Method sequential purification of domestic and industrial wastewater after biological treatment of suspended solids, organic pollutants, ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to methods of treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater after biological purification from suspended solids, ammonium nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus and organic contaminants. The essence of the method is that after biological treatment of wastewater sent for treatment, which is to use processes developed surface with the use of sorbents, working in strict sequence in accordance with their ability to target the extraction of suspended solids and organic contaminants is the use of carbon-containing sorbent, nitrogen ammonium - cation phosphate-phosphorus - application of load on the surface of which is chemisorption. After purification of waste water have the following characteristics: BODp2,0 - 2,9 mg O2/l, suspended solids of 2.5 - 4.5 mg/l ammonium nitrogen 0,15 - 0,49 mg/l, phosphate-phosphorus of 0.003 - 0.18 mg/l 2 Il. The invention relates to the field of purification of industrial and domestic wastewater to remove suspended solids, organic pollutants, as defined by the BOD or COD, ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus.The achievement of the technical result, interferes with the following: not provided methods of purification of waste waters from nitrogen, suspended solids and organic contaminants. In the analog indicated the need for purification of waste water from phosphate by filtration after x-ray treatment, but the condition of the filter and the filter material is not mentioned.Known phosphorus removal from wastewater by use of flooded biofilter loading, consisting of a mixture of: Al2O3; Fe2O3; CaO; MgO; K2O; SO23-; SiO2taken in different ratios, the particle size of the boot 5-7 mm. Mentions the influence of Ca2+the process of biological fosfatazy. Under the urban wastewater treatment with COD 640-840 mg/l and the concentration of 8-10 mg/l concentration of the filtrate in purified water to 0.8 mg/l, COD - 50 mg/l .The achievement of the technical result is hindered by the lack of information about the removal of nitrogen and suspended solids, the complexity of making the load due to the large number of its components and the need for a shift boot component in amounts determined Deut shall grany nature (MPC - 0.6 mg/l).The known method a two-step purification of waste water on the filters with zeolite loading. Indicates that the first stage the size of grains of 1-5 mm, the filtering rate of 6-10 m/h and the formation of biofilms on the surface of the granular load and the processes of nitrification. The second stage is dominated by ion-exchange processes. As a result of application of the method the quality of the purified water meets the requirements of the state environmental authorities .The achievement of the technical result prevents the following: there are no data on wastewater treatment from phosphorus.Closest to the proposed method is a method , based on the principle of adsorption and high capacity for phosphorus and the performance of the filtrate. As a sorbent selected Fe(OH)3that the installation is used in a mixture with sand. With an average water flow of 60 to 120 l/day extraction rate of phosphorus is achieved 95-99% for nitrogen 98-99%.The achievement of the technical result prevents the following. No data is given for the lower concentrations of organic pollutants and suspended solids. Do not specify the initial concentration of phosphorus and the azone is industrial. From a source not know the mechanism of nitrogen removal is not specified species composition of sand, and the sand and Fe(OH)3that complicates the analysis and use of this method.To achieve the technical result of the proposed improved method of purification of domestic and industrial wastewater, which would, after biological treatment to produce the purification of residual concentrations of polluting components: suspended solids, organic pollution (as measured by BOD, COD), ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus to a concentration of not provoking the eutrophication of lakes.The technical result is achieved by a method of successive purification of domestic and industrial wastewater after biological treatment of suspended solids, organic pollutants, ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus provides their contact with the developed surface loading of a mixture of sand with adsorbent - Fe(OH)3to extract from the wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus. The download consistently differentiated by the ability to target removing these contaminants. To retrieve the suspended solids and organic