The method of video coding for narrow its bandwidth
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to television technology, in particular to the transmission of video signals over a narrow-band channels, and for encoding broadband signals to reduce their bandwidth when the loss of information does not distort the overall perception. The task of the invention to provide a method of encoding a video signal such that the maximum frequency of the video signal can be reduced by two orders of magnitude without missing image frames and do not work on the principle of frame-to-frame difference, with the rejection of predictive methods and memory to store an excessive number of vectors. The technical result of the invention is to reduce the upper frequency encoded signal and the narrowing of his band. This technical result is achieved in that in the method of video coding for narrow its bandwidth at which the signal transform by decomposition of the input sequence of images in the sequence block format, generate a compressed signal information, quantuum a large number of vector quantizers, individually and selectively operating on the signal of compressed data, each vectorized automatic gain control and served in the channel for transmission, used as vectors of sinusoidal functions with different frequency characteristic, and the summation of the vectors in one package produced with the addition of synchronization signals. 3 Il. The invention relates to television technology, in particular to the transmission of video signals over a narrow-band channels, and for the coding of wideband signals in order to reduce their bandwidth when the loss of information does not distort the overall perception.There is a method of narrowing the frequency band, based on variations in the number of image lines and frequency sweeps, i.e., change the number of blocks of information per frame, add synchronization signals for personnel and row and passed. For example, French and Belgian standards the number of rows of the image S= 819 lines, the upper limit of the frequency band up to 10 MHz (the lower bound of 25 Hz). Standard USA and Japan when S=525 lines the upper bound is reduced to 4 MHz (the lower bound 30 Hz), British standard, characterized by S=405 lines, up to 3 MHz (the lower bound of 25 Hz). On the domestic standard S=625 lines the upper boundary of the band 6.5 MHz, the lower limit of 25 Hz. (Bugrov Century A. Physics of magnetic recording. M: Art, 1973, S. 257).The disadvantage on the other, to reduce the upper frequency of the signal.There is a method of converting video signals, after which the result is a set of factors, some of which can be neglected without visible loss of information (U.S. Patent N 4179709, CL H 04 M 7/12, 1980). This method is used to split image in the sequence block format - field and subpara. Generate a compressed signal by forming for subpoly system factors that can be considered as a vector, the first of which shows the average brightness of any given subpoly, and the selected number of the remaining coefficients shows the spatial content of this subpara. Further, the coefficients encode using orthogonal Walsh functions. The first and remaining transform coefficients, and the first transform coefficient for each subpos used for each field, and the remaining transform coefficients less than the first. Summarize the parallel encoded signals into one signal with the addition of synchronization signals, is fed into the channel for transmission.The disadvantage of this method is that the split image on the field and Subpolar complicates the encoding scheme, because you must polozhenie scheme, because the transition from one-dimensional transformation to the n-dimensional requires an increase in the complexity of the schemes in geometric progression, where n is the exponent (Austrian scientist, D.Sc H. Theory sequentia analysis fundamentals and applications. M.: Mir, 1980, S. 257-263). This method does not provide a reduction in the upper frequency encoded signal compared to baseline on two or more orders of magnitude, because the values of the vectors may considerably vary from one subpos to another.Closest to the invention is a method of data compression using orthogonal transforms and vector quantization , where the input sequence of the invention transform by decomposition into a sequence of block format, generate a compressed signal information representing the amount of the moving block sequence block format, quantuum a large number of vector quantizers, individually and selectively operating on the signal is compressed. Each vector quantizer has its own frequency range and the memory for the output vectors. The output vector represents the inverse orthogonal conversion code tables optimally quantized vectors in the respective ranges of sequences of images. Output vectors read from the memory in the function from the filed memory image sequence frame-to-frame difference. Each vector quantizer device, which selects from memory a vector that is closest to the magnitude of the image sequence frame-to-frame difference. From the signals received from outputs of vector quantizers, form a sequence of images with the prediction. The difference between the sequence block format and sequence of prediction is determined by vycitalem, the output of which is fed to the quantizer, which connect a device