Earthquake resistant building system

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to building structures, particularly for earthquake-resistant construction systems for bridges and buildings. Earthquake-resistant construction system includes homeostatic devices that increase the resistance of the system loads (instead of decrease). General characteristics of the variants of the invention is that the column supports placed supporting part, facing each other and having a "grooved" channels, which are inclined at an angle to the longitudinal axis of each transverse flexible element in such a manner that the measured horizontal distance in the channels between the opposite points of contact with the transverse element decreases with increasing load and deflection of each of the transverse element. 18 C. p. F.-ly, 28 ill.

The invention relates generally to building structures, but especially for earthquake-resistant construction systems for bridges and buildings.

Properly designed and built "homeostatic" systems are in dynamic equilibrium. The term "homeostatic" in accordance with the new University dictionary (author Webster), opublikovannuyu between various interdependent elements or groups of elements in the body or in a group. This balance continues up until the critical angle exceeds 25ofrom the vertical axis of support. However, the "homeostatic" system can break down, when this critical angle becomes due to the significant effort and vibration acting on the system is less than the 25o. As soon as the value of the critical angle approaches 0odecreases resistance to transverse load-bearing elements of the perception of external loads, which occurs when unusual conditions, e.g. during earthquakes.

Thus, up to this time has not yet solved the problem of construction of bridges and buildings that can withstand the effects of earthquakes without damage.

The closest technical solution of the invention is a seismic construction system comprising at least two columnar supports are placed on each of the supporting parts, at least one transverse element with a longitudinal axis coinciding in its unloaded condition, with a horizontal line located between the two support parts, and relies on the formation of overhangs (see SU, copyright certificate, 1038401, CL E 01 D 18/00, 1983, Fig.1).

Osney of the invention is to design effective, cheap transverse elements capable of performing the function of shock absorbers.

The third objective of the invention is the introduction of support parts, contributing to the increase of the resistance of the supporting elements as they bend seismic forces.

Another object of the invention is to create a "homeostatic" devices that prevent the destruction of decreasing values of the critical angle below the 25odue to the increased load.

A further object of the invention is to develop channels in the form of grooves which are inclined to the longitudinal axis of the cross member so that the distance between the two anchor points of the transverse element decreases as the bending of the element, which causes an increase in resistance to further bending with increasing applied load.

The aim of the invention is the creation of a rigid supporting parts, which can either be connected by bolts embedded in the concrete array of support or fastened in any other way to tip supports, which are based on elastic transverse elements by their ends or sites located near the ends of the elements.

Also the aim of the invention is the placement of each W is stronger channel.

The last aim of the invention is to design a modular building construction, capable of withstanding the load applied over a large area.

These goals are achieved due to the fact that in earthquake-resistant construction system comprising at least two columnar supports are placed on each of the supporting parts, at least one transverse element with a longitudinal axis coinciding in its unloaded condition with a horizontal line located between the two support parts, and relies on the formation of overhangs, each supporting part is designed as an open profile, and each transverse element is made of elastic and placed on a supporting parts with the possibility of reducing the distance between points bearing element on a supporting part as the loading element, its deflection and slip on the bearing parts.