contaminants use - download on the surface of which is chemisorption with achievement of the content in tertiary treated wastewater suspended solids of 2.5-4.5 mg/l; BODp2,0-2,9 mg/l; - 0,15-0,49 mg/l; - 0,003-0.18 mg/lPurified biological way water is fed initially on carbon loading. Carbon loading with grain size of 1.5-2 mm adsorb suspended solids and organic pollution. While the grains of boot develop microorganisms and along with physico-chemical sorption process of biosorption, in which the microorganisms in the process of metabolism is the use of substances that cause organic pollution of biologically treated wastewater. In this case, the carbon-containing surface is a catalyst for enzymatic reactions of microorganisms. Then the waste water after treatment on the carbon loading is served on download-cation. Upon contact of purified water with a cation exchange resin happen ion-exchange processes, intensifitsiruya lack of training load due to the extraction of suspended solids in the previous phase of the application, and the load fractions of 0.5-1.5 mm Further waste water is fed to the load on the surface of which is hee is insoluble phosphates on the surface of the boot. As a sparingly soluble in water compounds are formed by the interaction of trehzameshchenny phosphates with divalent or trivalent cations, as sorbents are encouraged to use materials containing divalent or trivalent cations, such as calcium, iron, aluminum. This intensification of chemical interaction is carried out by increasing the specific surface area of the sorbent due to the use of fine-grain loading, the grain size is 0.3 to 1.0 mm, the Application of these fractions may result in prevention training on the 1st and partially the 2nd stages of purification. When using the proposed method diocesana wastewater has the following parameters: suspended solids of 2.5 - 4.5 mg/l; BODp- 2,0-2,9 mg/l; ammonium nitrogen - 0,15-0,49 mg/l; phosphorus phosphate - 0,003-0.18 mg/lThe basis of the selected limits is the following: the excess of the upper specified limit leads to irreversible disturbance of the ecological balance of water bodies, leading to eutrophication. Reduction of suspended solids, organic pollutants and nitrogen ammonium below the lower limit of an unsustainable appreciation of the way. Value content of phosphorus fosfates invention of the prototype is consistent extraction from wastewater biological purification of pollutants: suspended solids and organic contaminants, of ammonium nitrogen, phosphate-phosphorus using boot consistently differentiated by the ability to target removing these contaminants. As you download, extract suspended solids and organic pollution, use of carbon-containing sorbent, as a download, extract the ammonium nitrogen use cation exchange resin, as a download, extract the phosphate-phosphorus, use the boot, which on the surface is chemisorption. In the purification of waste water has the following parameters: suspended solids of 2.5 - 4.5 mg/l; BODp- 2,0-2,9 mg/l, as nitrogen ammonia - 0,15-0,49 mg/l; phosphorus phosphate - 0,003-0.18 mg/lThus the invention meets the condition of novelty.Evidence of conformity of the invention to condition inventive step is as follows. The proposed method consists of three phases, United by a common method of extraction of contaminants by use of the processes in the developed surfaces, namely with the use of sorbents, working in strict sequence. Moreover, at each stage of purification used a boot adapted to the election extracted the composition. Fractional composition and type of loading due to the presence of these pollutants in the wastewater received at each stage of purification. So at the first stage receives the waste water with high content of suspended solids and organic contaminants. To increase the time between washes load and taking into account the effective detention suspended solids in the first stage, use a fraction of the download size of 1.5-2 mm. remove Organic contamination in the process of their adsorption on the surface of the boot, and as a result of biosorption. To increase the extraction of organic pollutants as a result of biosorptive use carbon-based sorbents with a large number of micropores, contributing to the development of biosorption. The possibility of biosorption due to the presence of organic substrate (organic contaminants and nutrients in the wastewater that passed biological treatment.In the second stage of waste water coming from a solids content not exceeding 2,5-4,5 mg/l, after treatment in the first stage, therefore, the possibility of training load in the second stage is reduced and it becomes possible to use smaller relative pervokrasnoe in dissolved form, that eliminates biosorption in the second stage of purification, makes the most efficient use ionoobmennye quality exchange sorption sold on the cation exchange resin, and removing ammonium nitrogen. At the third stage sewage comes with a valid low, do not result in training download concentrations of suspended solids and organic contaminants in the dissolved form, does not lead to the development of biosorption, and with a high content of phosphate ions. Wastewater is directed to the purification of phosphate, are set to a pH of 6-8. Phosphates are thus presented in the form of phosphate ion H2PO-4. In the interaction of phosphate ions with sorbents along with physical possible sorption and chemisorption flowing through the ion-exchange mechanism:
Al-OH]+H2PO-4_ Al-H2PO4]+OH-< / BR>Thus the effect of removing phosphate ions from wastewater is higher in chemisorption. As in this case, the desorption process has no significant effect on the alkali metal orthophosphate, and one-deputizing disubstituted phosphates of alkaline earth metals quite well is that as sorbents are encouraged to use natural and synthetic materials, the main components of which are two - and trivalent cations, such as Ca, Fe, Al. For almost complete removal of phosphate ions from reaching the residual concentration to 0.003-0.18 mg/l for phosphorus use in addition to the sorption mechanism of chemisorption at boot. Thanks to the treatment in the first stage, favorable conditions (except training) to increase the specific surface area of sorbent through the use of small fractions of 0.3 to 1.0 mm, the choice of sorbent is produced on the basis of conditions ensure the process is chemisorption. All together in combination can improve the way of purification of domestic and industrial wastewater after biological treatment of residual concentrations of polluting components: suspended solids, organic pollution (as measured by BODp, COD), ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus to a concentration of not provoking the eutrophication of lakes.Thus, the invention meets the condition of inventive step.Example 1. The purification process is schematically represented in Fig. 1. Waste water after biological treatment (not shown), composition: t= 20oC; BOD5the size of the grains is 1.5 mm, the filtering rate is 1 m/h In the result of the contact of waste water loading on the surface of the grains is formed biofilm. When creating favorable conditions (aeration) aerobic microorganisms in the process of metabolism extract organic substances contained in waste water supplied to the treatment, and contributing to organic pollution, as measured by BOD. Suspended solids are trapped in the layer of the boot. Set the decrease in the concentration of suspended solids with 15 mg/l to 4 mg/l and removing the organic impurities in BOD510 mg O2/l to 1.8 mg O2/l in re-purified on the limestone-coquina waste water (BODp= 2.2 mg O2/l). The waste water after treatment in the limestone-limestone, was served next on download-clinoptilolite (2) with a grain size of 0.7 mm Speed filtering for extraction of ammonium ions is 1 m/h, The highest sorption of cations NH+4was observed at pH = 7.0. The purification efficiency was 95%, which corresponded to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen on the yield of 0.45 mg/l at the final stage of purification of waste water is served on download - limestone-coquina (3) with grain size of 0.7 mm and a filtering rate of 1 m/h, poverhnostyah - Ca4(PO4)3H 3H2O with pK = 146,9. The maximum extraction of phosphate ions was observed at a pH of 7-7,5. In tertiary treated water, the phosphorus concentration was 0.1 mg/lExample 2. The purification process is schematically represented in Fig. 2. Waste water after biological treatment (not shown), of the following composition: suspended solids 20 mg/l; BOD515 mg/l; 5 mg/l 3 mg/l, serves to load, representing the carbon-containing wastes (USO) electrode production (graphite coke) (1). The diameter of the grains USO - 1.5 mm filtering Rate is 2 m/H. At the same time with the supply of waste water was carried out by aeration. The grains of loading and interporous space formed biofilm, and the enzymatic decomposition of organic pollutants catalyzed by the carbon included in the USO, so is the process of biosorption organic contaminants in waste water entering the aftertreatment 15 mg O2/l (BOD5) and re-purified on USO waste water concentration of organic contaminants were 2.8 mg O2/l Suspended solids trapped in interporous space and when the concentration of suspended solids in waste water directed to the OED what About the waste water was supplied on the following boot - clinoptilolite (2) with grain size of 1 mm, the filtering rate of 2 m/h, in the ion exchange processes from wastewater was extracted