encoding of the index signal.The disadvantage of this method is that quantization is performed on a frame-to-frame difference of the range of variation, which is not limited. In most applications where there is no clear contrast between adjacent frames, this disadvantage can be neglected, because the human eye has inertia and smooths out spikes interframe difference, but in the systems of transmission lines, where the inter-frame difference may constantly fluctuate within wide limits, this inertia will lead to blurring or distortion of images because of their wide spectrum of interframe difference.The task of the invention to provide a method of encoding a video signal such that the maximum frequency of the video signal can be reduced by two orders of magnitude without missing image frames and do not work on the principle of frame-to-frame difference with the rejection of predictive methods and memory to store an excessive number of vectors.The technical result of the invention is to reduce the upper frequency encoded signal and narrowing his band.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of video coding for narrow its bandwidth at which the signal transform by decomposition of the input sequence of images in the sequence block format, generate a compressed signal information, quantuum a large number of vector quantizers, individually and selectively operating on the signal of compressed data, each vector quantizer has its own frequency range and the memory for the output vectors, vector summed up in one package, auto gain control and served in the channel for transmission.To achieve a technical result as vectors using sinusoidally synchronization.The difference of the proposed method is the use as vectors synchronized sinusoidal functions. It is possible to eliminate the serial transmission of transformation vectors, where each vector is transmitted only once handed down. In this way, through the representation of vectors sinusoidal functions became possible to transfer all of the vector at the same time, pre-sisingamangaraja them. This method does not apply the coding interframe difference. This means that you do not apply the memory to store an excessive number of vectors, there is no need to use predictive methods and schemes for calculating the difference between the sequence block format and sequence prediction. The use of sinusoidal functions eliminates the signals of the pulse type, as is well known, the spectrum of the pulse signal depends on its duration and can be arbitrarily wide. This is achieved by narrowing the frequency band of the coded signal. The use of sinusoidal functions allows after summing them to obtain the encoded video signal as function composition
< / BR>where
Athe i - the vector number;
m - maximum number of the component;
a(i) is the amplitude of the i-th vector;
W0- zero frequency of service;
dW is the distance between adjacent frequencies of the package.This formula shows the mathematical description of the coded signal. It follows that, by choosing the appropriate frequency synchronization, the number of vectors, the width of the guard interval W0-Wsyncthe distance between adjacent vectors of the package, we can place the encoded signal in the frequency band which meets the following requirements:
- dW should be such that it was possible to distinguish two adjacent frequency decoding;
the spacing Wsyncand W0called protective interval, should ensure the separation of synchronization signals and information.The minimum frequency in the spectrum is determined by the repetition frequency blocks of a sequence of images, because the coding is produced in blocks.The maximum frequency in the spectrum of the signal in this way is determined by the frequency of the m-th vector. With respect to the video signal m determines the number of orthogonal transformation component and, consequently, the clarity of the image horizontally. P ISProfor separating synchronization signals and information, and also to reduce the impact of the transition from block to block, where the amplitude component may change abruptly. Choose dW such that in this range of frequencies, it was possible to distinguish between two frequencies at a given distance. Therefore, the maximum frequency of package
Wmax= Wp+ dWm + WPro< / BR>or
Wmax= W0+ dWm.The maximum frequency of the original signal can approximately be determined by the desired horizontal resolution, which is determined by m.Wsun= Wpm / 2
Wsun= 2 WpS / 3
for standard definition. Assessment of reduction in the upper frequency encoded signal will hold the inequality