While supporting part can be made in one piece with columnar supports and inclined at an angle to the vertical axis of the columnar supports; support parts can be made in one piece with columnar supports and having a vertical axis coinciding with the vertical axes of the columnar supports; each of the support parts may have "genericname element; the system may also include at least one support plate attached to one of the "grooved channels in the bearing parts. The supporting part can be equipped with many vertical side ribs. Each support part may have cut a groove in the front edge. Bar supports and the supporting part can be made in the form of a single reference system, which may have one grooved channel with a smooth curved profile. A single reference system may have a structure formed by two side faces and a Central lower face. Bar supports may have a pyramidal shape, and the supporting part - cubic form. The system may optionally include the "Foundation" means for supporting heavy loads with the transfer of their weight on the set of the elastic cross-section elements. "Foundation" means may include a platform and a set of struts extending down from the platform, and the inverted carrier portion, which is connected with many struts. Inverted reference part may be "grooved" channel, which partially covers one of the many elastic cross-section elements, the system may further include a support plate attached to "W is e dimensions, decreasing to the ends of the element; may be bent in opposite directions with the formation of the C-shaped ends, the system may include further provided with a hole plate, attached to the C-shaped ends of the bent cross member.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic view of the cargo in case of equilibrium carrier system of Fig. 2 - force applied to the load placed on the carrier system shown in Fig.1; Fig. 3 - excessive force applied to the load, which causes destruction of the supporting system shown in Fig.1; Fig. 4 - the first variant of the elastic transverse element, consisting of separate parts based on the two-point supporting system shown in Fig.1; Fig. 5 - the second variant of the elastic element variable height and based on the same reference point of the carrier system, as an element in a first variant of Fig. 6 is a third option elastic cross member, which is bent in opposite directions for the formation of a C-shaped ends and is also based on the same reference point of the carrier system shown in Fig. 1; Fig. 7, a transverse section along the line 7-7 in Fig. 6; Fig. 8 is a sizeable force of prilozhen batoy support with the first option the support of this invention; in Fig. 10 is a front exterior view of the columnar pores, shown in Fig. 9; Fig. 11 is a schematic illustration of a fourth variant of the elastic cross member supported on two spaced columnar supports; Fig. 12 - small amount of force applied to the fourth variant of the elastic cross member shown in Fig. 11; Fig. 13 - big-largest force applied to the elastic transverse element in the fourth embodiment, shown in Fig. 11; Fig. 14 is a side front view of the second variant the support of this invention; Fig. 15 is a front exterior view of the second variant of the support part shown in Fig. 14; in Fig. 16 is a side front view of the third variant of the bearing of this invention; Fig. 17 is a perspective view from above on the plate of the supporting part, which is mounted on the bolt or bar truss shown in Fig. 9-13, or the supporting parts shown in Fig. 14-16 of Fig. 18 is a side front view of the fourth version of the support portion to the top face of which is mounted a support plate of this invention; Fig. 19 is a rear exterior view of Fig.18; Fig. 20 is a view in top plan in Fig.18; Fig. 21 is a side exterior view of a fifth variant una Fig.18-20; in Fig. 22 - small amount of force applied to the fourth option is shown first in Fig. 11 elastic transverse element, which rests on the supporting side of the fourth variant of Fig. 23 - small amount of force applied to the elastic transverse element, which rests on the supporting part of the fifth variant of Fig. 24 - design based on elastic transverse element of the fourth version, which rests on the supporting portion in the sixth embodiment, and Fig. 25 is a view in top plan of the line 25-25 of Fig.24; Fig. 26 is a transverse section along the line 26-26 of Fig.24; Fig. 27 is a side front view along the line 27-27 of Fig.24; Fig. 28 is a view in plan from below along the line 28-28 of Fig.27.

The system depicted in Fig.1, represents the equilibrium construction system in which the load 101 Flex rod 102, supported near its ends on the support part 103.

In Fig. 2 shows two States of a bearing system: initial unloaded before placing cargo 101 to the terminal 102 and the loaded state occurring after the application is small in the amount of force F to the load 101 to bending of the rod 102 down; in the second state of the load 101 is shifted to the lower position 104.

In Fig. 3 from the led to the catastrophic destruction of the building systems, it is shown in Fig.1 and 2.

In Fig. 4 shows a first variant of the elastic cross member 106 of the invention under examination, which is made of a composite and is based on two contact points 103. Element 106 is characterized by a gradual, but a discrete increase of the moment of resistance along the length of flexible element 106. The ends of the element 106 neshaminy, and the element has a smooth bottom face, which allows it to slide on the contact surface.

In Fig. 5 shows a second variant of the invention with an elastic transverse element 107, the height of which decreases toward its ends, the element is based on the same reference point 103. The moment of resistance element 107 with gradual height increase in accordance with changes in the internal forces caused by the applied load, bending this element.

In Fig. 6 shows a third variant of the invention, according to which the elastic transverse element 108 is bent in opposite directions with the formation of the C-shaped ends. Element 108 is also based on the same reference point 103. Each C-shaped end element 108 is bonded by welding to the plate 109 having an inner hole. The line 7-7 in Fig. 6 polistine 109, with the slot 112, in which the element 108 moves up and down between the upper and lower channels 110 curvilinear profile.

In Fig. 8 shows the application of excessive force F to the element 108 based on a reference point 103. When the element 108 is in contact with the lower channel plate 110 109 at the point 111, the resistance of the building systems force F increases and further deflection element 106 is reduced. Fig.4-8 show three different variants of the elastic cross member under consideration of the invention; Fig.9 and 10 show a variant of the columnar supports 113.

