Device for protection of catchment sediment
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to hydraulic structures and can be used to protect water intakes from the sediment. The device includes a water inlet of a water intake, a threshold with a vertical horse face, flyover and nanocoated device connecting the upper and lower dams. Nanocoated device made in the form of a series of tubes with suction boxes. The tubes are arranged horizontally and above the level of the annual drawdown of the reservoir. The suction boxes mounted for movement on the rack, recessed below the level of sediment and sediment removed from the water intake at a distance sufficient to move large suspended sediment in the bottom form of desire. Pier blocks approach to water intake. The threshold below target piglets. Under the intakes are made flush holes. 2 Il. The invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, devices for protection of water intakes hydraulic structures from sediment.The problem of preventing the ingress of sediment in the water from nanoseismic rivers is one of the main in hydraulic engineering. Protection of water intakes from sediments is important for both irrigation and water supply (prenotazioni damage).There are ways to protect water intakes among which are the excitation in the thread one way or the other transverse circulation, providing a direction of bottom currents that carry the main part of the relatively large load, in the direction of idle spillways, and the arrangement of the tanks before the water intakes (see, for example, Khachatryan A., and others Sedimentation and flushing of the irrigation tanks and reservoirs, M.: Kolos, 1966; R. J. Garde, Randa Raju K. G. Mechanics of Sediment Transportation and Alluvial Streems Prablems.-Willey Eestern Ltd, New-Delhi, 1977, p.p. 380-402).However, these methods of protection of water intakes from the sediment is not always applicable or economically viable. The necessary excitation of the transverse circulation requires usually use a specific build structures that are often in conflict with other requirements of hydraulic structures.The device of the tanks is very expensive and for large intakes, especially energy, is not economically feasible. In addition, there are certain difficulties in the operation of the clarifiers.One way to protect water intakes is placed under water intakes leaching galleries (see, for example, Prudovsky khnicheskie the reference NPP "Aquarius", 1995).When using such a solution, before the pressure face of the receiving water sediment sediment is formed hole with the top slope equal to the natural, by which the main part of the sediment slides into the washing galleries, making the content of the sediments (especially their large fractions) in part of the flow entering the intakes significantly reduced.The disadvantages of this solution is the following: due to the proximity of the front body of the sediment load from the catchment and the greater steepness of the slopes of the pit before the pressure face of relatively large sediment goes into suspension and falls into the water. The slopes of the pit are extremely stable state, which may, at any resentment (especially seismic shocks) to cause sliding and driving as leaching galleries and protect water intakes. Pass a large amount of load leads to regular waterjet surface damage leaching galleries that requires systematic repairs facings galleries, obstructed during normal constructive solutions. Grooves gates leaching galleries susceptible to clogging by sediment, which complicates usage of the removal of sediment in the bottom of the hole is achieved by the use of pipes, crossing pressure front entrances (piglets) are removed from the discharge face of the diversion structure. While the front of sediments sediment away from the water intake, which reduces the possibility of blockage during the sliding of slopes and appears fundamental possibility of replacing pipes in abrasive wear.The closest analogue to the proposed technical solution is the "device type "saxophone" to protect the intake from the sediment in the form of a pipe crossing the water intake structure and extending in its lower reach, the upper portion of which is advanced in the direction of the upstream (see: D. K. Lysne et al Sediment Control: Recent Development for Heandworks, The Int. Gournal on Hydropower and Dam, March, 1995).Among the most significant disadvantages of this device include the following: not excluded from entering the intake of a relatively large load, passed in suspension on the front of the body deposits before Sosunov and passed by them. Extremely easy access to the pipes for inspection, repair and replacement.The proposed solution allows you to protect water from getting into his bottom and relatively large fractions of suspended sediment by taking them to the main part without costs Deanie eliminates the danger of uncontrolled blockage of wash facilities and water withdrawals during collapse of slopes body fat. The device allows it to automatically turn on and off without locking devices on the pipes.This is achieved by the fact that in the device to protect the intake from the sediment, including connecting the upper and lower pools nanocoated device, the latter is in the form of a series of horizontal upstream of the pipe above the level of the annual drawdown of the reservoir, suction boxes mounted for movement on perryvale approach to water intake rack, recessed