenerative melting and the composition of the reaction mixture.

In the upper part of the crucible 8 is fixed heat insulating element 14 containing a perforated base 15 that hosts legarreta substrate 16 and the insulation 17 in the form of a layer of powder, neutral in relation to the products of the reaction mixture.

The insulating element 14 is mounted on the crucible 8 by means of the flange 18. Between the surface of the reaction mixture 10 and a perforated base 15 is provided free volume, calculated on the total volume of the layer of powder insulation 17.

Apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery of metal halide operates as follows.

Pre-prepared reaction mixture 10 of fluorides of iron and neodymium, iron powders and boron and metal shavings calcium is loaded into the crucible 8 so about the surface of the reaction mixture 10 is placed nichrome helix 11, which is connected to the electric terminals 12. On and under the spiral 11 compact poured a sample of the powder of a mixture of sodium peroxide and chips of calcium. The crucible 8 is fixed by means of the flange 18 of the insulating element 14, a perforated base 15 which is placed legarrea substrate 16. When the composition of the magnetic alloy comprising only three components: iron, neodymium and boron, Legorreta substrate 16 can be made of thick paper. When the complex composition of the magnetic alloy comprising besides the main 3 components and alloying additives, Legorreta substrate 16 can be made of foil of the main alloying metal having the lowest melting point, such as aluminum foil. The substrate 16 is poured the powder layer of insulation 17 of calcined fluorspar. The housing 1 by means of a spacer 5 is sealed by a cover 6, through the fitting 7 vacuumized and filled with inert gas-argon.

The terminals 12 is energized, the coil 11 is heated and thermal decomposition of peroxide of sodium with oxygen, which oxidizes calcium, which is part of thermite mixture, and heat due to the heat triggers the beginning of re substrate 16, the powder layer 17 is poured through the open holes of the base 15 to the surface of the reaction mixture 10, and an exothermic reaction recovery occurs directly beneath the powdered insulation of fluorspar. Melting components of the mixture, the melt flows down to the bottom of the crucible 8 and the slag (calcium fluoride, and so on) accumulates at the top, preventing the melt from oxidation, and a layer of insulating powder 17 perceives thermal shock and reduces thermal effect of the reaction on the casing wall and the machine cover.

The reaction of reductive smelting scale up to 10 kg (output bar) is for no more than one minute.

On completion for fast cooling of the melt, and then the magnetic alloy ingot apparatus cooled water through the cooling jacket 2 and the heat exchanger 4. Through the fitting 7 reduces the pressure in the apparatus to atmospheric, and open the cover 6. After cooling, the crucible 8 together with the ingot magnetic alloy and a layer of slag over him removed from the apparatus. With crucible 8 remove the perforated base 15 and the contents of the crucible tilt on vaporised (not shown) for separating the strand from the slag and the heat insulating layer. Then slit apparatus to the next reduction smelting occurs under the above scheme.

The apparatus with the proposed features can improve reliability by reducing the impact on the body and the crucible of the reaction products, as well as to make more full use of the heat of reaction for the recovery of halides by creating insulating layer on the surface of the reacting mixture.

The proposed device is passed full-scale tests. Conducted 10 melts and gained more than 60 kg of marketable product. Corrosion changes of the metal cover 6, housing is much less than in the known devices, that has allowed to use them at all trunks without repair. In a known apparatus after 2-5 heats had to change the housing, the lid and the crucible or to expose them to significant repair.

1. Apparatus for metallotrejderskogo recovery halides of metals, comprising a housing with a lid, lined crucible is installed on the upper end of the insulating element with filling and device for initiating the reaction, characterized in that the base insulating element is perforated and provided with legkorazdrazhimoy substrate.

2. The apparatus according to p. 1, wherein the substrate is made of the who material.

 

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