In Fig. 9 is a side front view of the columnar supports are depicted to show the portion 114 having a slope, which formed the channel 116. The abutment part 114 has an abutment face which is inclined at an angle 115 to the horizontal, dotted line.

In Fig. 10 shows a front exterior view of the columnar supports 113. On this figure we can see the groove in the channel 116 of the support part 114.

In Fig. 11-13 shows a fourth variant of the elastic transverse element.

In Fig. 11 of the transverse element is based on the "grooved" channels 116 of the support parts 114, which are placed on two spaced columnar supports 113 and facing each other. Poperen the end portion 118 of the transverse element hanging with grooved channels 116, designed as an open profile. The supporting part 114 is inclined relative to the vertical axes of the columnar supports 113.

In Fig. 12 shows a small amount of force F applied to the transverse element in the fourth embodiment. In order to achieve a state of equilibrium with a small force F, the transverse element bends and slides in grooved channels 116 of the support parts 114 columnar supports 113. After equilibrium is reached, the length of the Central portion 117a of the transverse element, measured horizontally, is less than the length of the Central portion 117 of the transverse element, when it is bending in Fig.11. The ends 118a of the transverse element shown in Fig.12, the shorter end sections 118 of the element when it is bending, shown in Fig.11, because as a small force F1pushes down the transverse element, the transverse element is more bends between the columnar supports 113, resulting in the value of the hanging end sections 118a inevitably decreases. These end sections 118a hanging over the opposite ends of the open profile of the grooved channels 116.

In Fig. 13 shows the large largest force F2attached to the transverse element in the fourth which is larger than the force F1< F2) to the minimum distance between the reference points marked by the inner ends of the profile of the grooved channels 116. In this equilibrium the length of the Central part 117b of the transverse element, measured horizontally, is less than the length of the Central part 117a of Fig.12. Also the ends 118b cross member of Fig.13 shorter end sections 118a in Fig.12, because as most largest force F2pushes the transverse element down last more bends between the columnar supports. Thus, the length of the overhang of the end sections 118a is reduced even more. In addition, the ends 118a also hanging over the opposite open ends of the grooved channels 116.

If the force F2in Fig. 13 is equal to the force F1in Fig. 3, the transverse element of the invention under examination is not destroyed, while the rod 102 is destroyed. The reason there is no fracture of the transverse element is that of the grooved channels 116 that are located in the support parts 114 columnar supports 113, provide the opportunity slip elastic cross member thereon that provides a redistribution of the applied load, while at the supporting portions 103 this is DriveImage invention.

In Fig. 14 shows a side front view, while Fig. 15 - front "facade".

In Fig. 14 shows that the supporting part 120 has channels 121 are bent down at an angle 119 with respect to a horizontal line.

In Fig. 15 channel 121 of the support part 120 shown "grooved". This support part 120 (rigid and vertical) is similar to the inclined supporting part 114, shown in Fig. 9-13 and can be replaced with it. However, the supporting part 120 has a vertical axis coinciding with the vertical axis of the columnar supports, shown in Fig.9-13.

In Fig. 16 shows a side front view of the third variant of the basic part. In this embodiment, a rigid vertical supporting part 122 has the same "grooved" channels 121, shown in Fig.14 and 15, and characterizing the second option, except that the supporting portion in the third embodiment has a "grooved" channels 121 with a rounded top edge 121, which prevents the cutting of the groove during movement of the transverse element in the case, if this edge was sharp. Rounded top edge 123 also prevents transverse element from fixation, which could take place in the presence of sharp edges in cases where the transverse element slides in prot the operating pulses during strong earthquakes.

In Fig. 17 shows a top view in perspective on a support part 145. The supporting portion 145 has a "grooved" channels 124 and a lot of holes 125 drilled in the flanges near the channel 124. Holes 125 are intended for fastening the support piece 145 or to the channels 116 in the inclined supporting part 114 in the columnar support 113 (Fig.9-13), or to the channels 121 in a rigid vertical supporting portions 120 and 122 (Fig.14-16).

Fig.18-21 show a fourth variant of the basic part. In Fig. 18 shows a side front view of Fig.19 is a rear front view, and Fig. 20 is a view in plan from above.

It is shown in Fig. 18 supporting part has an angled channels 126 and vertical ribs 127. Bolts 128 attach the carrier portion 130 to the columnar support 153. Shown back in Fig. 19 inclined channel 126 of the support part, made in the form of a trench, has a rounded upper edge, the same edge 123 in the support part of the third variant (Fig.16).