(Wpm / 2) > Wp+ dWm + WPro).Since dW is chosen much smaller (in order) Wpthen with the increase of m the left side of the inequality is growing faster than the right. Therefore, when applying this method we obtain a reduction of the upper frequency of the signal, and with the increase of m, the degree of reduction increases.The analysis of the prior art, including searching by the patent and scientific and technical sources inform the m is not detected similar, characterized by signs, identical to all the essential features of the invention and the definition from the list of identified unique prototype, as the closest analog identified a set of essential towards perceived by the applicant to the technical result of the distinctive features in the claimed object set forth in the claims. Therefore, the invention meets the requirement of "Novelty" under the current law. To verify the conformity of the invention the requirement of inventive step, the applicant conducted an additional search of the known solutions to identify signs consistent with the distinctive features of the invention, the results of which show that invention for a specialist not obvious from the prior art.Therefore, the invention meets the requirement of "Inventive step" by applicable law.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of the encoder of Fig. 2 is a block circuit diagram of an orthogonal transformation; Fig. 3 - diagram of the decoding device.The encoding device includes a scanner unit 1, block orthogonal transformation 2, the buffer is dinicol amplitude 4, the adder signal vectors and synchronization 5, block automatic gain control 6, strobing the generator system of orthogonal functions 7, the gate driver pulse sample-hold 8, strobing the generator system of sinusoidal functions 9, block synchronization with the reference generator 10.Block orthogonal transformation 2 contains the block multiplier products image signal to a system of orthogonal functions 11, block integrators 12, block dividers 13.The decoder consists of vicites synchronization frequency of the common signal 14, block automatic gain control 15 register of the sample-hold 16, block of spectrum analysis for a given number of samples 17, the device sample-hold 18, block multiplication of the amplitudes on the orthogonal system of functions of a single amplitude 19, adder orthogonal functions and synchronization signal 20, the filter frequency synchronization of the common signal 21, the reference generator 22, block adjustment of frequency, amplitude and phase of the synchronization signal 23, the oscillator frequency synchronization 24, the synchronization unit 25, a driver gate sampling of the input signal 26, shaper gate of the sample-hold 27, generator with Westside as follows.Allocate blocks of rows and the sync pulses from a continuous signal in the block 1. Generate a compressed signal by decomposition of a video signal according to the system of orthogonal functions in unit 2, which is produced by multiplying the signal on the corresponding component conversion unit 11 (the components of unit amplitude are formed and fed from unit 7), integrate the work on the block rows in the integrator 12, divide each integral on the number of component orthogonal transformation unit 13. This ends the process of quantization of the video signal system of orthogonal functions (Austrian scientist, D.Sc H. Theory sequentia analysis fundamentals and applications. M.: Mir, 1980, S. 153). Remember the translation components of the fetch block-storage 3, and the Gating pulses for the block 3 are formed and fed from the block 8. Produce translation vectors orthogonal transformations in the form of sinusoidal functions by multiplying the amplitude component of the system of sinusoidal functions in unit 4 (the system is formed and comes from block 9). Summarize all sinusoidal signals into a single package unit 5 with the addition of synchronization signals from unit 10. Produce an automatic gain control unit 6 for full ispolzovala video its transfer from the pulse of sinusoidal form in the same period. Unit 10 controls the units 7 - 9 for temporary approval of their output signals with the received blocks of information. In block 7 generates a system of orthogonal functions. Examples of such generators are given in (Austrian scientist, D.Sc H. Theory sequentia analysis fundamentals and applications. M.: Mir, 1980, S. 163). The generator system of sinusoidal functions 9 may be a large number of permanent storage devices, digital to analog converters, where contain the digitized signal of the appropriate frequency. Driver Gating pulses 8 can be a driver of short pulses with a given duration to the front or edge of a signal from the unit 10.This method corresponds to the following mathematical description.The input block signal line image is processed with a system of orthogonal functions. This is the process of generating a compressed signal by quantization of the system of orthogonal functions. If f(t) is the image signal between the synchronization signals, a(i) is the amplitude of the i-th component, wal(i, t) - I-orthogonal function of the system, obtained from the interval with a reduced number of components and reference points of the function f(t), then
< / BR>you can replace the integral by a sum (Austrian scientist, D.Sc H. Theory sequentia analysis fundamentals and applications. M.: Mir, 1980, S. 146). The translation vector from one form of representation to another corresponds to multiplication by the function of the system isin(W0+ dWi)t'). The resulting set of signals
a(i)sin((W0+ dWi)t').Time t' is different from t, as it is different points in time. Summing together in one signal corresponds to the
.The addition of frequency synchronization
