(57) Abstract:The invention relates relates to the field of electrical energy conversion, in particular DC-to-DC. Contains four key connected in a bridge circuit, the first diagonal of which is connected to two terminals, and the second diagonal is connected the primary winding of the transformer. Differs in that it introduced additional filter capacitors connected among the conclusions to the two terminals of the primary winding of the transformer is made symmetrical with drainage from the midpoint of which is connected to the second terminals of the capacitors of the filters and the third terminal. Can be used as a device providing both bipolar output voltage from a unipolar input, and changing the output voltage in half (decrease or increase) with respect to the input with high efficiency. 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of electrical energy conversion, in particular DC-to-DC, and can be used as a device providing both bipolar output voltage from a unipolar input, and changing the output voltage of VDO is using operational amplifiers with a powerful output stage of complementary transistors , providing a lower output voltage and the formation of a bipolar voltage of the unipolar voltage source. Such devices due to deep negative feedback have a high degree of symmetry. However, when a single-ended differential load current flows through one of the transistors of the output stage of the regulator, which reduces the efficiency of the device. The efficiency of such a device is particularly low if the load is connected only to one side, for example, between terminals +E and 0.Increased efficiency have schemes to convert DC to AC with subsequent rectification, in particular , the output voltage (high or low depending on need, including symmetric) is provided at the output of the bridge rectifier fed from the winding to the middle point of the transformer voltage Converter.However, the presence of the windings and diodes in the circuit the output voltage leads to a certain decrease in the efficiency of the device (optional 5 - 10% and even more, not counting the losses in the inverter). In addition, such a device is relatively complicated, which reduces its reliability.On the e four key connected in a bridge circuit, the first diagonal of which is connected to the two terminals of the power source, and the second diagonal is connected the primary winding of the transformer .However, it has limited application, because it has no output voltage which is equal to half of the supply voltage, such as power operational amplifiers that require bipolar voltage or low impedance load, which requires half the supply voltage. In addition, it may not provide an increase in output voltage.The objective of the proposed device is the possibility of change (increase or decrease) of the output voltage in half, while improving the efficiency of the device and the formation of the mid-point of the output voltage.This task is achieved by the fact that the device contains four key connected in a bridge circuit, the first diagonal of which is connected to two terminals, and the second diagonal is connected the primary winding of the transformer, introduced additional filter capacitors connected among the conclusions to the two terminals of the primary winding of the transformer is made symmetrical with diversion from SREN shows the schematic of the proposed device.Here VT1 - VT4 - semiconductor (e.g., transistor) keys, forming with the transformer T bridge inverter. +E-E - terminals connected to the first diagonal of the bridge inverter. 1-2 - the primary winding of the transformer T, included in the second diagonal of the bridge inverter. The winding has a tap 3 from the middle point, which is connected with the third terminal 0 of the device, having a potential equal to half of the voltage between terminals +E and-E (conventional zero when the supply voltage of the device +E/-E). C1, C2 are filter capacitors connected to some conclusions to terminals +E and-E, the second to the third terminal 0 of the device.Chain starting devices, not shown, the control circuit device shown conventionally in the form of windings, connected between the bases and emitters of the complementary pairs of transistors, because their implementation does not affect the solution of the problem. The transformer T can be equipped with the necessary number of secondary windings.The device can operate in step-down mode (division) (Fig. 1) and increasing (multiplying) voltage (Fig. 2).In the first mode (Fig. 1) the device operates as follows.If the connection is for example VT1 and VT3. At the output 1 of the