ammonium ions when the value of the waste water is pH 7, the extraction of ammonium ions was 92% when the initial concentration of ammonium nitrogen in the waste water 5 mg/l in the filtrate concentration of ammonium nitrogen was 0.4 mg/L. the Obtained filtrate after purification of waste water in clinoptilolite was filtered through aluminum hydroxide (3) with grain size of 0.5 mm, the filtering rate of 2 m/h, water pH to 7.2. Aluminum hydroxide is loading, on a surface of which flows the chemisorption process, resulting from wastewater extracted phosphate ions, and on the loading form insoluble compounds AlPO4, 2H2O (variscite) pK = 30,5. It also assumes the formation of other phosphates, such as Al6(PO4)4(OH)65H2O, and the phosphorus concentration in the filtrate is reduced relative to the original at a 99.0% and when the concentration of phosphorus in waste water, filtered through aluminum hydroxide, 5 mg/l, the effluent concentration of phosphorus was 0.05 mg/lEvidence of conformity of the invention the requirement of industrial applicability can serve sleduushemu, of ammonium nitrogen, phosphorus and organic contaminants. The possibility of carrying out the invention is reflected by the information section of the application, confirming the possibility of implementing the method. The proposed method in its implementation ensures the achievement of the technical result consists in the improved method of purification of domestic and industrial wastewater, which allows taking into account the composition of wastewater after biological treatment to make their purification from residual concentrations of suspended solids, organic pollution (as measured by BOD, COD), ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus to a concentration of not provoking the eutrophication of lakes.Thus, the invention meets the requirement of industrial applicability. Method sequential purification of domestic and industrial wastewater after biological treatment of suspended solids, organic pollutants, ammonium nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus, providing contact runoff from a developed surface loading of a mixture of sand with adsorbent Fe(OH)3for extraction of the treated water nitrogen and phosphorus, characterized in that the load consistently differentiated by the ability the use of carbon-containing sorbent, to extract nitrogen ammonium cation, for the recovery of phosphate-phosphorus - loading, on a surface which is chemisorption, with achievement of the content in tertiary treated wastewater suspended solids of 2.5 - 4.5 mg/l, BODp- 2,0 - 2,9 mg O2/l 0,15 - 0,49 mg/l of 0.003 - 0.18 mg/L.
FIELD: training tools and devices for the training process.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of training tools and devices for the training process, in particular, with research of engineering and technology of the automated water supply systems, automatic control of a water supply system in a training process using engineering tools of the new information technologies of training. The multifunctional automated complex training-research laboratory consists of blocks connected in series and-or in parallel through intermediate tanks and devices of water-pump over and a water purification. The laboratory has a pumping plant of the first water rise connected by pressure conduits with chambers of switching with an intermediate tank of influent water, which through a pumping plant of the second water rise is interconnected with the technological apparatuses and blocks of the automated plant of the water purification including a block of clarification of water by settling, consisting of a chamber of a flocculation, a horizontal settler, a block of a reactant system, a block of a clarification of water in a suspension layer, including an air separator connected with a clarifier containing a suspended slurry bed, a block of a water clarification by filtration, that consists of a non-pressure fast and a pressure fast or ultra-speed filter with an intermediate tank of a clarified water, which through the pumping plant of the second water rise is connected to the apparatus of disinfection of water and is connected with an intermediate tank of purified water. The laboratory has an automated system of control over technological processes and a supervisory console with use of a PC and a symbolic circuit. The technical result is creation and implementation in the training-research process of the multifunction automated complex training-research laboratory operating in conditions of model engineering of real water supply systems.
EFFECT: the invention presents a created and introduced multifunction automated complex training-research laboratory operating in the real water supply systems.