In Fig. 20 shows the selected groove 129 in the front edge of the supporting part 130 to allow sliding of the transverse element, not touching the front edge of the supporting part 130. The stability of the supporting part 130 when sliding cross member in the channel 126 is provided with ribs 127 and bolts in design, it is shown in Fig. 11-13, the transverse element 131 is supported by grooved channels 126 of the support parts 130, which are located opposite each other and attached to two spaced supports 153. The transverse element 131 has a thickness in the middle part and suspended between two support parts 130 on the bearings 153. The transverse element 131 is able to bend in the vertical plane in the direction D while moving horizontally in the direction d by an inclined channel 126. Thus, as the deflection of the transverse element in the direction of d decreases the distance between the reference points in grooved channels 126 of the support parts 130.

Basic parts 114,120,122 and 130 made in one piece with columnar supports (Fig.9-16) or attached to the columnar supports (Fig.18-21). Supports 113 and 153 spaced apart from each other. However, in Fig. 22-23 shows the reference system, made in the form of a single element, which includes bar support and the support part.

In Fig. 22 small magnitude of force F1previously mentioned with respect to Fig. 22, attached to the transverse element 118 of the fourth version. To achieve a state of equilibrium under the power of the transverse element 118 bends and slides, moving on a little is the contour in the Central part. This first system 132 is made in the form of a uniform design of column footings and support parts shown in Fig. 9-16.

Similarly to Fig. 23 small magnitude of force F1again attached to the transverse element 118, which, in order to reach the state of equilibrium, bends and slides in grooved channels 136 of the second single carrier system 135. However, the "grooved" channel 136 is not curved, and has a profile formed by two inclined side faces and a Central horizontal line 136.

The main advantage of the channel profile formed from faces 136, which is shown in Fig. 23, is the ease of formation of the second system 135, especially of concrete compared to the first system 132 with a curved channel 133, shown in Fig.22.

Fig. 24-28 show the Foundation, designed to position it heavy, the weight of which is divided into several transverse elements, of which only one is shown for simplicity. A heavy load may be in the form of construction, placed on a number of transverse elements, which rely on many of the basic part.

In Fig. 24 platform 138 serves as a base plate for heavy cargo. Platts pyramids, 144, of which for simplicity shows only two. Between the two pyramids can be the previously existing structure, which are not shown. Below the platform 138 there are many struts 139 extending down from the platform 138. Two or more, usually four, strut 139 extend down at an angle to meet at a common point, forming an inverted bearing portion 140 having a "grooved" channel 141, which partially covers the Central part of the elastic cross member 118. Due to the heavy weight of the cargo (not shown) located on the platform 138, the transverse element 118 bends and slides in grooved channels 143 cubic bearings 146, posted on the pyramids 144.

In Fig. 26 a view from the cross-section on the line 26-26 of Fig. 24 shows an inverted bearing part 140, in which a Central portion of cross member 118 is partially surrounded by the "grooved" channel 141, which in the figure is conventionally a few raised for the purpose of illustration. As you can see, "grooved" channel 141 may be attached to the support plate 145 of Fig. 17 to facilitate a single transverse sliding element 118 and its multiple sliding channel 141 inverted the supporting part 14 is strategic location in the basement, it is shown in Fig.24, it is easier to replace only the support plate 145.

In Fig. 27 shows a side fašade view from the line 27-27 of Fig. 24 to illustrate the structures of the struts below the platform 138. As you can see, there are four strut 139, of which Fig. 27 shows only three. The struts are identical, and each has an inclined rectangular face and side of the triangular face. Four strut 139 inverted, and their ends are connected at a single point, thus, reversed the supporting part 140 has a grooved channel 141, which partially surrounds the transverse element 118.

In Fig. 28 bottom view of the line 28-28 in Fig. 27 shows four strut 139 with their sloping rectangular faces converging in an inverted bearing part 140 with grooved channel 141.

The previous preferred options building systems are considered only for illustration. Professionals in building technique after reading these open materials can make to the proposed system changes and other modifications.

1. Earthquake-resistant construction system comprising at least two columnar supports are placed on each of them supporting frequent, at least one cross the Noi between the two support parts, and relies on the formation of overhangs, wherein each of the supporting part is designed as an open profile, and each transverse element is made of elastic and placed on a supporting parts with the possibility of reducing the distance between points bearing element on a supporting part as the loading element, bending and sliding on the bearing parts.