primary winding of the transformer T, the voltage is equal to the value +E, and the output 2 is equal to minus E. Since the output 3 is made from the middle of the primary winding, then the voltage across it is equal to half the supply voltage (conditionally zero).After turning off the key VT1 and VT3 and enable keys VT2 and VT4 on output 2 of the primary winding of the transformer voltage becomes equal to +E, and the output 1 is equal to-E. at the output 3 voltage remains at zero. Capacitors C1 and C2 provide smoothing of the emission AC voltage that occurs when the key switch transistors.It should be noted that the provision of conditional zero values on output 3 (mid-point) of the primary winding occurs when any of the relative duration of the on and off States of the keys (in the range up to the saturation of the transformer core, which does not require any special measures and is provided automatically), because it is determined only by the accuracy of the winding of the primary winding of the transformer T. This allows the device is extremely simple and therefore reliable scheme.If the device is used to supply unbalanced on the works as a step-down autotransformer constant voltage transformation ratio of 0.5.High efficiency of the device is ensured by the low output impedance of the device due to the parallel connection of the output resistance of the halves of the Converter, each consisting of a key and active resistance of the primary Polubotko (as in the autotransformer AC voltage). In addition, in the case of connection to the output device bipolar load between terminals E, 0 and +E is the output impedance creates a loss only to the differential current of the load, since the minimum (total) load current flows, bypassing the Converter.In the second mode, when the supply voltage is fed to terminal 0 and one of the terminals +E or-E, and the load connected to terminals +E and-E, the device operates as follows.Let us assume that the supply voltage applied to terminals 0 and - (Fig. 2) and for the first time included the keys VT1 and VT3. In this case, the supply voltage is connected to one bus terminal 0 to the midpoint 3 of the primary winding of the transformer T, and the second bus - terminal-E and the public key VT3 connects to pin 2 of the primary winding of the transformer T. in the second Polubotko transformer (on pin 1 of the winding relative to output 3) induced voltage equal to the voltage on the first floor is applied at a specified key VT1, it is through him charging the capacitor C1 to a voltage equal to the supply voltage. After turning off the key VT1 and VT3 and enable keys VT2 and VT4 process is repeated. In this case, the capacitor C1 voltage is always equal to the supply voltage. If the load connected to terminals +E and-E, the voltage across it is equal to double the value of the input voltage, i.e., the device operates as a step-up autotransformer with a conversion ratio of 2. The output device may be connected and balanced load.Thus, the proposed device has the expansion functionality: has the ability to lower or raise the output voltage compared to the input, and in both cases to provide a bipolar voltage output. The efficiency of the device as high as possible for this type of converters, because the device has no extra element (winding or diode, as in the analogue of ), through which flowed the load current and the parameters of which would depend the efficiency of the device.The decision device tasks confirmed the layout.Offer can be used on the products of the company.
use. - M.: Energoizdat, 1982, S. 44, Fig. 30, b.2. The circuitry of devices on a powerful field-effect transistors. The Handbook. / Ed. by B. N. Dianova. - M.: Radio and communication, 1994, S. 91, Fig. 4.18.3. Ibid, S. 184, Fig. 8.14, b. Converter DC-to-DC containing four key connected in a bridge circuit, diagonal DC which is connected to the first and second terminals, to the diagonal AC of the bridge circuit connected to the primary winding of the transformer, wherein the two capacitor connected to the first pins respectively to the first and second terminals of the primary winding of the transformer is made symmetrical with drainage from the middle point connected to the second terminals of the capacitors and to the third terminal, and one of the three terminals is designed to connect one of the terminals of the voltage source, the other terminal is for connecting one of the conclusions of the load, and the remaining terminal is for connecting the other terminals of the voltage source and the load.
FIELD: transforming equipment engineering, possible use in electric power sources.
