The method is optimized orientation of the faces, in particular coal deposit
(57) Abstract:Way of planning Stopes by establishing direction prodigene stope, the length of the stope, speed prodigene stope and sequence development on tectonically loaded sedimentation field, in particular, coal field, improved in terms of content the main criteria for planning. For this purpose, which is to establish a body field as a base-planning framework identifies caused by tectonic energy attenuation, shear and compression in a rock mass, as well as caused by these phenomena tectonic breaks masses, and planned treatment of the faces are oriented depending on the possibility of carrying out mining operations and/or susceptibility to landslides and/or the behavior of gas and/or the behavior of dust and/or the behavior of the roadway and/or manifestations of stress and/or installed from stress concentrations in the body field. 17 C.p. f-crystals. The invention relates to a method of planning Stopes by establishing direction prodigene clean the tectonically loaded sedimentation field in particular coal Deposit, and determine the location of longwall mining on tectonic disturbances in the body field, and to determine the identified leads may contain and readied for development of the body field as the basis-the basis of planning shall take into account the fall, stretch and size reset detected geological disturbance.During mining the primary aim of planning is to Orient and location of longwall mining in selected for conducting sewage extraction body field so that ultimately the extracted mineral was associated with negligible production cost. In this respect, it is worthwhile to determine the corresponding optimal direction of doing cleaning work, the optimal sequence of carrying out cleaning work, the optimal speed of carrying out cleaning work and the optimal length of stope depending on the current tectonics. The problem is that tectonics as an essential parameter of the effect to determine the orientation of faces in many cases unknown. So, in this respect becomes needle this orientation are taking place in the mining opening in the form of underground mining, deep boreholes or seismic surveys. These opening may be present in the form of a point, line, or area. The results of this autopsy concludes the probable location of the producing formations and tectonic disturbances in order to obtain baseline data for planning, exploration and preparation work, as well as for mining. If you need to have a structure of the field as the main planning parameters used drop, stretch and sizes reset geological faults, they are the Foundation of the concept. Famous autopsy, usually geometrically linked with each other so that as the basis for planning arises out of the fact the picture field. When this occurs, the closure often a substantial voids between the autopsies, exclusively on geometrical basis using continuation lines must pass the location of the imaging areas such as seams or tectonic disturbances in spatial laid the body field. Thus, for example, when designing a meeting of the two disorders based on chronological view of planning the carrying out of mining the disadvantage should be considered, what is not taken into account tektonicheski process and that due to the restriction of the projection solely by the geometry becomes possible only apparent (ostensible) accuracy. So, in a known type of planning for mining operations approximately after the occurrence of cracks remain unaccounted still ongoing movement on the thrust, which, however, can have a significant impact on the orientation of the location Stopes.Therefore, the basis of the invention is to improve the way this kind of content the main criteria for planning and thus to achieve greater reliability in the implementation associated with minor cost orientation the location of longwall mining in the phone fields.The solution to this problem follows, including the preferred and other forms of execution of the invention, the content of the claims, which are given after the description.The invention in its idea provides that to establish the body field as the basis-a basis for planning in the planning area conducting mining operations define the process of energy propagation folding and reveal caused klonicheskie transfers mass, and planned treatment of the faces are oriented depending on the possibility of carrying out mining operations and/or susceptibility to landslides and/or the behavior of gas and/or the behavior of dust and/or the behavior of the roadway and/or manifestations of stress and/or installed from stress concentrations in the body field. Consequently, with the invention involves the advantage consisting in the fact that tektonicheskie relationship occurs when the body field to be planning in terms of its development, are used as the basis for planning the conduct of mining operations, and more accurate data on the form and behavior of tectonics will improve the basis for planning the conduct of mining operations, as well as appropriate planning is required for this exploration and preparation work. Thus, the relationship between macro - and micromechanical or between the initial and subsequent violations are used for planning for mining operations is not known so far by the way. Thus, accounting tektonicheskih relationships allows us to proactively provide information that, for example, resetting known violations of pre the and. In accordance with this by using the method according to the invention can be determined from the known disturbances of the magnitude of the changes in the direction of stretch and change the slopes and do hence the implications for planning for mining operations; has the ability to bring information about break violations, depending on the fall of the layers of rocks, this means depending on the level of folding and considering them to Orient planning to conduct mining operations. Possible and more accurate data on the form and conduct of macro - and microtechnique, resulting purposefully improved basis for planning for mining and mining themselves.Further, in the area of conduct of mining operations, subject to planning, determine the characteristic energy of folding. Energy of folding in the rock