18 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: swimming pools water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of water treatment, in particular, to purification and disinfection means of the recirculating water in the closed contours of swimming pools, which use the principle of operation based on a joint application of the ozone-sorption and vacuum-ejection equipment at utilization of chemical compounds of the metals possessing of oligodynamic properties. The water purification installation in a swimming pool contains located on a pipeline a circulation pump, a bypass trunk line, a sand filter, an ozonizer and an adjusting gate. Besides the installation is supplied with a unit of reception of solutions of disinfectants, the first ejection mixer, a unit of the sand filter disinfection, consisting of the second ejection mixer and the first function switch of the operation modes, a multi-nozzle ejection mixer; a sorption unit; a heat exchanger; a controller of ozone concentration in the recirculating water; a sensor of a reduction-oxidation potential; a transducer of the reduction-oxidation potential; a unit of primary water preparation, the second function switch of operation modes; a filter screen and the perforated pipeline. The technical result: increased sanitary-and-epidemiologic reliability of the waters purification processes and disinfection and also prevention of secondary bacterial pollution of a swimming pool.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sanitary-and-epidemiologic reliability of the waters purification processes and disinfection prevention of a swimming pool secondary bacterial pollution.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: initial waste water is mixed with chloroform to extract dimethylacetamide and isobutyl alcohol and, after settling-assisted separation from chloroform, resulting mixture is passed through activated carbon. Thus purified water is then reused in process. Activated carbon is regenerated by chloroform. Chloroform loaded with desorbed substance and chloroform extract are combined and distilled to give dimethylacetamide, isobutyl alcohol, and chloroform. Distilled-off chloroform is divided into two streams, the first one being returned to regenerate activated carbon and the other is mixed with initial waste water.
EFFECT: reduced expenses due to reduced compound of costly adsorbent without loss in waste water treatment efficiency and enabled low-waste technology.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a plant for reusing oil-containing wastes obtained from washing of oil storage tanks to produce secondary fuel. Plant has caisson for stratification of pollutants, waste-supply pumps, conduits with shutoff gate valves to discharge finished product, cleaning solution, and sludge. Plant is further provided with second caisson for purifying spent oil and heated third caisson to prepare stratifying solution, which caisson has bubbling pump, and, connected to both caissons, ejector mixer for mixing stratification agent with water and valve gate positioned between caissons. Bubbling pump is connected to first and second caissons through conduits with shutoff gate valves and first and second caissons are connected through shutoff gate valves to third caisson and to mixer for mixing purified mazut with purified motor oil, which mixer is provided with outlet tube for finished product.
EFFECT: achieved high quality of cleaning tanks by repetitive use of cleaning solution and leading to production of secondary fuel.
FIELD: plants for cleaning natural water and sewage from suspended particles; agriculture; public facilities; purification of natural water and sewage.
SUBSTANCE: proposed filtering plant is provided with superfast pressure filters located axisymmetrically, pressure pipe lines for delivery of starting water and discharge of filtrate, delivery of flushing water and discharge of dirty flushing water; these pipe lines are equipped with electrical gate valves which are fitted axisymmetrically on filter pipe lines. The following components are mounted at one axis vertically: cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among filters, cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among hydraulic cyclones, cylindrical pressure chamber for dirty flushing water and sludge water and cylindrical pressure chamber for filtrate. Plant is also provided with pressure hydraulic cyclones located axisymmetrically between cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among filters and cylindrical pressure chamber for dirty flushing water and sludge water.
EFFECT: increased productivity; enhanced clarification of water.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; bio-engineering; methods of purification of the concentrated waste waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to bio-engineering, in particular, to purification of the concentrated waste waters and may be used in chemical and petrochemical industries. The method of purification of the concentrated waste water containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes, includes an aerobic treatment with strains of bacteria Pseudomonas sp. VCPV-3893 and Rhodococcus sp. VCLMV-3892. At that before the stage of the aerobic treatment carry out a preliminary purification of the waste waters by a consecutive stages of treatment of the waste waters with an alkaline solution up to the pH value of no less than 9.5. Then conduct the further distillation of the treated flow at the temperature of the bottom distillation residue of the column of no less than 98°C and the duration of presence of no less than 0.2 hour. At that the bottom distillation residue of the column is directed to the stage of the aerobic treatment and the upper product of the column is directed to utilization. The method allows to purify effectively the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and also peroxides and aldehydes.