SUBSTANCE: adjustable decreasing transformer of direct voltage contains input, output and common clamps for connection of, respectively, source of direct voltage and load, n chains connected by their first outputs to common clamp 25. Each chain consists of serially connected discharge diode 1, capacitor 2 and controllable discharge key 3. transformer also contains (n-1) discharge diodes 4, each of which is enabled between differently named outputs of capacitors of appropriate adjacent chains, controllable charge key 5, enabled between input clamp and discharge bus 6, controllable adjusting elements 7-11, each of which is connected in parallel to discharge diode 4 of appropriate chain and two groups of commutation elements, while each commutation element of first group 12-17 is enabled in parallel to discharge key 3 of appropriate chain, while each commutation element of second group 18-23 is enabled between discharge bus 6 and common point of connection 24 of capacitor 2 and discharge key 3 of appropriate circuit. Introduced into transformer are n groups of m commutation elements and (m-1) output clamps for connecting additional loads.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities due to provision of operation of device for several loads with varying output voltages; significantly improved mass-dimensional characteristics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to electrical engineering and can be used for changing voltage in a network. The device for varying voltage in network is a connection of a set of capacitors or modified capacitor for "pumping" electrical energy from a network with "transformation" of supply voltage. Shortcomings related to manufacture of transformers, which require large material inputs and use of expensive raw material are excluded, as well as servicing and need for the user to settle for power, provided by the transformer substation or some other system for changing voltage. The device can be installed into an open line of the high side. Installation of a capacitor in the circuit leads to increase in cos φ, which is good for the circuit as a whole. The invention does not transform electrical energy, but pumps it out of the network, as it were. Pumping power depends on the capacitance of the device. Large capacitance is required for a high power user. Knowing the required power and voltage of the user and the high side, it is easy to calculate capacitors and standardise the proposed device as a whole. The device allows for considerable decrease in power used by the network due to that, the source of electrical energy supports voltage harmonics and not power in the network.
EFFECT: use of a capacitor as a transformer.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: single-step DC voltage converter comprises transformer, which secondary windings are coupled to output pins of one or several converter outputs, primary winding is coupled to field-effect transistor and feedback winding is coupled to feedback divider, control transistor, time-setting capacitor, three logic inverters and logic AND element, between output of the latter and input of the first logic inverter there is in-series RC-circuit. At low loads or in idle mode gating time of the field-effect transistor is defined not by the time-setting capacitor but by low time constant of the in-series RC-circuit, at that disturbance voltage does not affect operation of the device.
EFFECT: excluded loss in control stability in idle mode and improved reliability of the device at large.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cascaded voltage amplifier has two bridge circuits each incorporating two diodes and two capacitors. Outputs of bridge circuits are connected in phase opposition. Each output lead of either bridge circuit is connected to output diode. Interconnected leads of output diodes form first-stage output. Each output lead of bridge circuit is connected to one output lead of respective identical additional bridge circuit whose second output lead is connected to lead of additional output diode. Additional output diodes have their other leads connected to respective additional output diodes of other additional bridge circuit and to ripple capacitor to organize output of next stage. Input of each additional bridge circuit formed by interconnection of two diodes is connected through capacitor to respective input of bridge circuit. Output lead of next additional bridge circuit identical to first one and connected in same way as first additional bridge circuit to organize output of next stage is connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit connected to additional output diode. As an alternative, each respective additional bridge circuit is connected across two diagonally opposite junctions of first output lead of first bridge circuit and second output lead of second bridge circuit, as well as second output lead of first bridge circuit and first output lead of second bridge circuit. Each additional bridge circuit has two diodes inserted in opposite arms of additional bridge circuit and capacitors are inserted in two other opposing arms, like-polarity diodes of bridge circuit and additional bridge circuit being connected cumulatively. Each output lead of second pair of diagonally opposite junctions of bridge circuit is connected to additional output diode, additional output diodes being interconnected in pairs through other leads. Interconnected leads of additional output diodes form output leads of next stage which are connected to ripple capacitor. Output of next stage is organized like that of first alternative.
EFFECT: enhanced multiplier efficiency for organizing several different voltage levels at output.