V(t') = Asyncsin(Wsynct') + V'(t').The decoding information is as follows.The encoded video signal supplied to the subtraction unit 14 where it is subtracted frequency synchronization with the mission of the Department information about the image. Because in the process of signal transmission possible frequency signal distortion, caused, in particular, the systematic error of the speed of the tape in tape recorders and other playback devices, then apply the automatic adjustment of the frequency and phase of the synchronization signal, wichitaeagle from the input signal. As possible of the amplitude signal distortion during transmission, caused, in particular, the active impedance line is of signal information about the image in the block 15. If this is not done, due to the fact that the information about the amplitude component of the orthogonal transformation is contained in the amplitudes of sinusoidal functions, the resulting image distortion.These drawbacks are eliminated by applying blocks 21-24, as well as the fact that the write signal is strictly fixed amplitude, which allows for the detection of amplitude distortion.The system tuning frequency, phase and amplitude is as follows.Filter the synchronization signal from the total signal in the block 21. The use of guard interval allows you to use a filter with a U-shaped frequency response and wide bandwidth to eliminate amplitude distortion of the received synchronization signal. Next, the selected sinusoidal signal fed into the circuitry to adjust the frequency, phase and amplitude of the synchronization signal 23, and then to block 24 is the error signal of the ideal and real tones for receiving the synchronization signal, coherent in phase and frequency with the same package, for subtracting from the total signal, and for adjusting the amplitude of the synchronization signals in the package and wichitaeagle to exclude their influence on invazionlogo signal 15, where is the comparison of the amplitude of the received signal synchronized with a reference to compensate for signal attenuation in the line, and the synchronization unit 25, where the adjustment block frequency output video signal in accordance with the incoming and the coordination of the decoding scheme with repetition frequency blocks.The reference generator 23 is used to specify the ideal signal frequency synchronization.So adjusted signal information entered in the register of the sample-hold 16 containing n cells, where n is determined by the sampling frequency of the signal, which, in turn, is determined by the maximum frequency of service and frequency space. This means that the time interval between events, first, when the m-th frequency package has finished the period, passing through zero, and second, when (m-1)-th frequency package has passed through zero, ending the period should strobilomyces at least five pulses. Hence, taking T(m-1) - period (m-1)-th frequency package, T(m) - period of the m-th frequency package, T(0) - period zero-frequency package, obtain
n = 5T(0) / (T(m-1) - T(m).The requirement of five pulses derived from the sampling theorem. Signals, allowing the sample in the next cell, posthepatectomy with signals from the synchronization unit 25.Thanks to the application unit 16 is variable, adjust sampling rate we will get the output samples of a sine function in which the error of the frequency offset, as the number of samples per period any features of the package remained unchanged.After block 16 we have n samples of the signal, which is necessary to determine the amplitude of all frequencies from to m. This is accomplished in block spectrum analysis 17. This unit is a high-speed digital spectrum analyzer with frequency range and the distance between them is known. Description of the methods of operation of devices of this type can be found, for example, in (Marple, Jr, S. L., Digital spectral analysis with applications. M.: Mir, 1990).The output of block 17, we obtain m amplitudes of sinusoidal functions of the package, i.e., vectors that are stored in the device sample-hold 18 driven by the shaper pulse Gating 27, which, in turn, controlled by the synchronization unit 25.Blocks 19, 20 and 28 carry out inverse orthogonal transformation to recover the original video signal and adding thereto synchronization signals. This is achieved as follows. In blommestein with the formula
Later in the restored signal F(t) add the synchronization signals generated by the block 25, and receive output restored, broadband video.Thus, the presented data suggest the implementation of the use of the invention the following cumulative conditions:
- a means of embodying the invention in its implementation, is intended for use in TV technology for transmitting video signals over a narrow-band channels;
for the invention as it is described in the independent claim, confirmed the possibility of its implementation using the described tools and techniques;
- a means of embodying the invention in its implementation, is able to achieve perceived by the applicant of the technical result.Therefore, the invention meets the requirement of "Industrial applicability" under the current law. The method of video coding for narrow its bandwidth at which the signal transform by decomposition of the input sequence of images in the sequence block format, generate a compressed signal information, quantuum the each vector quantizer has its own frequency range and the memory for the output vectors, vector summed up in one package, auto gain control and served later in the transmission channel, characterized in that as vectors using sinusoidal functions, which differ in frequency characteristic, and the summation of the vectors in one package produced with the addition of synchronization signals.
SUBSTANCE: device has scaling block, two delay registers, block for forming pixel blocks, buffer register, block for calculating movement vectors, two subtracters, demultiplexer, enlargement block, pulsation filtering block, mathematical detectors block, multiplexer, reverse scaling block, as a result of interaction of which it is possible to detect and remove some series of TV frames from programs, which cause harmful effect to viewer, specifically pulsations of brightness signals and color signals with frequency 6-13 Hz.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: device has blocks: first interface block, providing receipt of data about switching of programs by subscriber, electronic watch block, first memory block for archiving data about time of viewing of each selected program, second memory block, containing electronic addresses of broadcast companies, block for rearranging data about viewing time, processor, forming packet of data about which TV program and time of its viewing, third interface block, providing output along phone network of data about viewing time of each TV program to server of company, which broadcast current TV program.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
FIELD: engineering of systems for encoding moving images, namely, methods for encoding moving images, directed at increasing efficiency of encoding with use of time-wise remote supporting frames.
SUBSTANCE: method includes receiving index of supporting frame, standing for supporting frame, pointed at by other block, providing movement vector for determining movement vector of current block, and determining movement vector of current block with utilization of supporting frame index, denoting a supporting frame.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of encoding in direct prediction mode, decreased number of information bits for frame, in which scene change occurs.
3 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: engineering of systems for encoding moving image, namely - methods for encoding moving image, directed at increase of encoding efficiency with use of time-wise remote supporting frames.
SUBSTANCE: in the method in process of encoding/decoding of each block of B-frame in direct prediction mode movement vectors are determined, using movement vector of shifted block in given frame, utilized for encoding/decoding B-frame, and, if type of given frame is time-wise remote supporting frame, one of movement vectors, subject to determining, is taken equal to movement vector of shifted block, while another one of movement vectors, subject to determining, is taken equal to 0.
EFFECT: increased encoding efficiency in direct prediction mode, decreased amount of information bits for frame, wherein a change of scene occurs.
2 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: video communications, in particular, technology for masking decoder errors.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to one variant of invention, system and method decode, order and pack video information to video data packets for transfer via communication line with commutated channels, due to which system conceals errors, caused by loss of video data packets, when system receives, unpacks, orders and decodes data packets. In accordance to another variant, system and method decode and pack video information so that adjacent macro-blocks may not be positioned in same data packets. Also, system and method may provide information, accompanying packets of video data for simplification of decoding process. Advantage of described scheme is that errors caused due to data loss are distributed spatially across whole video frame. Therefore, areas of data, surrounding lost macro-blocks, are decoded successfully, and decoder may predict movement vectors and spatial content with high degree of precision.
EFFECT: improved quality of image.
4 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: processing of digital images, possible use in systems for capturing and compressing images, for example, photo-video-cameras.
SUBSTANCE: for known method of compression of digital images, including serial usage of operations for dividing unprocessed digital data, received from image capturing device, on a set of channels, with their following direct color transformation, wavelet transformation and quantization, suggested are changed rules of direct color transformation of channels, allowing more complete correlation between digital channels of image, resulting in possible compression of data to lesser size. Also, during processing of Byer's mosaic images suggested compression method allows transition to YCbCr color representation system, for which quantization coefficients are known. Usage of these coefficients results in production of compressed image of lesser size in comparison to quantization of original R, G, B channels. Suggested also is device for realization of method.
EFFECT: increased degree of compression of digital images.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: physics, communications.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns digital broadband data transfer systems, particularly decoding of frame error correction of multiple-protocol encapsulation (MPE-FEC) in handheld digital video broadcasting system (DVB-H). Invention claims method and device for MPE-FEC frame decoding in DVB-H. Filtration of packet identification (PID) is performed in TS packet received over wireless network to identify TS packet, and table ID is detected by data heading information intended for identification of section data type. If section data are MPE section, then the frame is buffered. If after IP datagram storage for last MPE section some part remains in data area, then remaining part is augmented with zeros. If section data are MPE-FEC section, then frame is buffered based on parity data obtained from MPE-FEC section.
EFFECT: efficient method of MPE-FEC frame decoding in handheld DVB-H for reception of transport stream (TS) packet and Internet protocol (IP) datagram reconstruction.
18 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: codec encodes conversion coefficients through composite coding of nonzero coefficients with subsequent series of coefficients with zero values (dwg. 14). When nonzero coefficients are last in their unit, the last indicator is replaced for the value of the series in the symbol of that coefficient (1435). Initial nonzero coefficients are indicated in a special symbol which jointly codes the nonzero coefficient together with initial and subsequent series of zeroes (1440). The codec enables several coding contexts by detecting interruptions in the series of nonzero coefficients and coding nonzero coefficients on any side of that interruption separately (1460). The codec also reduces the size of the code table by indicating in each symbol whether a nonzero coefficient has an absolute value greater than 1, and whether the series of zeroes have positive values (1475), and separately codes the level of coefficients and the length of the series outside the symbols (1490).
EFFECT: high efficiency of compressing conversion coefficients and rate of coding and decoding.
25 cl, 28 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: computer-implemented video compression method for an online video game or application, involving running video games and applications on a hosting service in response to user input received from a plurality of client devices, wherein the video games and applications generate uncompressed video; detecting a maximum data rate of a communication channel between a hosting service and a client by transmitting a feedback signal from the client to the hosting service; compressing the uncompressed video using a low-latency video compressor to generate a low-latency compressed video stream; transmitting the low-latency compressed video stream from the hosting service to the client; detecting that the maximum data rate will be exceeded if a specific frame of a frame sequence is transmitted from the hosting service to the client over that communication channel, and instead of transmitting the frame which may cause to exceed the maximum data rate, ensuring that the client continues display on the screen the previous frame of the frame sequence.
EFFECT: reduced latency.
26 cl, 40 dwg
FIELD: information technology.
SUBSTANCE: image decoding device includes a processor which determines coding units with a hierarchical structure for decoding an image. The device also includes at least one prediction unit for predicting each coding unit. Furthermore, the device includes at least one transformation unit for reverse transformation of each coding unit by using information on the form of division of the coding unit, information on at least one prediction unit and information on at least one transformation unit, obtained by analysis from a received bit stream of encoded video.
EFFECT: high efficiency of encoding and decoding images by setting the size of the transformation unit larger than the prediction unit.
4 cl, 18 dwg
FIELD: mobile robot, such as cleaner robot, and, in particular, device for tracking movement of mobile robot.
SUBSTANCE: suggested device for tracking movement of mobile robot includes: video camera for filming an individual object; unit for tracking movement and creation of image for setting support one in an image for current moment by means of filming of individual object by video camera and creation of image in current moment, for which support zone is set; unit for selecting image of difference of pixels of image support zone limit based on difference between pixels present only at limit of support zone of aforementioned images; and micro-computer for tracking movement of separate object on basis of selected image of difference.
EFFECT: decreased time of pixel comparison operation and increased efficiency of room perception.
5 cl, 4 dwg