The method of separation of aliphatic alcohols

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: mainly organic synthesis in the composition of the alcohol-containing solvent. The essence of the invention: a method of separation of aliphatic alcohols from the head fraction (afuraldehyde) production of ethyl alcohol by distillation in the presence of 0.1 - 10 wt.% (better to 0.35 wt.%) alkaline agent (hydrate of sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, calcium oxide) at a temperature of cube 70 - 80oC. 2 Il.

The invention relates to the field of chemical technology, namely the improvement of the method of separation of a mixture of aliphatic alcohols from the head (afuraldehyde) fraction of production of ethyl alcohol intended for use in the composition of the alcohol-containing solvent. Afuraldehyde fraction produced by OST 18-121-80.

Separation of a mixture of aliphatic alcohols, there are many patents in particular by selection of ethyl alcohol of various compounds by hydrogenation with hydrogen (A. S. Czechoslovakia, 268100, MKI C 07 C 29/04, 31.07.1990) or in the form of a mixture with toluene (A. C. the USSR, 1620442, MKI C 07 C 31/10, 15.01.1991). These methods are cumbersome and not suitable for separation of the components of the head of the faction.

The substance used for processing the head of the faction of paerata afuraldehyde fraction (main components - aldehydes, esters, methanol and ethanol), technical ethanol and Cuba. The application is only a fraction of ethyl alcohol, the remaining fraction to be burning or destruction by other methods (Yarovenko C. L. et al. reference for the production of alcohol, 1981; Smirnov, C. A. Technology alcohol, 1981). This method was taken as a prototype.

The lack of recycling process of the prototype is the necessity of using a distillation unit high efficiency and lack of low-boiling components, in particular methanol, and high-boiling components (propanol and Isobutanol).

The purpose of the proposed invention is the selection and use of all main components of the parent faction.

This goal is achieved by introducing 0.1 to Mas.% alkaline agent to bind impurities of acid character, and some esters and process of distillation at a temperature of 70-80oC in the cube.

In the process, you can use a distillation unit periodic and continuous action.

The conditions of the experiment.

Below are some techniques technological Prosti equipment:

(a) a periodic variant (see Fig. 1);

b) continuous variant (see Fig. 2).

The apparatus MRA - compact mass transfer apparatus of the rotary type, is available on the company "Helios" , Kazan. The raw material used afuraldehyde fraction produced alcohol plants of Russia and CIS and is characterized by OST 18-121-80.

1. In the reactor capacitive type with a shirt, a coil and a stirrer is loaded 700 kg afuraldehyde fraction, enter the estimated amount of the alkaline agent, in particular hydrate of sodium oxide. The amount of alkaline agent is from 0.1 to 1.0% by weight afuraldehyde faction and is determined for each lot EAF by calculation (amount of alkali should ensure complete neutralization of the acids and the hydrolysis of esters, especially ethyl acetate and ethylformate).

Included stirrer, heated, and at a temperature of 70oC in the mass begins the process of rectification. A pair of spirits pass through the apparatus MPA, Sigulda in the condenser-klodnica and, passing through the divider phlegmy fall into the receiver of the finished product.

During the distillation the temperature in the reactor rises gradually up to 80oC and maintained above 80oC is e less than 95% of the initial mass, the mixture of alcohols (methanol, propanol, ethanol and Isobutanol) contains water not more than 9% by mass.

2. In the case of the implementation process in the continuous version, the following changes are made: in the heater of the original mass is heated to 70-75oC; in a rotary evaporator temperature is maintained within 76-80oC.

Temperature range 76-80oC corresponds to the boiling temperature of the mixtures of methyl, ethyl, propyl and isobutyl alcohols of different composition, i.e., below 76oC is incomplete distillation of spirits, and at temperatures above 80oC increases the water content in the finished product. By appropriate documentation (TU 23 1913-20992222-95) the water content should be no more than 9 mass%.

The resulting product is used for the production of solvent 646, nitro SC-P, furniture Polish SC-218, and other solvents, and the composition of the windscreen de-icer "Browse".

Thus, the invention consists in the processing of afuraldehyde faction, a certain amount of alkaline agent and optimize the temperature rectification, resulting in a positive effect to the full from the lymph alcohols from the head (afuraldehyde) fraction of production of ethyl alcohol by distillation, characterized in that in the process of rectification in weight enter 0.1 to 1.0 wt.% (preferably of 0.35 wt. %) alkaline agent (hydrate of sodium oxide, soda ash, calcium oxide) and the rectification is carried out at a temperature of cube 70 - 80oC.

 

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