4 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering, industrial techniques for transformerless voltage rise, multistage generators, radio electronics, and medical instrumentation engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed multistage voltage multiplier has two bridge circuits, each incorporating two valves and two capacitors. Bridge circuit is connected at its inputs in phase opposition. Each output lead of every bridge circuit is connected to output valve. Integrated leads of output valves form output of first-stage. Each output lead of bridge circuit is connected to one output lead of one similar additional bridge circuit whose second output lead is connected to additional output valve lead. Other leads of additional output valves are connected to respective additional output leads of other additional bridge circuit and to ripple capacitor to form common output of next stage. Input of each additional bridge circuit formed by interconnection of two valves is connected through capacitor to respective input of respective bridge circuit. Connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit coupled with additional output lead is output lead of next similar first additional bridge circuit to form output of next stage. As an alternative, one respective additional bridge circuit is connected to diagonally opposite terminals of first output lead of first bridge circuit and of second output lead of second bridge circuit, as well as to diagonally opposite terminals of second output lead of first bridge circuit and of first output lead of second bridge circuit. Each additional bridge circuit has two valves inserted in opposing arms of additional bridge circuit, capacitors being inserted in two other opposing arms; like valves of bridge circuit and of additional one are connected cumulatively. Each output lead of second diagonally opposite terminals of bridge circuit is connected to additional output valves, the latter being integrated in pairs with other respective valves. Integrated leads of additional output valves form output leads of next stage which are connected to ripple capacitor. Connected to output lead of each additional bridge circuit coupled with additional output valve is output lead of next additional bridge circuit similar to first one in its arrangement and connection. This forms output of next stage.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of multiplier incorporating provision for attaining several different voltage levels across output.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: electronics, possible use as synchronized source of high voltage with low output resistance, large impulse power and controlled multiplication coefficient.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, serial-wave method of commutation of multiplication sections allows usage of components only meant for original voltage. Output multi-kilovolt voltage may exceed original voltage dozens and hundreds of times. Principle of operation - parallel charge of accumulating capacitors of sections, then enabling of them into serial circuit, synchronously with control signal. Multiplication coefficient is varied by duration of control impulse and alteration of original voltage from outside.
EFFECT: overcoming of dependence of key capacitor multiplexers on component parameters; invention of compact, easily adaptable, universal, with possible synchronization, flexibly controlled, powerful module for multiplication of voltage without induction.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power electronics.
SUBSTANCE: transforming circuit for commutation of a set of levels of commutated voltage contains n first commutation groups provided for each phase (R, S, T). To reduce accumulated electric energy of transforming circuit n≥1, p second commutation groups and p third commutation groups are provided, formed respectively by first semiconductor power switch and second semiconductor power switch and with a capacitor connected to first semiconductor power switch and second semiconductor power switch, while p≥1, and each one of p second commutation groups is connected in parallel to appropriately adjacent second commutation group, each one of p third commutation groups is connected in parallel to appropriately adjacent third commutation group, first second commutation group is connected to first semiconductor power switch of n first commutation group (1.n), and first third commutation group is connected to second semiconductor power switch of n first commutation group (1.n). Capacitor of p second commutation group is serially connected to capacitor of p third commutation group.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
21 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering, concerns the method of deposition of metals in electrolyte, charging of storage batteries using the summation of direct current and impulse current.
SUBSTANCE: the power supply unit has a DC supply source and an impulse current supply source, where the current power is set depending on the process of coating. The first DC supply source consists of a feeding transformer, thyristor rectifier, instrument shunt, electronic control unit, smoothing reactor. The second impulse current supply source consists of a feeding transformer, diode rectifier, smoothing reactor, thyristor-capacitor unit, electronic control unit, double-wound reactor-transformer.
EFFECT: provided deposition of any metal, enhanced rate of metal deposition, due to variation of the relation of currents, provided the required physical properties of the coating, recovery of storage batteries.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to pulse technique, specifically to pulse power supply units and is intended for feeding high-voltage pulses to anode or control electrode to provide power supply of klystrons, particle accelerators, magnetrons, travelling-wave tubes and similar devices. Modulator (fig. 1) contains power supply unit (1), capacitors C1, C2), regulation circuit (2), voltage sensing device (VSD) (3), control circuit (CC) (4), modulating device (MD) (5), reference-voltage source (RVS) (12). Switching element (SE) of regulation circuit is made in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate transistor (T) with resistor (R) connected with sink or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with R connected with source or in the form of field-controlled or bipolar insulated-gate T with inductance connected with sink. Furthermore CC includes comparator one of inputs of which is connected with VSD output the other output of which is connected with RVS, and output of comparator is connected with SE control input. MD is made in the form of connected in series block of switches and switch control circuit. Versions of device configuration and circuit of electronic switch for it are presented.
