The way we produce leather from the skins of fish

 

(57) Abstract:

The method applies to leather production, in particular the production of leather from the skins of fish, fish macromolecule and dry canning, as well as dried fish and fish products smoked, and can be used in the manufacture of sewing, haberdashery and other products. The method includes unwinding, remove the membrane, degreasing and tanning. After unwinding of the skin is treated with a chemical enzyme preparation or the enzyme preparation of animal origin with subsequent removal of scales or scales with scaly pockets at the stage of removal of the membrane. The unwinding and degreasing jointly detergent containing sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride salt at a temperature of 30 - 40oC and LCD 3 - 7 for 2-4 h or 8 - 48 hours depending on the species of fish. As a chemical enzyme preparation use it at a flow rate of 0.5 to 4.0 % by weight of the hide, and as the enzyme preparation of animal use pancreas at a flow rate of 0.5 to 3.0 % by weight of the hide. In this case, the processing of skins protocontinent or pancreas is carried out at a temperature of 35 - 40oC for 0.5 to 4.0 hours at the LCD 1 to 4. After UDA - 12 o'clock Tanning spend chrome tanning agent by hyposulphite of sodium and sodium chloride at a temperature of 38 - 40oC and the LCD 3 to 7 for 8 - 24 hours Tanning can be carried out without pickling in a solution of chrome tanning agent, pre-acidified solution of the acid in the amount of 0.5 - 2 g/l After tanning it is possible to carry out washing, fatliquoring and finishing or neutralization, dyeing, greasing and finish. The proposed method is environmentally friendly, simplifies the technology reduces the time, eliminates the use of scarce materials and improves the quality of the product. 9 C.p. f-crystals, 1 table.

The invention relates to leather production, in particular the production of leather from the skins of fresh fish, fish macromolecule and dry canning, as well as dried fish and fish products smoked, and can be used in the manufacture of sewing, haberdashery and other products.

There is a method of making leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off, liming dihydroxide calcium, obessolivanie inorganic salt together with degreasing nonionic surface-active agent in the presence of sodium salts of organic acids, acid pickling salt solution, tanning, chrome dubit is m, neutralization, dyeing, greasing and finish [1].

The disadvantages of this method are:

the complexity and duration of the process;

the use of scarce materials;

the use of toxic environmental chemicals.

Common symptoms are known and the proposed method are: soaking off, degreasing, tanning.

Closest to the proposed method is the production of leather from fish skins, including: soaking off in saline, multiple bilateral meskene, degreasing, liming followed by obessolivanie, preliminary pickling simultaneously abating, pre-tanning, the main pickling, retanning, the hides are at least two times, greasing and finish [2].

The disadvantages of this method are:

the complexity and intensity of the process, due to the operations of multiple meskene and pikelevannye;

the duration of the technological process;

wastewater pollution by chemicals used liming.

Common symptoms are known and the proposed method are: soaking off, remove the membrane, degreasing, tanning.

The task of ikur, aimed at simplifying the technology and reducing the time to conduct technological process, eliminating the use of scarce materials and receive high quality product.

The task is solved in that in the method of manufacture of skins on the skins of fish, including: soaking off, remove the membrane, degreasing and tanning, new is:

processing of skins after soaking chemical enzyme preparation or the enzyme preparation of animal origin;

remove after spraying on one side of the membrane, and on the other scales or scales with scaly pockets.

Also: soaking off and degreasing spend together at a temperature of 25-40oC and LCD 3-7 within 2-6 hours

In addition, as a chemical enzyme preparation use it in the amount of 0.5 to 4.0% by weight of the hide or as an enzyme preparation of animal origin used the pancreas in the amount of 0.5 to 3.0% by weight of the hide.

