The method of separation of unstable emulsions resulting from the processing of crude oil, and device for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

Use: for the separation of immiscible liquids with different specific gravities, in particular in the gravitational settling tanks for vacuum distillation of crude oil, chemical and petrochemical industries with improved preservation of the environment. The invention in part of the method lies in the fact that the separation of unstable emulsions condensates resulting from the processing of crude oil, is carried out by inputting the initial mixture in the separator-patristical, with the main lead to condensation condensation zone of the separator-gazorazdelitel. The initial mixture is administered mainly through the emulsion layer of the condensate in the bottom receiving area of the separator-gazorazdelitel formed is fixed on the bottom of the separator-gazorazdelitel bellows partition, and perform subsequent gravity separation coming through the bellows wall emulsion condensate phase layers in razorscale the area of the separator-gazorazdelitel, further provided with a coalescing elements, thus before applying emulsion in futuresplash zone separator octobriana is in the device, including the capacity of the separator-gazorazdelitel containing the node input mixture with the connection of the input and the separation zone with pipe exhaust gaseous and liquid phases, according to the invention the node entry is made in the form of the condensing zone of the separator-gazorazdelitel, separated from the rest of the inner space of the vertical bellows partition separating the container into zones, the first of which is condensing and the other communicated with her through the top peredachny channel formed between the top slice of the bellows walls and the inner surface of the separator-gazorazdelitel equipped vasoocclusive and coalescing elements, this vasoocclusive elements are located above cholesterolic elements and in the form of inclined shelves with sink emulsion condensate toward the bellows walls. Additionally vasoocclusive elements can be performed with directed upward protuberances located in the Central part of the convex suction channels or, for example, from metal-compressed sheet with the arched form of slots. The invention enables the effective sharing of unstable emulsions wide range (SOS the crystals, 7 Il.

The invention relates to methods and devices for separating emulsions of immiscible liquids, particularly to separators-fasoracetam for vacuum distillation of crude oil, and may find applications in the refining, petrochemical, gas processing and other industries, while improving the environment.

By improving the performance of the vacuum distillation of crude oil, there is a need for high-performance separators-gazorazdelitel installed on the output lines of vacuum devices such as ejectors. These separators-patristical (SF) should be as small footprint with high specific volume performance.

The prior art SF, containing rectangular case with tangential connection of the input of the emulsion, slotted distributor emulsion, overflow thresholds for output light phase, emulsions and suspensions with elbows and T-shaped pipes, hydraulic seal with the pipe and the T-shaped pipe, the front and rear transverse partitions dividing the interior space of the housing on the input, otstoinykh module, each of which is made of identical hollow inclined elements [1] .

Famous SF is not a high specific volume performance, due to the turbulization of the emulsion to enroll in SF, and irrational location cholesterolic elements in the separation modules that do not contribute to the intensification of emulsion breaking.

Known also included in the pump-ejector installation three-phase separator-patristical, equipped with inlet and outlet pipes connected to the exhaust manifold and the piping of fluid withdrawal and light fraction [2].

When operating a gas-liquid mixture in the form of an emulsion of the ejector flows through the pipeline in SF, where the separation of the emulsion on the gas, light fraction and the working fluid. Next, the separated gas from SF under pressure is delivered to consumers, and the light fraction and the working fluid separate flows, respectively, in the line of removal of light and heavy liquids. Due to the adjustable tap of SF gas, light and heavy fractions, regulate the magnitude of the discharge pressure and compression pumped out of steam and gas in the ejector, which allows to extend the range of reguline further purification of wastewater and target fractions.

A disadvantage of the known SF is a low volumetric capacity, due to the turbulization gas-liquid mixture (emulsion) in SF, flowing getParam of the ejector. This leads to mixing of the separated phases and is not conducive to the intensification of emulsion breaking and coalescence of the dispersed phase.

There is also known a method of separation of unstable emulsions and device for its implementation, namely, that the mixture of steam and gas and condensate from the partially condensed the steam and gas are pre centrifugal separation, and put it into the separation tank (SF) two threads, while the top is injected stream enriched in the light component, and the bottom stream enriched in the heavy component. Next, the flows are directed towards each other and after their meeting change the direction of motion is reversed. In this manner, one or more times repeated, the threads are moved to the outlet nozzles. The specified sequence of operations carried out in the device, input node of which is made in the form of a centrifugal separator having a vertical cylindrical housing with a tangential inlet side and an open top is erwou section is separated from the subsequent two partitions, between them in the middle zone has peredachny channel. The second section is separated from the next by a partition which edges are located at a distance from the top edge of the bottom of the tank. Subsequent sections formed are installed in an alternating baffles attached to the bottom, and walls, the edges of which are spaced from the top and the bottom of the vessel [3].

The drawbacks of the latter in terms of both the method and the device is a low intensity gravity separation and a relatively large installation space. In addition, cholesteremia funds in the form of vertical partitions are not efficient enough due to coalescence of the dispersed phase, taking place in a single layer. At high performance mode, the laminar nature of the flow of the liquid is disturbed, and the effectiveness of patrascanu sharply reduced.

The objective of the invention is to increase the specific volumetric productivity of SF due to the rational use of its interior space, as well as enable effective coalescence of the dispersed phase in a wide range of load and composition of the partial emulsions.

The solution of this problem etjnogo raw materials, consisting in the input mixture in SF followed by the separation of non-condensable gases from the liquid condensate in the form of an emulsion comprising water and oil, and divide it according to the weight on the individual phase layers with subsequent separate allotment neskondensirovannyh gases and separation products in the form of separate streams of liquid phases separated fractions, according to the proposed method, the main condensation of steam and gas source mixture is conducted in the condensation zone SF by entering, mainly through the layer of emulsion, the condensate in the bottom receiving area SF formed is fixed on the bottom of the SF bellows partition wall, and carry out the subsequent gravity separation coming through the bellows wall emulsion condensate phase layers in fathersday area of SF, is further provided with coalescing elements, thus before applying emulsion in futuresplash area SF carry out the separation of gas from the emulsion of condensation on gazettenasa elements.

At the solution of the problem provided by the fact that the device for the separation of unstable emulsions resulting from the processing of crude oil, including empotrable removal of gaseous and liquid phases, according to the invention, the node entry is made in the form congenerous-cholesterola zone SF, separated from the rest of the inner space of the vertical bellows wall with the formation of the water seal and separating capacity of the separator-gazorazdelitel into zones, the first of which is congenerous-cholesterola, and the other communicated with her through the top peredachny channel formed between the top slice of the bellows walls and the inner surface of the vessel SF, equipped with vasoocclusive and coalescing elements, while vasoocclusive elements are located above cholesterolic elements and in the form of inclined shelves with sink emulsion condensate toward the bellows walls. Additionally vasoocclusive elements can be performed with directed upward protuberances located in the Central part of the convex suction channels or, for example, from metal-compressed sheet with the arched form of slots. Method and device can be divided emulsion is formed, in particular, during operation of the pumping-ejector vacuum distillation of crude oil.

In Fig.1 presents a schematic diagram of the proposed device; Fig. 2 - Fragment option run vasoocclusive element; in Fig. 5 is an embodiment of the device of Fig. 6 - embodiment of coalescense element; Fig. 7 - layout colesterolo element.

A device for the separation of unstable emulsions has a reservoir 1 with the nozzles respectively 2,3,4,5 input of steam and gas with the emulsion them condensate and withdrawal of heavy, light and gas phases, the node entry is made in the form congenerous-cholesterola zone (the zone of introduction of the vapor-liquid-gas jet) I separator-gazorazdelitel (SF), of gas separation zone II and zone III separation of liquid phases (with the corresponding pipes of the exhaust gaseous and liquid phases), vertical bellows partition wall 6, which separates the zone I from the rest of the internal space of SF and communicated with him through the top peredachny channel 7, formed between the top slice of the bellows walls and the inner surface of the separator-gazorazdelitel. Vasoocclusive elements 8 and 9 is made in the form of inclined shelves installed at an angle 5-6oto ensure discharge of the emulsion without disruptive phenomena, which merges into the side of the bellows walls 6. Cholesteremia elements 10 are located below gazettenasa elements and can be made in the form or package Playa) in the form of a package of V-shaped plates (see Fig. 6,7), also installed horizontally or at an angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the SF is not below the angle ettekanne fluid. In addition, before coalescing plate elements 10 may be positioned more, such as bulk, a coalescing element 11 (see Fig.5). This item can be made in the form of solid partitions of porous PTFE, or, as shown in Fig. 5, in the form placed between the perforated walls 12 and 13 cholesterola crumbs, for example PTFE.

To improve the conditions of the separation gas from the emulsion vasoocclusive items can be made or directed upward protuberances and located at the vertices of the convex suction channel 14 (see Fig.3), or these elements can be made of metal compressed sheet with the arched form of slots (see Fig. 2 and 4).

In the embodiment, in the area I placed a pre cholesterola Luggage in the form of space, limited perforated partitions 15 and 16 with cholesterola crumb, for example PTFE. Removal of excess heavy phase from the node input can be carried out on line 17 with an adjusting valve. Measuring tube 18 connected to the bottom and top costsbut or merges, or line 17 is fed into the zone III. In another embodiment, cholesteremia elements can be separated by partitions 19 and 20, and formed by these partitions partitions can be hydraulically connected by a line 21 equipped with bypass valves (see Fig.5).

The proposed method is as follows.

The stream of emulsified water-cut and gas-saturated hydrocarbon medium is supplied through the pipe entry 2 in zone I (SF). As the stream is introduced into the fluid layer, there is intense heat input fluid flow and damping of its kinetic energy. Due to the fact that the jet is injected into a limited space in the layer of liquid developing ripple and generated oscillations with a wide range of frequencies, a phenomenon known as Gartmann. Due to the heterogeneity of the emulsion composition and the size of the globules, i.e. aggregate formations) is the absorption of wave energy in a quite definite spectral range due to the resonance of the particles with their frequencies determined by the particle size at different frequencies because of the different particle size of the globules of the dispersed phase. This leads to the merger and consolidation of globules before the entrance to Amul is 2 to partition 16 cholesterola camera, the more effectively will be further delamination of the emulsion.

The fact that oscillations of the emulsion under certain conditions, contribute to the coalescence of its dispersed phases, it is widely known (see, for example, Horbenko I.,, In the world inaudible sounds. - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1971, S. 107).

Upon reaching a certain level of power fluctuations instead of coalescence will occur dispersion make with the formation of very stable emulsions.

The steam and gas coming together with the emulsion in the receiving node, intensively separated, including under the action of the generated oscillations, with pop-up gas-vapor bubbles have floating and coalescense impact on the dispersed phase of the emulsion (bubbles also pulsate under the influence of vibrations transmitted in the liquid phase and increase in size). Thus, zone I is essentially also a primary area of coalescence. Upon further movement of the emulsion enters or vasoocclusive elements, or (in an embodiment) in the preliminary coalescers camera I zone in which small emulsion inclusion stick to well wetted by the oil surface of the fluoropolymer crumbs, escalated the elements in zone I, this effect is greatly enhanced.

Next, the emulsion poured along the channel 7 in zone II, and a thin layer that most favors the separation gas flows down the surfaces gazettenasa elements 8 and 9, getting in the zone III, where the final process of forming layers of fractions. Due to the input stream of the emulsion in zones II and III in laminar mode prevents secondary dispersion, and at the same time, provided optimal conditions for gas separation. Additional intensification coalescence of the dispersed phase in zone III (phases may be several) is achieved by this process in a thin layer of liquid between the plates colesterolo element 10, due to the tilt of his plates a sustained release miletinae space from the divided phases, because the heavier phase by gravity in the bottom region, and the light phase POPs up and accumulates in the upper layer. If you need a more intensive process of coalescence can be achieved by installation in front plate councilwomen element 10 additional colesterolo element, for example of porous PTFE (pore size 10 μm or more), or, as shown in Fig.5, of the fluoropolymer crosk the DOI. The oil can easily pass through the coalescing material, and fine particles of emulsion of water with sustainable outside the shell, for example, diesel fuel, penetrating into the pores colesterolo material or in the gaps between the crumbs in the case of bulk execution, move slowly and sticking shells to cholesterola surface, and the face between them, destroy this shell, merge, and forced through the pores or gaps between coalescing surfaces, integrated and consolidated water droplets, which then deposited in thin layers, displayed as one of the heavy phase. Next, the emulsion containing consolidation of the dispersed phase, is sent to the lamellar coalescing element, where there is an accelerated merger in milestoning thin layers of aggregated droplets and the final hazaratganj. Pre-coalescence of tiny globules (particle) emulsion creates the most favorable conditions for the final patrascanu and allows you to achieve maximum purity of the partial phases, which is very important when cleaning of waste water from oil.

To prevent the violation of separation, kotoroe to leave, that would violate separation of the proposed device can be further provided with special means. In Fig.2 by the dotted line shows one of the possible schemes of solving this problem is a diagram of one of the known ways to maintain the level of liquid-liquid interface is always at a certain height (see , for example, Skoblo A. I. and other Processes and apparatus for the refining and petrochemical industries. - M.: Costoptimized, 1962, S. 327-328).

According to the laws of hydrostatics above the plane of the section will be an equilibrium for htt= hll, where you can find the height of the drain heavy liquid (phase) htabove the desired position of the mirror section, if you know the height of the discharge light liquid hland specific gravitylandtliquids.

When the separation of emulsions with very low content of one of the components it is advisable to pre-fill the area I of this component to the amount of 0.5 of its volume, thus forming a separating layer in zone III is accelerated.

In embodiments, execution and, accordingly, the implementation of the method (see Fig. 5) hydraulic connection partitioned by partitions 19 and 20 of the bottom space SF p the process of separation of the emulsion, because it reduces the load on cholesteremia elements.

All versions run on all outlet pipes installed regulating valves that allows you to manage the process of patrascanu quickly, changing the thickness of the layers of the phases in all areas of SF. It was established experimentally that a particular value has the correct level setting heavy phase in zone I, which in fact is the resonator. The height of the layer of heavy phase in this zone, and, therefore, directly dependent on this level the volume of the annular space defines the frequency characteristics of the resonator zone I. the Height of the layer of heavy phase in zone I is dependent on many factors, such as speed and temperature of the input stream of a mixture of phases, the proportion of the substances constituting the emulsion, etc. Almost optimal mode of SF is determined experimentally by regulation of the speed of removal of separated phases.

Experimental work on the separation of the emulsions was carried out at various speeds of the input and the concentration of the compositions of the initial mixtures. Made the separation of unstable emulsions formed by water and mineral oil type VM-6, water and diesel fuel, with a solution of caustic soda in hot wide spectrum of unstable emulsions, as well as working in a wide range of stress on performance.

1. The method of separation of unstable emulsions resulting from the processing of crude oil, including the input mixture in the separator-patristical followed by the separation of non-condensable gases from the condensate in the form of an emulsion, the division ratio on a separate phase layers and separate drainage neskondensirovannyh gases and separation products in the form of separate streams of liquid phases separated fractions, characterized in that the main condensation of steam and gas source mixture is conducted in the condensation zone of the separator-gazorazdelitel by its input mainly through the emulsion layer of the condensate in the bottom receiving area of the separator-gazorazdelitel, formed is fixed on the bottom of the separator-gazorazdelitel bellows partition, and perform subsequent gravity separation coming through the bellows wall emulsion condensate phase layers in razorscale the area of the separator-gazorazdelitel equipped with coalescing elements, thus before applying emulsion in futuresplash area of the separator carry out the separation of gas from the emulsion of the condensate NSA by operation of the pumping-ejector vacuum distillation of crude oil.

3. A device for the separation of unstable emulsions resulting from the processing of crude oil, including the capacity of the separator-gazorazdelitel containing the node input mixture with the connection of the input and the separation zone with pipe exhaust gaseous and liquid phases, characterized in that the node entry is made in the form of the condensing zone of the separator-gazorazdelitel, separated from the rest of the inner space of the vertical bellows partition separating the container into zones, the first of which is condensing and the other communicated with her through the top peredachny channel formed between the top slice of the bellows walls and the inner surface of the separator-gazorazdelitel, equipped with vasoocclusive and coalescing elements, while vasoocclusive elements are located above cholesterolic elements and in the form of inclined shelves with sink emulsion condensate toward the bellows walls.

4. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that vasoocclusive items made with globes facing up and positioned in the Central part of the convex suction channels.

5. The device according to p. 3 different is x2">

6. The device according to p. 3, characterized in that the use of the emulsion produced by the pumping-ejector vacuum distillation of crude oil.

 

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