EFFECT: decrease of mass-dimension characteristics with reliability enhancement.
20 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: present invention can be used in electrical engineering. The element for a distributing device contains a group of connections (1), comprising six bidirectional power semiconductor switches (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7) and a capacitor (25). The first switch (2) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (3). The third switch (4) is connected anti-parallel and in series with switch (5). The capacitor (25) is connected with the point of connection of the first switch (2) and the second switch (3) and with point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches. The fifth switch (6) is connected to the point of connection of the first (2) and second (3) switches, and with the fourth switch (5). The sixth switch (7) is connected to the point of connection of the third (4) and fourth (5) switches and with the second switch (3). There are first and second series-connected capacitors (8, 9). The first switch (2) and the third switch (4) are connected to each other at the point of connection of the fist (8) and second (9) capacitors. Proposed also is a converter circuit for switching many voltage levels, containing the said element of a distributing device.
EFFECT: reduced amount of accumulative electrical energy and decrease in dimensions.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: voltage converter consists of transistor switch, transformer, encircling diode, pulse-width modulation controller, current protection sensor, peak detector, the first and the second operating amplifiers, reserve capacity, resistors, smoothing capacitor, throttle, current transformer and their connections. The method differs by the fact that to current transformer there introduced is the third winding which is connected through an additional detector to adjustable output voltage to output "Current Blocking" of pulse-width modulation controller.
EFFECT: steady start up of voltage converter in the system with similar voltage converter operating in parallel for total load irrespective of the number of voltage converters and their power.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: bidirectional step-down DC voltage converter (BSVC) may be used as high-voltage dc-dc converter of medium capacity in systems of DC electric equipment, for instance for DC electric locomotives with voltage 3(1.5) kV for supply from contact network with increased voltage of (12(6) kV, 18(9) kV etc.). Proposed BSVC with ratio of high voltage value to amplitude of low voltage pulses equal to K, where K is even number, higher than two, comprises 3-K+5 keys formed by opposite connection of valve with full control and diode, and K capacitors used at single polarity of voltage. Structure of this BSVC includes two key modules (M1 and M2), K-2 additional key modules (AM), three additional keys (AK) and capacitors. Modules M1 and M2 consist each of four keys, serially connected with identical terminals, and middle points of these points serve as low voltage terminals. Each of AM modules consists of three keys, which are serially connected by opposite terminals. Two of AK keys are connected one by one between the first points of M1 and M2 module keys connection, which are counted from terminals of low voltage to the left and right. AM modules are connected in a cascade to modules of M1 and M2 symmetrically relative to them to the left and to the right. K capacitors are connected one by one between points of connection of according terminal outputs of modules M1 and M2 with modules AM, between connection points of neighbouring modules AM and between terminal outputs of terminal modules AM. One of two high voltage terminals is connected to according output terminal of according terminal AM directly, and the second one - via the third AK key connected either by cathode of diode to positive output of high voltage, or by anode of diode to negative output of high voltage.
EFFECT: reduced losses of active power in capacitors, due to use of capacitors with limit values of voltage, which do not exceed amplitude of voltage pulses at low voltage outputs of converter.
SUBSTANCE: adjustable voltage multiplier includes voltage source consisting of in-series connected storage battery and circuit breaker, switching device, locking diodes and capacitor bank. As switching device there used is locked thyristor the control electrode of which is connected to secondary winding of transformer the beginning of primary winding of which is connected to transistor collector; end of winding is connected to alternating capacitor the second output of which is connected to transistor base; emitter base circuit of transistor includes in-series connected resistor and the second capacitor; one pole of voltage source is connected to average point of primary winding of transformer and between resistor and the second capacitor; the second pole of voltage source is connected to transistor emitter; locked thyristor is connected by means of one of power electrodes to voltage source, and by means of the other power electrode it is connected to throttle with inductance adjustable with core; the second output of throttle is connected to the second pole of voltage source; capacitor bank is connected parallel to throttle through locking diodes; locking diodes have reverse polarity in relation to voltage source.
EFFECT: obtaining the source of adjustable high and low constant voltage of wide control range of potentials and power.