below the level of sediment and sediment removed from the water intake at a distance sufficient to move large suspended sediment in the bottom form of attraction, and below the target piglets threshold horse with a vertical face, and under the intakes intake made flush holes.In Fig. 1 shows a longitudinal section of the device of Fig. 2 - his plan.On the approach to the protected water intake 1 on the sides of the inlet channel 2 sets the number of horizontal nanocoated tubes 3 located directly above the level of depletion of the upstream. The pipes run through the pressure side of the intake through the metal diaphragm 4 and the edge of the ramp 6, within which they are attached piglets 7, which can move (including to rise above the water level) using a lifting device 8 mounted on the overpass. Inputs in piglets normally located below the sediment surface sediment on the approach to the overpass. Rack can be used for the device detached trash facilities with coronadite lattices 9.Directly below inputs piglets is the threshold of 10 with a vertical horse face.Piglets 7 tubes 3 are removed from the intakes of the protected water 1 (or more wash holes 11) by a distance sufficient to move the necessary parts of suspended sediment in the bottom form of desire, making this part of the sediment is discharged through an extra rinse holes 11 in the bypass protect water intakes. When the prism sediments of the target installation piglets nanocoated pipes in the floods associated with the primary movement of the load when idle discharge and water level of the upstream increases nanocoated tubes 3 and the movement of water in them is provided by pressure on the dam. If necessary, udaily air ejectors 12.Together with water in nanocoated pipe 3 comes bottom sediments, resulting in the placing of inputs in piglets below the surface deposits of sediment formed funnel 13, the slopes of which the main part of the largest sediment (usually about 70-80% of their consumption) slips to the suction boxes and play in downstream water pipes in the composition of the pulp. Piglets tubes are so formed by removal through them sediment funnel 13 in the body of the sediments, crossing between them, completely blocked the runway approach of sediment to the protected water intake.The bottom threshold of 10 with a vertical discharge line, located below piglets, provides for the formation of a vortex with a horizontal axis of intensive lateral drift of sediment to the inputs in piglets and reduce rackets ground between the suction boxes.Due to the presence of free access to nanosolution pipes in mezhpavodkovye possible period of revision, repair and replacement if necessary. The absence of locking devices on the pipes excludes areas, usually the most vulnerable waterjet destruction. Lifetime nanocoated pipes can be extended through periodicheskogo movement piglets and remove unstable main slope sediments from the water intake eliminates the blocking of the discharge openings when the sliding slope.When the avalanche flow in the funnel before the suction boxes 7 is the transition of sediment in suspension and their movement formed in a free jet through the target installation piglets. Thanks to a significant reduction in sediment loads in the stream below the target piglets water depth here is greatly increased and the flow rate fall. As a consequence, a relatively large load is moving at sufficient length section below piglets in the bottom form of desire. The sediment that did not appear in nanocoated pipe and hazardous for water discharged through the flush holes 11, below the threshold of abstraction. Due to the relatively small flow of sediment through these holes and their small size holes can have small dimensions and be performed, for example, in the form of small, standard pipes, laid in a gallery that provides audit, ease of repair and replacement. Device for protection of catchment sediment, including connecting the upper and lower pools nanocoated device, characterized in that nanocoated device made in the form of a number of horizontal upstream of the pipe above the level of the annual processing reservoir, the Lenna below the level of sediment and sediment removed from the water intake at a distance, sufficient to move large suspended sediment in the bottom form of attraction, and below the target piglets threshold horse with a vertical face, and under the intakes intake made additional leaching holes.
FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly water intakes.
SUBSTANCE: water intake structure comprises spillway dam and water intake with two or more parallel sump chambers. The sump chambers have upper check lock and lower flushing check lock. Sump chamber bottoms are inclined in flow direction. Through section is located near the flushing check lock from lower pool side. The through section has inclination angle exceeding or equal to that of sump chamber bottom. Water accumulation tray is arranged upstream of flushing check lock transversely to water flow direction. Bottom mark of water accumulation lock is above water surface mark during sump chamber flushing. Precipitated drifts are removed from sump chambers by water flows as a result of gate manipulation. Sump chamber bottom inclination is determined from drift transportation condition. Sump chambers are provided with stream-guiding walls.
EFFECT: increased water cleaning quality and reduced costs of water intake structure building.
3 cl, 7 dwg