EFFECT: the invention ensures effective purification of the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons, their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes.
FIELD: liquid purification by filtering.
SUBSTANCE: filter for multiple-stage filtering of liquid has chamber equipped with liquid flow inlet and liquid flow outlet; first filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said inlet, said first filter stage comprising material for removal of microorganisms; second filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said outlet, said second filter stage comprising activated carbon. Second filter stage is positioned in said chamber so as to allow liquid to flow through first filter stage before it flows through second filter stage. Filter has third filter stage provided within said chamber and positioned so as to allow liquid to flow through third filter stage before it flows through first filter stage. Third filter stage is made in the form of micro fiber glass web with pores having sizes reducing in the course of flow of the liquid.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in removal of various microorganisms from liquid.
33 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatuses for treating household and compositionally related industrial waste waters as well as landscape waste waters and can be used in communal services of villages, urban settlements, tourist complexes, large recreation centers, when treating landscape sewages, e.g. from fur farming areas, aperies, food industry enterprises. Plant comprises filtering self-cleaning apparatus, consumption equalizer, reagent system, clarifier, post-treatment bioreactor, and cleaned water disinfection apparatus. Clarifier is constructed in the form of adhesion apparatus with ascending waste water flow and it is filled with brushing packing. Post-treatment bioreactor is provided with brushing packing and air lift recesses. Disinfection apparatus is constructed in the form of three filter steps filled with each step-specific grainy catalyst. First filter step has descending waste water flow and the second and third ones have ascending waste water flow and bubbler system.
EFFECT: increased impurities removal efficiency, simplified operation, reduced dimensions of equipment, and reduced operation expenses.
FIELD: purification of the surface water runoff; production of installations for purification of the surface water runoff in settlements and industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the equipment for purification of the surface water runoff, in particular, to the installations for the surface water runoff purification from mechanical impurities and petroleum in settlements and industrial enterprises - especially those allocated in conditions of shortage of free areas, and also drainage waters. The installation for purification of the surface water runoff contains: the lifting-adjusting reservoir with the headrace collector and the overflow pipeline; the body divided by the longitudinal partitions into the storing chambers; the pure water chamber and the settling chamber supplied with the means for removal of settling and the pop-up pollutions; the siphons mounted in one section of the chambers, the water-raising pumps, the screens with the grainy loading, the pipelines for feeding and withdrawal of the waters, the sediment and floating matters, the unit of sediment dehydration, the vertical netted shaft. The storing up chamber adjacent to the settling chamber is divided for two intercommunicating sections. The settling chamber is supplied with the stream-guiding partition and the rigidly fixed chutes. The settling chamber and the first section of the adjacent storing up chamber have the common fittings for withdrawal of the floating matters. In the last storing up chamber there is the overflowing pipeline. In the chamber of the pure water there are the gravitational grainy screens of the first stage with the pipelines and the collecting tank of the purified water. The pressure grainy screens of the second stage are arranged above the lifting-adjusting reservoir and the storing up chambers. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of the purified water and decreased power input.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved quality of the purified water and decreased power input.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant to be applied for removing petroleum products from industrial waste waters and can be used at enterprises of petroleum, petroleum processing, petrochemical, and has processing industries. Process comprises flotation, biological intensive aeration, biological aftertreatment, and fine aftertreatment. In biological intensive aeration and biological aftertreatment, biocenosis packing utilized is nonwoven polypropylene material with pore size 80-230 μm, cloth thickness 0.30-0.55 mm, and in amount 0.45 to 1.43 g per 1 L water to be treated. Excess biomass is subjected to anaerobic fermentation and 1/3 thereof is used in flotation stage, while the rest is sent to biological treatment of oil slime.
EFFECT: reduced number of treatment stages, investment and operation expenses, and speeded up treatment process.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex