Device for waste-free manufacturing flat axisymmetric workpieces
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the construction of dies for waste-free manufacturing flat axisymmetric workpieces (cylindrical or polyhedral). The device contains a matrix, coaxially mounted therein, the punch and the ejector, and also has a housing, upper and lower plate and the slider. The device is equipped with a guide sleeve, ring stop, reverse, nut-Vernier with locknut, elastic element absorber and pushers. Feature of the device is that the closed rainfall harvesting takes place in conditions of gapless planting matrix, punch and ejector. The outer surface of the matrix is made conical with narrowing down and placed in the holder with the response, the internal conical surface, and the bottom of the matrix based on the pushers, with the possibility of reciprocating motion in the holes of the housing and the bottom plate, and its upper end rests on the bottom end of the guide sleeve. Nut-Vernier, fixed rear nut, attached to the upper side of the punch, and paired with a guide bushing and ring limiter oplay and punch of the formed cavity, hosts the elastic element of the damper. 1 Il. The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure, specifically to the design of the device for waste-free manufacturing flat axisymmetric (cylindrical or polyhedral) blanks, such as billets for the production of tubes - the rondels.It is known that the process of manufacturing flat axisymmetric workpieces from a flat square or shaped of the billets produced in the dies closed-matrix  . In such devices, the punch and the ejector includes a matrix on a sliding landing.The disadvantage of such devices is that in the process of forming precipitation deformable workpiece inevitably puts pressure on the wall matrix and elastic it deforms. The inner diameter of the matrix is increased, and the diameter of the punch and ejector remain virtually unchanged. In force between the punch, the ejector and the matrix occurs radial clearance, which follows a deformable metal, forming a Burr. This Burr must be removed during further processing, which involves the use of additional equipment and overhead costs.The known device is, aderrasi the upper and lower plates and the corresponding power cylinders, hollow and provided with additional pistons coaxially with the punches and pilomatricoma, in which the hollow piston of one of the power cylinders rigidly connected with the respective plate and polimetrica, and the punch corresponding to the other power cylinder, fixed in the bottom part thereof, concentric with its additional piston rigidly connected with the corresponding polimetrica.It is also known a device for the precipitation of axisymmetric workpieces, which can be considered as the closest analogue to the claimed technical solution. It contains the top plate with the punch, the bottom plate and the matrix, which is equipped with means for fixing the workpiece on its working surface, mounted on a spring-loaded rods. The device has mounted on the upper plate of wedges and fixation device made in the form located on the possibility of lateral movement in the guide l-shaped centering porzucek, one regiment each of which is made with a prismatic surface, and the other with the possibility of interaction between its inclined surface with corresponding wedge.what is described.The authors performed the analysis of the above disadvantages. The value of the resulting burrs depends on the ratio of the strength characteristics of deformable metal (mostly temporary failure resistance,in), thickness h and diameter d of the products obtained.So it is established that for metals with featuresinwithin 6-12 MPa and a ratio h/d 2 Burr formation although not excluded, but created more favourable conditions to avoid formation of rough burrs, and when closed forming is upsetting more durable metals with featuresin> 12 MPa and a ratio of 0.3 h/d 0.6 formation of coarse burrs most likely.According to conducted studies, the authors concluded that the process of extrusion-forming should happen in terms of a tight fit punch, ejector and matrices, and to ensure it can offer the device.The proposed device consists of a matrix 1 with a conical outer surface that is installed in the holder 2, with the response of the inner conical surface. And the matrix 1 and the holder 2, with the possibility of relative movement, are accommodated in the housing 3 Stroitelnye in the holes of the housing 3 and bottom plate 4 and having the opportunity reciprocating motion.In matrix 1, on a sliding fit includes the ejector 6 and through the guide sleeve 7, which is based on the top end of the matrix 1, the punch 8. The upper part of the punch 8 is supplied with mounting nut-Vernier 9, the position which locks the nut 10.Nut-Vernier 9 by means of the threaded connection of the articulated ring-stop-reverse 11 that the bottom fits snugly around the guide sleeve 7. Between the punch 8, nut-Vernier 9 and the ring-limiter 11 and the sleeve 7 is formed by a cavity in which is placed an elastic element 12, made of polyurethane or other similar material. The punch 8 is driven by the press slide 13, is rigidly connected with the upper plate 14.The device operates as follows.At the beginning of the loop operation closed precipitation slider 13 and secured on the upper part of the stamp, containing details of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, located in the extreme upper position. While the influence of the elastic element 12, the sleeve 7 is shifted down by the amount and rests with its flange in the flange ring 11. The elastic element is compressed to the desired value of the initial efforts. At this time in the cavity of the matrix, enter the source of the workpiece. Then the slider 13 moves the end of the matrix and under the force of compressed elastic element 12 presses the matrix 1 in the conical ring 2. The axial displacement of the matrix in cone holder causes the elastic ring compression matrix, which eliminates radial clearance between the punch 8, the ejector 6 and the matrix 1.The axial introduction of the matrix 1 in the holder 2 depends on the efforts developed by the elastic element 12 and stroke , which in turn depends on the mechanical characteristics of the workpiece material, its geometrical parameters and the degree of deformation at upsetting. For each type of product and material position of the nut-Vernier 9 is determined experimentally. Further movement of the punch in the matrix in conditions gapless landing, precluding the formation of Burr, produce process closed precipitation billet to the finished product.After the process is closed sediments removed during reverse motion of the slide the existing load from the plug and remove it from the matrix. The effect on the matrix 1 tappets 5 move the matrix 1 up to an amount equal to its move down, thereby removing its elastic deformation, raise the plunger 8 in the original upper position and at the same time the ejector 6 remove the finished product from the die 1, the lower ejector 6 in the original p is the memory and ejector eliminates the possibility of formation of Burr (Burr) and significantly reduces the cost of further processing.Sources of information
1. Golovin, C. A., Rogosin, S., Nawrocki A., Technology and equipment for cold forming. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1987, S. 352.2. Rebelski A. C. fundamentals of process design of hot forming processes. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1965, S. 248.3. Forging and stamping production. 1992, S. 10-12.4. USSR author's certificate N 709233, CL 21 J 13/02, 07.09.76.5. RF patent N 2011465, CL 21 J 13/02, 15.10.91. Device for waste-free manufacturing flat axisymmetric workpieces containing matrix placed in her coaxially with the punch and the ejector, the body, the upper and lower plate and the slider, characterized in that it further provided with a guide sleeve, a ring-stop-reverse, nut-Vernier with locknut, elastic element absorber and pushers, with the outer surface of the matrix is made conical with narrowing down and placed in a holder with an internal conical surface, and the bottom of the matrix based on the pushers, with the possibility of reciprocating motion in the holes of the housing and the bottom plate, and its upper end rests on the bottom end of the guide sleeve, while on the top is the left main coronary artery ring-limiter reverse so between the nut-Vernier, ring-stop-reverse, guide sleeve and punch of the formed cavity in which is placed an elastic element of the shock absorber.
FIELD: metal working.
SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.
EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: forging and forming processes and equipment, namely manufacture of elongated forgings with thickened portions and lateral branches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes deforming punch, die with vertical parting, struts in the form of truncated pyramids having wedge-shaped slopes for mounting die; units for securing struts to supporting plate. Die is placed in struts with possibility of motion relative to them. Struts have double-sided mutually opposite slopes. Elastic member is placed under die. Maximum compression value of said elastic member by means of effort corresponding to effort of clamping die halves in struts is equal to value of descending die at forging process.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability and rigidity of die set.
2 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly operations for finish working of forgings of double-end box nut wrenches.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes upper and lower plates with guiding columns, punch for punching operation mounted on upper plate, stripper, lower die for punching, half-open trimming lower die and trimming punch. Trimming lower die is mounted on upper plate; it has cutting edge and cavity arranged behind collar of cutting edge and designed for freely placing forging of nut wrench. Trimming punch is mounted on lower plate and it has embracing supporting surface for fixing forging at trimming and straightening operations.
EFFECT: enhanced quality of forging.
9 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals with use of intensive plastic deformation, production of nano-crystalline materials with improved mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes band in which cone insert having several parts is pressed; lower support; inlet and outlet ducts; ram. According to first variant of invention contours of parts of cone insert are restricted by means of two mutually normal planes and cone surface portion cut by said planes. Crossing line of said planes does not coincide with symmetry axis of cone surface. Inlet duct is formed by faces of cone insert parts arranged normally one relative to other and mutually joined; walls of said duct are in the form of portions of said planes. According to second variant of invention contours of cone insert parts are restricted by radius surface, by two mutually crossing planes and portion of cone surface cut by said planes. Crossing planes are mutually normal or they are inclined one relative to other by angle 120°. Axis of radius surface coincides with crossing line of said planes. Faces of cone insert parts are mutually joined; inlet duct is formed by their radius surfaces and outlet duct is formed by radius grooves.
EFFECT: lowered number of parts, reduced consumption of material for making cone insert.
4 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of meals, possibly manufacture of hollow parts such as sleeves, tubes, bushes by cold pressing out.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of plastic deforming of blank at translation and rotation of deforming tool; realizing said motions of tool from separate drive units; setting speed of translation less than that of rotation and selecting relation of said speed values less than 2.5.
EFFECT: enhanced manufacturing possibilities of method.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: plastic working of metals, namely processes for pressing out shapes of aluminum base alloys, constructions of pressing out tools.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of making blank, heating, hot pressing out of blank through die, heat treatment of shape. At pressing out blank is subjected in upper p[art of die to additional shearing deformations due to twisting it by angle in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. Die includes deforming cone, working rectangular collar and outlet zone. Deforming cone has two helical protrusions in the form of trapezium. Upper base of said trapezium is equal to length of rectangle of working collar; its lower base consists 1.5 - 2 of parts of said length value. Rotation angle of upper cross section of protrusion relative to its lower cross section is in range 40 - 50° relative to axis of die. In longitudinal cross section said protrusions are in the form of parabola.
EFFECT: possibility for making rectangular aluminum alloy shapes with enhanced mechanical characteristics and low anisotropy of their properties, improved design of die.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly forging ingots and billets in hydraulic forging presses.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes two holders of upper and lower strikers having inclined surfaces. Said holders are kinematically coupled with two holders of lateral strikers having inclined surfaces corresponding to those of holders of upper and lower strikers. Four strikers are secured to respective holders by means of clamps and tightening studs. Each of upper and lower strikers has two working portions mutually divided by cutout. Each of lateral strikers has one working portion entering cutouts of upper and lower strikers. At least one adjusting plate is placed between holder of lower striker and lower striker. Lower striker is secured to its holder by means of two Г-shaped clamps. Inclined surfaces of said clamps are forced to inclined surfaces of holder of lower striker; riffled surfaces of said clamps are forced to two friction plates arranged on lateral surfaces of lower striker. Pins passing through openings of adjustment plates and entering openings of holder of lower striker are mounted in lower striker.
EFFECT: lowered cost of making tool, reduced time period for readjustment of it.
2 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly in forging shops of metallurgical and machine engineering plants for making wheels of automobiles and similar articles.
SUBSTANCE: tool includes die, punch, knocking out member with shaped portion, unit for stepped regulation of bottom thickness and height of cup. Said unit is in the form of apparatuses for changing length of punch and depth of die. In upper part of punch female type yoke with through stepped opening is mounted. In upper part of die there is seat whose diameter dimension corresponds to outer diameter of yoke. Depth of die is changed by means of apparatus in the form of flat ring arranged over shaped portion of knocking out member. Apparatus for changing length of punch is in the form of flat round gasket arranged inside yoke over punch. Punch has in its upper portion large-diameter step corresponding to diameter of large step of yoke opening.
EFFECT: possibility for producing by means of one tool semi-finished products of wheels with different combinations of width and thickness values.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: metallurgy; metal plastic working.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in form forging shops of metallurgical and machine-building plant in manufacture of vehicle wheels and like articles. Proposed tool contains die and punch holder with punch and knock-out with shaped part movable relative to die. Punch is enclosed by replaceable round holder with support flat and support surface. Die is provided with socket in upper part whose diameter corresponds to outer diameter of holder, and with support flat. Holder is installed for longitudinal displacement and engagement by its support flat and support surface with support flat of die and with punch holder, respectively. Shaped part of knock-out is made replaceable to provide possibility of making wheels of different type-sizes using one tool.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: plastic metal working with use of intensive plastic deformation, namely manufacture of nano-crystalline materials with improved degree of mechanical properties.
SUBSTANCE: die set includes slider and plate restricting inlet duct; stationary stop closing inlet duct and restricting together with plate outlet duct; ram and member for knocking out blank. Said member is joined with motion drive unit and it is mounted with possibility of introducing into additional through duct formed in slider. According to first variant of invention at initial position of slider its through duct is arranged in front of outlet duct. Slider may be shifter before starting pressing process by value exceeding size of through duct. According to second variant of invention through duct of slider is arranged in front of outlet duct in lower limit position of slider. Said cone-shape through duct of slider is closed by means of plug pressed-in to it.
EFFECT: improved design providing possibility for extracting last blank out of outlet duct before starting pressing of next lot of blanks.
2 cl, 5 dwg