mass is opposed by the back pressure created by the weight of rocks; energy folding overcomes this pressure and at the same time doing work due to tectonic disturbances and give them form, and from the established direction of energy propagation folding design violations of prosmotra is isit in some case significantly from did the energy of folding in this case through the rock mass without the emergence of new tectonic structures or have not been modified already existing patterns.In accordance with one exemplary embodiment of the invention, the direction of energy propagation folding define the zone blocking movement and free movement, and in these zones establish the possibility of mining. It is based on scientific findings that the exchange energy of folding in place only as long as there is free space, as for example, fluorescent surface for the occurrence of tectonic structures, so the possibility of conducting mining operations depends on the availability of free movement confronting the zone blocking traffic. In the zone blocking traffic there are more favorable conditions to assess the feasibility of conducting mining operations than in the areas of free movement.In particular, there are good opportunities to conduct mining operations in areas adjacent to the zone of attenuation, namely from the side zones of weakening opposite to the direction of energy of folding, as well as in the cores is positioning around the zone of weakening is extinguished and therefore does not cause any tectonic loading in the area of the kernel.The movement in rocks as a result of the load, the energy folding, results in the appearance of zones of compression, buckling and weakening, which can be defined as the basis of planning for mining operations in accordance with the exemplary embodiment of the invention and which should be considered separately for orientation location Stopes. Because compression zones occur when the energy of folding and material rocks strenuously strive towards each other, in such areas the movements of microtectonics violations in rocks is limited, so here in accordance with the proposal according to the invention the preferred way of defining the location of longwall mining. Shear zone formed due to the fact that the energy of the folding and material rocks tend to penetrate into each other, so that in these areas are limited, but in some cases even can be used the possibility of carrying out mining operations. Conversely, areas of weakness emerge as a consequence of run energy folding and material rock movement from each other, and the resulting slable is limited availability to conduct mining operations.The existence of zones of compression, buckling and weakening leads located between zones, which is tektonicheskoe moving arrays. The movement of the arrays has a significant impact in terms of expected microtechnique. Therefore, the invention proposes, in particular, to withdraw from the planning for mining zones move arrays from buckling or compression in the region of weakening.Tektonicheskoe moving arrays in a particular case is under significant influence of geological structures, such as the formation of blocky mountains, on the one hand, and cracks fine cracks in the rock and shifts, on the other hand, so that should determine the direction of energy propagation folding and consequent movement of the arrays relative to the fractures, small cracks in the rock and shifts that need to determine the side of tectonics in the area of disorders, and treatment of the faces should be located in the zone minimum side tectonics.The determination of the optimum direction of development is determined by determining the optimal length of the face. Since the relocation of longwall mining is ocia mining should be laid enough.The length of the grooves occurs when the direction of development of the selected parallel surfaces spallation, which advanced areas of weakness or straightened collapse. However, this is valid only at a distance of approximately 1000 m, when measured horizontally from the crack, and, accordingly, until the middle of the blocks, if the distance limiting block cracks, less than 2000 mWhen changes are reset to the cracks occur weakening, which have been pushed to the offsets. The direction of stretch of these shifts form with the directions of stretch of cracks in the direction of increasing discharge, as a rule, the angle of about 30 the rut. If the width of the corresponding blocks is greater than 2000 m, the length of the face should be at least 2000 m; otherwise, there are faces with a length that matches the width of the blocks.In areas with large discharge in the cracks of the rocks are compressed and as a result there are no microtectonics violations, which improves the possibility of conducting mining operations. There were no zones of weakening, which have been pushed to the displacement, and in this case, the direction of carrying out mining operations is chosen parallel limit is as to cope with the bias layers using appropriate selection of used machines and lining.When decreasing the reset on limited cracks occur in the zone of attenuation, and the direction of stretch offsets there is a decisive factor for choosing the optimal direction prodigene stope and the length of the stope. If the length of the stretch of cracks on the site violations with large discharge is less than the width of the blocks, the direction of prodigene stope is chosen perpendicular to the strike of the cracks.Sedimentary deposits, such as, in particular, coal field, formed sequencewas tectonics, which in turn is formed due to the fact that in the direction of depth is increasing thrusts, which extend more or less perpendicular to the cracks. If opened wavy bedding with microtectonics offsets and without them and/or thrusts or respectively microtectonics offsets and/or offsets without wavy bedding, and roof sections remain undisturbed or above no opening, then in the direction of in depth grow large thrusts. In this case, you should choose the optimal direction of mining works, which will be held computers the block cracks.To improve these basic parameters at the meeting wavy bedding with microtectonics shifts or respectively microtectonics overlap or without them, in the course of planning for mining operations should provide boreholes, which in relevant areas of production laid down to determine the behavior and the exact position of thrusts. It should be noted that the thrusts are structurally determined from stretch across areas with wavy bedding and/or microtectonics overlap, in order to put the holes, for example, to perform as well, traversed by a continuous bottom, and the area defined thus thrust fault as well core drilling.If the zone of weakening and area burst violations are the cracks close to each other at a distance of less than 600 m or zone of weakening lies at the cracks in the direction of the flow of energy, up to 200 m in the roof crack have disorders that are caused, in particular, small offsets. In this case, during the planning stope should be purposefully made the holes, to determine the places of a break in the direction of stretch and pitch Boga associated with zones of weakening, and the effects of drain - zones burst violations. If the distance between the effect of the snow plow and the funnel effect less than 900 m to 100 m in the roof and up to 50 m in the sole of the thrust fault and the corresponding zone is more prone to disorders, in particular through more shallow thrusts. In this case, during the planning of the excavation should also provide a special holes to determine the location of the fracture in the direction of stretch and slope of the big thrusts. If necessary, a basis can take microtectonics near shifts and cracks as indications of weakened zone, in the zone of the planning purposefully reject the holes in the side of individual sites with violations. Upon the occurrence of the above mentioned tectonic conditions when planning the location Stopes safe distance should be set either equal to 200 m to the cracks or not equal 100 m from the thrust, and therefore to guide the construction of longwall mining on crack to obtain the optimal length of the recess.Another important aspect that should be considered when planning for longwall mining, is expected as a consequence of tectonic stresses predisposition to obamania stope, but also significantly affects the content of the waste material in the production of rock mass and strength drifts and thus the associated costs.Aspect to account for susceptibility to landslides when planning Stopes is layered slippery skladkoobrazovaniem bending; this layer-by-layer slip occurs when skladkoobrazovaniem with the formation of anticlines and synclines, and in the outlet area of thrust in the direction of up and down, as well as in the area of the cracks on the slope of the cracks. If this slip of parallel layers is disturbed by kalyanee, inclusions in the top of reservoir, thick stable layers or double seams, then the result is an increased susceptibility to landslides, which should be considered as in the area of introduction of the treatment works, and for laying drifts, for example, through the use of more powerful fastening lava, by maintaining sewage extraction without delay in the construction of the support, timely installation mounting horizontal mine workings in their sinking, smaller mounting distances fixing horizontal mine workings and more high profile weight horizontal lining the e with the manifestation of intersecting Kalyani, which in this case is almost always caused by impairments and by faulting.And finally, when planning Stopes should also consider the behavior of gas: since cleaning the faces should be focused in areas of faulting, the planning Stopes should consider measures for the removal of gas, which should include, inter alia, for the manifestation of sliding parallel layers, for a counter-movement developed in rocks, in terms of thrust, when compressive stresses, for the manifestation of the effects of the funnel and the snow plow in the blocks, and at formation grips. The same is valid also in the case of exhaust gas is carried out if necessary with the help of wells, leading to the earth's surface; this should be taken into account when the thrusts, which do not reach the roof rocks, faulting zones of cracks and thrusts with layer-by-layer slide when skladkoobrazovaniem bend, in zones of discontinuous disturbances far from cracks in zones of compression fractures with large discharge, when the thrusts, as well as in areas anticline with the thrusts.The characteristics of the subject matter of these documents disclosed in the above description, the formula image is to taken separately, and in any combination. 1. Way of planning Stopes by establishing direction prodigene stope, the length of the stope, speed prodigene stope and sequence development on tectonically loaded sedimentation field, in particular for coal Deposit, and determine the location of longwall mining on tectonic disturbances in the body field, and to determine the identified leads may contain and readied for development of the body field as the basic planning data take into account the fall, stretch and reset size of the corresponding detected geological disturbances, characterized in that to determine the body field as the basic planning data in the planning area conducting mining operations establish the nature power folding and identify caused by tectonic energy attenuation, shear and compression in a rock mass, as well as caused by these phenomena tectonic movement of weight, treatment plan, the faces are oriented depending on the possibility of carrying out mining operations, and/or from predraspolozhennosti, and/or manifestations of stress, and/or from the established stress concentrations in the body field.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that determine the direction of energy propagation folding in zone blocking movement and the areas of free movement and depending on that establish the possibility of conducting mining operations in these areas.3. The method according to p. 1 or 2, characterized in that on the basis of the fall, stretch and values reset the mass of known violations and their changes in both the horizontal and vertical directions define the zones of compression, weakening and collapse.4. The method according to p. 3, characterized in that the zones of compression concentrate treatment the faces and areas of weakness in the broad scale withdraw from the planning of wastewater treatment works.5. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that the range of movement of the mass of the shear zone or compression in the zone of weakening withdraw from planning for sewage treatment works.6. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 5, characterized in that determine the direction of energy propagation folding relatively cracks small cracks in the rock and shifts that need to determine the side tectorial on one of the PP.1 - 6, characterized in that in the geological formation hat rocks with a width of rocks, extending for a distance less than 2000 m, the direction of prodigene stope located at a distance of up to 1000 m, which is defined in the horizontal direction to restrict the violation of the parallel surfaces of cleavage, which pushed the zone of weakening or straightened collapse.8. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the direction of prodigene stope is chosen perpendicular to the strike of violations with large discharge, the length of the stretch which is less than the width limited by them rocks.9. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the direction of prodigene stope selected parallel to the strike of violations with large discharge, the length of the stretch is greater than the width limited by them rocks.10. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 9, characterized in that the direction of mining works in the mixture, extending at an angle to the crack, choose parallel thrusts, as measured at the level of the reservoir a distance less than the distance bounding rock cracks relative to each other.11. Method one is skladkoobrazovaniem and based on the direction of energy propagation folding, make a conclusion about microtectonics.12. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that when planning Stopes for the corresponding area is defined by layer-by-layer slip and deduced from this increased susceptibility to landslides rocks in the roof plan of measures for the protection of the roof and reduce the lag time when the construction of the lining.13. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 12, characterized in that at a meeting of the layer slip and Kalyani take measures for the protection of the roof and reduce the lag time when the construction of the lining.14. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that when planning Stopes for the corresponding area is defined by layer-by-layer slip and deduced from this increased predisposition to the field of host rocks provide increased securing horizontal mine workings.15. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 11, characterized in that the at crosses into the zone of the mining skalyvanija plan activities for the protection of the roof and reduce the lag time when the construction of the lining.16. Spaniah include measures to strengthen the attachment of horizontal mine workings.17. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 16, characterized in that when planning Stopes in shear zones take into account the need for exhaust gas, in particular in areas with sliding parallel layers with opposite movements in the zones below the thrust, when the contractions, the effects of the funnel, when the effects of the snow plow and the shrinkage of the layer.18. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 17, characterized in that when planning Stopes take into account the need for flue gas passing through the surface of the borehole when the thrusts, not reaching to the roof rocks, or in zones of shear on the crack and thrusts with layer-by-layer slides, or shear zones further away from cracks or zones of compression in combination with cracks having a large amount of discharge, or under the thrusts, or anticlinal zones overlap.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes partial filling of extracted space of side and central mains by filling stripes from lava extracting shafts. At center of semi-lava on the side of massive, wherein next extractive column will be cut, filling shaft is additionally driven, wherefrom full filling of space between central fill stripe and fill stripe on the side of massive is performed. Preparation of next extraction column is performed under protection of erected fill stripes.
EFFECT: higher safety, higher efficiency.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting well field portions by driving bed and field mines. At mine fields to be prepared with weak rock stability driving of several field preparatory mines is performed at portion of field with width determined from formula. Bed preparation mines on same portion are driven alter, with displacement of cleaning operations from these may be driven in portions, at which their stability is provided for technological time period with inter-drift blocks of given rigidity.
EFFECT: higher safety.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of mineral resource by underground mine method in liquid environment, under protection of water-resistant rock massif. Full flooding of auxiliary extracting and preparatory mines is performed, which provide for start of wiping operations, with working liquid, neutral relatively to mineral resource and enveloping rocks and being under pressure, matching value of pressure at depth of mine. Process of removal of separated rock beyond underground flooded space is synchronized with replenishment of working liquid volume in this space. Working liquid pressure can be formed by effecting it with force liquid, which is placed either in mine shaft, hydraulically connected to lower flooded auxiliary extracting mine, or in mine shaft and force column, placed on earth surface, above mine shaft, and hydraulically connected thereto. Required height of force liquid column is determined from mathematical expressions. After mineral resource extraction is finished within mine field, flooded extracted space is used for placement of toxic and non-toxic wastes of industries or strategic objects, while process of transfer of wastes or strategic objects into liquid environment is performed synchronously with removal of working liquid beyond flooded space in volume, equal to volume of transferred wastes or strategic objects.
EFFECT: higher safety.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separating resources of all levels on blocks, in form of upwardly elongated hexahedrons. Blocks on adjacent levels are positioned in staggered order with displacement of some of them relatively to others for half of blocks width. Resources of each block within limits of hexahedron are divided on two portions: hexagonal chamber inside the block and block itself of same hexagonal shape on all six sides of chamber. Preparation and cutting of chamber resources is realized by driving field level drifts and mines, intermediate sub-level drifts and mines, and also level and sub-level orts and drifts, driven through mineral resource, from which resources of chambers and blocks are drilled and exploded. Extraction and outlet of mineral resource is performed in three rows - first chamber resources, than inter-chamber blocks under protection of ceiling blocks, after that ceiling blocks deposits. Outlet of resources from chambers and blocks is performed trough ends of level orts and mines, an also through ends of intermediate sub-level mines.
EFFECT: better use of mineral resources, lower laboriousness, lower costs, decreased block preparation time.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes determining width of edge zones of block, subjected to influence from support pressure, then preparatory mines are driven along block at limits of these zones and permanent rigid supports are erected therein. After that portion of block from preparatory mines to block center is extracted.
EFFECT: increased mineral resource yield coefficient, safer extraction of inter-panel support blocks, without breaking their carrying ability and without using backfill materials.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing a level on hexahedral sections of upwardly elongated shape and is prepared by driving of field backup drift. From drift below each section shafts are driven, from which along mineral resource ascending shafts are drilled. For drilling chambers deposits by wells, sub-level drift is driven along mineral resource, access to which is provided by driving field sub-level drift and shafts. Outlet of extracted rock is performed through ends of shafts. After letting out rock from all sections ceiling beam is brought down and also let out through ends of shafts.
EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher efficiency, higher personnel safety.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separation of a level on hexahedral sections of upwardly elongated shape and is prepared by driving of field backup drift. From the drift shafts are driven below each section, from which along mineral resource ascending shafts are drilled, meant for drilling from them by horizontal or slanting wells and extracting sections resources. Outlet of extracted rock mass is performed through ends of shafts. After outlet of rock mass from all sections ceiling beam is brought down and let out also through ends of shafts.
EFFECT: lower laboriousness, lower costs, higher efficiency, higher personnel safety.
FIELD: mining industry, particularly methods of underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves advancing breakage face in under-roof layer; drilling bores in the under-roof layer and injecting weakening reagent to separate zones through the bores; drilling blind drift in front of the breakage face, wherein the blind drift has length of not less than breakage face length; drilling bores for following weakening reagent injection from the blind bore; additionally boring intermediate bores between above bores for following gas exhausting; performing under-roof layer development so that non-developed bank is left directly above breakage face support; performing stepwise weakening reagent injection into corresponding bores and evacuating gas from intermediate bores; leaving bores filled with weakening reagent for 1-2 days and supplying the weakening reagent into intermediate bores.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of mineral preparation.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly methods of underground mining.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting mineral by hydrocutting machines and headers from face massif in rectangular blocks; putting on metal cases on the blocks to facilitate loading-and-unloading operations and transportation; loading the cut blocks on hauling truck along side previously opened from breakage face side, wherein the truck position is fixed by spacing apart hydraulic post permanently connected to the hauling truck; moving loaded hauling trucks inside breakage face by hauling tracks along channel, V-shaped guiders or guiding rails with the use of haulage cargo winches arranged in berms near conveying tunnels or with the use of independent drives, wherein the conveyance is carried out to conveying and venting tunnels abutting the breakage face; loading mineral blocks from hauling trucks onto wheeled transport platforms without block turning for following transportation. Distance between rail tracks is equal to rail track width to transport blocks on paired wheeled platforms in which locomotive moves along medium track. Working area face is strengthened by individual hydraulic posts and metal hydraulic jacks and metal roof bars or by mechanized face support. The face support has fastening sections including above hydraulic jacks and roof bars, as well as wheel guiding means sections and hydraulic movers with control panel arranged on each fastening section pair. The roof is controlled by partial filling the excavated space with mineral blocks. Distance between neighboring mineral units arranged on one paired wheeled platform and on adjacent platforms may be identical and equal to distance between guiders in breakage heading. Mineral blocks are cut in several rows, wherein depth of slot at seam ground and roof is two times as thickness of mineral blocks to be cut.
EFFECT: increased output, improved safety and ecology.
3 cl, 14 dwg