In addition, the processing of skins protocontinent or pancreas is carried out at a temperature of 35-40oC and LCD 1-4 for 0.5 to 4.0 hours

In addition, after removal of the membrane spend pickling acid-salt solution at tshade chrome tanning agent 3-7 g/l, of hyposulphite of sodium 1-2 g/l, sodium chloride 40-50 g/l or tanning without pickling in a solution of chrome tanning agent, pre-acidified solution of the acid in the amount of 0.5-2.0 g/L.

Also: soaking off with degreasing spend detergent at the rate of 2-8 g/l, sodium bicarbonate at a flow rate of 0.5-2.0 g/l and sodium chloride at a flow rate of 20-25 g/l at a temperature of 30-40oC and LCD 3-7 for 2-4 h or 8-48 h, depending on the species of fish.

In addition, after tanning spend washing, greasing and finish or neutralization, dyeing, greasing and finish.

Processing the skins of fish after soaking first chemical enzyme preparation or the enzyme preparation of animal origin, and then remove with one hand hides the membrane, and on the other scales or scales with scaly pockets allows you to loosen the fiber leather, weakening ties subcutaneous layer from the flesh side and scales with the skin of the fish, which facilitates the subsequent purification of the skins from foreign entities and to prepare it for the following processes. This sequence of operations is preserved collagen of the skin, i.e. skin, which is not dissolved, but only razryhlyaya, and the subsequent cleaning of the skin on both sides in odney.

At a flow rate of protocolin or pancreas is less than 0.5% of each communication scales with the skin is strong enough in its removal may be damaged front layer. At a flow rate of protocolin or pancreas more than 4.0% or 3.0 percent by weight of the hide link fiber skin is so attenuated that there is a transition protein compounds skin collagenase components that are not restored during further processing. Is the spread of the dermis, the skin can not withstand tests on a break.

To get soft and supple skin after washing the treated hides and skins of drugs and cleaning them from Nikolayevich components of the process leading to the passage of pickling, and then tanning. To obtain the leather used, for example, in the haberdashery, skins after leaching from Nikolayevich components subjected to tanning in the acidified solution. To obtain natural natural leather after tanning they are subjected to washing, greasing and finish. To obtain colored skin after tanning subjected to neutralization, dyeing and greasing and finish.

The technology of the method is as follows.

Skin with scales, taken from the fish, put promove and dirt, and microcolonies from excess salt and dirt. Then the skins are: soaking off together with degreased in a solution of detergent in the amount of 2-8 g/l, sodium bicarbonate in the amount of 0.5-2.0 g/l and sodium chloride in the amount of 20-25 g/l at a temperature of 30-40oC and LCD 3-7 within 2-4 h for fresh skins and hides macromolecule canning, and for the skins, made with dried fish and skins of dry-salted fish and priceswhere canning, within 8-48 hours

After soaking with degreasing skins processed in the solution of protocolin G-3, Pancreatin technical, Arizona, etc. at a flow rate of 0.5 to 4.0% by weight of the hide or pancreas, mucus kishek, chicken manure when the activity of 200 u/h in the amount of 0.5 to 3.0% by weight of the hide at a temperature of 35-40oC and LCD 1-4 for 0.5 to 4.0 hours (until "teclast" scales).

Next the skin after treatment with the compound taken out of the solution and sent for mechanical removal from the flesh side of the subcutaneous layer containing meat, grease, film, and from the face layer of scales or scales with scaly pockets. After that, the skins throw in a container of water at a temperature of 18-20oC and LCD 3-7 within 0.3-0.5 h for washing the skins from the waste of previous operations.

With the passage of pickling prepare a solution of sodium chloride in the amount of 45 to 60 g/l, throw him in skins, through 0,8-0,16 h add diluted in the ratio 1:10 acid, for example acetic or formic, in the amount of 3-10 g/l, or acetic acid in the amount of 3-10 g/l sulfuric in the amount of 2-5 g/l, or an ant in the amount of 3-10 g/l sulfuric in the amount of 2-5 g/l Pickling is carried out at a temperature of 30-40oC and LCD 3-7 within 2-12 hours After the skins are sent to tanning in the salt solution in the amount of 40-50 g/l and chromium salts basicity 36-42% at a flow rate of 3-7 g/l is introduced into the tank 2-3 times with an interval of 0.5 hours After 1-3 hours of tanning in a container add a solution of hyposulphite of sodium 1:10 in the amount of 1.0-2.0 g/L. the Process is carried out at a temperature of 38-40oC and LCD 3-7 within 8-24 hours To speed up the process of tanning for full Progresa skins chrome tanning agent in the container is poured into 2-3 doses with an interval of 0.5 h, a solution of sodium carbonate, diluted in the ratio 1:10.

Without going through the process of pickling skins are placed in a container of salt in the amount of 40-50 g/l) and acidified with a solution of 5 h in this tank fill the solution of chrome tanning agent basicity 36-42% in the number of 3-7 g/l, and after an hour of tanning add a solution of hyposulphite of sodium in the amount of 1.0-2.0 g/L. the Operation is performed at a temperature of 38-40oC and LCD 3-7 within 8-24 hours

After tanning the skins spread to aging within 4-24 hours If you want the skin with a natural figure, the skins are sent first wash in warm water at a temperature of 30-40oC with detergent, taken in an amount of 2-4 g/l, for 0.5 to 0.6 h, then greasing and finish. Greasing carried out by known means.

If you painted the skin after tanning carry out the neutralization of the skins in a solution of sodium bicarbonate with the addition of surfactants. The neutralization is carried out at a temperature of 30-35oC and LCD 1-4 for 0.5-2.0 hours, followed by washing with water with a temperature of 50-55oC within 0.3-0.5 H. skins are Then subjected to dyeing in capacity by adding diluted in ten-fold amount of water dyes. After dyeing the skins carry out greasing in the tank for dyeing and finishing.

Generated on offer and the known methods of skin from the skins of fish characterized by the indicators shown in the table.

From the data presented in tablemenu skin with high strength characteristics and with softness and elasticity. The use of the proposed method eliminates the harmful effects on the people working in production and on the environment in General, as technology is not provided by the use of toxic environmental chemicals. In addition, the technology of the skin of the proposed method is simple and no missing parts.

1. The way we produce leather from the skins of fish, including: soaking off, remove the membrane, degreasing, tanning, characterized in that after soaking the skins treated with chemical enzyme preparation or the enzyme preparation of animal origin, then remove the scales or scales with scaly pockets at the stage of removal of the membrane.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that: soaking off and degreasing spend together.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a chemical enzyme preparation use it at a flow rate of 0.5 to 4.0% by weight of the hide.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as the enzyme preparation of animal use pancreas at a flow rate of 0.5 to 3.0% by weight of the hide.

5. The method according to PP.1, 3 or 1 to 4, characterized in that the processing of skins protocontinent or pancreatic gelele remove scrapings spend pickling acid-salt solution at a temperature of 30 40oWith LCD 3 - 7 for 2 to 12 h, while tanning spend chrome tanning agent at the rate of 3 to 7 g/l, sodium hyposulphite at a flow rate of 1 to 2 g/l and sodium chloride at a flow rate of 40 - 50 g/l at a temperature of 38 - 40oWith the LCD 3 to 7 for 8 - 24 hours

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the tanning is carried out in a solution of chrome tanning agent, pre-acidified solution of the acid in the amount of 0.5 - 2 g/L.

8. The method according to PP. 1 and 2, characterized in that: soaking off with degreasing spend detergent at the rate of 2 to 8 g/l, sodium bicarbonate at a flow rate of 0.5 - 2.0 g/l and sodium chloride at a flow rate of 20 to 25 g/l at a temperature of 30 - 40oWith LCD 3 - 7 for 2 - 4 h or 8 - 48 hours depending on the species of fish.

9. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that after tanning spend washing, greasing and finish.

10. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that after tanning carry out neutralization, dyeing, greasing and finish.

 

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