2. The system under item 1, characterized in that the supporting part is made in one piece with columnar supports and inclined at an angle to the vertical axis of the columnar supports.

3. The system under item 1, characterized in that the supporting part is made in one piece with columnar supports and have a vertical axis coinciding with the vertical axes of the columnar supports.

4. The system under item 3, wherein each of the support parts is "grooved" channel with a rounded top edge to ensure sampling of the groove when the bearing of the transverse element.

5. The system under item 4, characterized in that it comprises additionally at least one support plate attached to one of the "grooved channels in the bearing parts.

6. The system under item 1, characterized in that the supporting parts are provided with many vertikalny groove in the front edge.

8. The system under item 1, characterized in that the columnar supports and the supporting part is designed as a reference system.

9. The system under item 8, characterized in that the single reference system has one grooved channel with a smooth curved profile.

10. The system under item 8, characterized in that the single reference system has a profile formed by two side faces and a Central lower face.

11. The system under item 1, characterized in that the columnar pillars have a pyramidal shape, and the supporting part - cubic form.

12. System on p. 11, characterized in that it additionally includes "fundamental" tools for supporting heavy loads with the transfer of their weight on the set of the elastic cross-section elements.

13. The system under item 12, characterized in that the "Foundation" means include a platform and a set of struts extending down from the platform, and the inverted carrier portion, which is connected with many struts.

14. System on p. 13, characterized in that the inverted part is "grooved" channel, which partially covers one of the many elastic cross-section elements.

15. The system under item 14, characterized in that it additionally includes oeenyi element is made of a cylindrical rod.

17. The system under item 1, characterized in that the transverse element has a cross section decreasing towards the ends of the element.

18. The system under item 1, characterized in that the transverse element is bent in opposite directions with the formation of the C-shaped ends.

19. The system under item 18, characterized in that it comprises further provided with holes plate, attached to the C-shaped ends of the bent cross member.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to the field of construction, namely, the special design of earthquake-resistant buildings

The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction of civil and industrial buildings in seismic areas, and buildings with equipment that is sensitive to dynamic loads any kind arising outside of the building

The invention relates to the field of construction, in particular to a method of protection from multiple seismic effects embedded in the ground object and the device for implementing the method

The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of buildings in seismic areas

The invention relates to the construction, namely the technology of the layered construction of the exterior walls for residential and civil buildings

The invention relates to the construction, in particular for earthquake-resistant buildings, structures

Building // 2085686
The invention relates to the construction of residential, public and industrial buildings and can be used in the construction of these buildings in areas where the potential disaster of natural or technogenic character

The frame structure // 2085685
The invention relates to the field of construction of surface and subsurface structures and can be used in the construction of surface and subsurface structures in areas where there is a risk of exposure to explosions

Asylum // 2085684
The invention relates to the construction of special structures and can be used in the construction of surface and underground protective structures in various enterprises, especially with increased risk of

The invention relates to the construction, in particular for earthquake-resistant buildings, structures

Aseismic bearing // 2085804
The invention relates to support structures earthquake-resistant buildings, structures and can be used as absorbers in facilities operating with high vibration and shock acceleration: on road and rail transport, power plants and nuclear reactors, to install precision equipment, as damping devices in the stretch of high-rise structures

The reference node // 2081277
The invention relates to the construction and can be used in the construction of surface and underground structures, as well as for strengthening of structures basements of existing buildings in areas where there is a risk of exposure to explosions

The invention relates to a gearless mechanical devices, absorbing the shock of an earthquake and can be used in the construction of buildings and structures in seismic areas

The invention relates to shock absorbing gearless mechanical devices and can be applied in buildings seismologically

The invention relates to absorbing longitudinal and transverse waves gearless mechanical devices and can be applied in seismologically of buildings and structures

The invention relates to a seismic-resistant construction

The invention relates to the construction, namely the construction of buildings in seismic zones for earthquake resistant foundations

The invention relates to civil, industrial and agricultural construction and can be used in the construction of buildings and buildings constructed in areas with high seismic activity on pile foundations, and the foundations on natural basis

The invention relates to the construction and can be used for lengthy building structures, such as bridges, crane bridges, crossings, transportation galleries, etc
Up!