The reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: getting gas, rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide. The inventive features of the reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide, including working under pressure casing, provided with a device for supplying a source of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing environment, the refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing, and a device for displaying product, the reactor according to the invention differs in that the refractory lining is provided at least in the upper part of the reactor, the layer of the reforming catalyst in an amount of from 0.01 to 0.15 g/m2. The reactor according to the invention may contain at the bottom of the catalyst bed. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the technology of gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide and, in particular, relates to a reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide.

Known reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide, including working under pressure casing, provided with a device for supplying a source of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing environment, fire is a, located in the cavity of the reactor (EP patent 0113198, C 01 B 3/02, 1990).

The lining materials should be resistant to high temperatures and have sufficient resistance to erosion from exposure to hot gases. Currently, refractory materials commonly used in industrial reactors described above, consist of 90% aluminum oxide. Although these materials are high strength, capable of casting or clinkers with good heat and wear resistance, destruction by contact with hot combustion gases containing carbon monoxide, water vapor and hydrogen, is more intense in the upper part of the reactor near the combustion zone. Due to the regenerative nature of the alumina refractory material is reduced to suboxides aluminum, which are volatile at high temperatures of the environment in the upper part of the reactor.

Surface evaporation of suboxides aluminum causes destruction of the lining and the deposition of aluminum oxide on the catalyst in the cooler parts of the reactor or on the colder surfaces located downstream along the gas flow equipment of the reaction system. As a result of these phenomena, gas, prohuman have to periodically turn off for repairs.

Therefore, the main disadvantage of this reactor is insufficient efficiency.

The objective of the invention is to develop provided with refractory lining of the reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide.

This task is solved by the proposed reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide, including working under pressure casing, provided with a device for supplying a source of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing environment, the refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing, and a device for displaying the product, due to the fact that the refractory lining is provided with at least the upper part of the reactor layer of the reforming catalyst in an amount of 0.01 - 0.15 g/m2.

Due to the presence of a layer of the reforming catalyst in the above stated amount on the surface lining of the reactor, it is cooled to a temperature below the evaporation temperature of decomposition products of the material of the lining, which is due to the endothermic reforming reactions with water vapor on the surface of the lining.

In the lower part of the proposed reactor can be located the catalyst bed.

For cooling purposes, and protect the lining 7 from destruction and evaporation materials lining layer 8 of the reforming catalyst deposited by impregnation on the lining at least in the part that stones of the upper part 9 of the reactor 1.

When implementing workflow in the proposed reactor source of hydrocarbon raw materials, pre-heated to about 400 - 700oC, is fed into the nozzle 10 mounted in the upper part of the reactor is lined with refractory lining 7. In the nozzle 10 feedstock is mixed with steam and oxygen-containing environment in a quantity providing a working gas with a molar ratio of oxygen/carbon preferably 0.5 to 0.7 and a molar ratio of steam/carbon can contain a range of substances from methane to the oil fraction with a boiling point up to 200oC, including natural gas, MLAs and subjected to a primary reforming gas, when conducting the process in terms Autoterminal catalytic reforming. For feedstocks containing higher hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils, the process can be done in terms of non-catalytic partial oxidation. In terms of both processes working gas exits from the nozzle to the zone of combustion in the upper part of the reactor where a portion of hydrocarbons in the gas reacts with oxygen to carbon monoxide according to the reactions (1) and (2) in a flame:

CnHm+ (n/2)O2n CO + (m/2)H2(1)

CnHm+ nO2n CO2+ (m/2)H2O (2)

Depending on the desired composition of the final gaseous product oxygen can be fed into the air, as when getting gas for the synthesis of ammonia, or as pure oxygen, or air enriched with oxygen to produce gas oxosynthesis and a reducing gas, and nitrogen is undesirable in the gaseous product. When the hydrocarbon oxidation temperature in the combustion zone is increased to 900 - 1500oC.

Cooling of the refractory lining in the combustion zone is carried out by passing a part of the facing and what talization reforming, located on this surface. When carrying out endothermic reforming reaction with water vapor flowing in the gas on the refractory surface, the temperature in the outgoing gas passing through the containing catalyst refractory lining is reduced to 100 - 300oC, while the lining is cooled substantially below the evaporation temperature of decomposition products of the material of the lining. The actual lowering the temperature of the refractory surface will depend on the amount of hydrocarbons and water vapor in the gas leaving the combustion zone, and from the activity and quantity of the reforming catalyst on a refractory material.

Suitable catalysts are well known catalysts for the reforming of the 8th group of the periodic system of elements, including Nickel and/or cobalt, which are applied to the surface of the lining conventional impregnation or washing. In the coating method of washing to supply the surface of the catalyst is pre-applied to the binder layer of magnesium-aluminum spinel, followed by the application of the catalytically active substance or its predecessor.

If the process is carried out under conditions Autoterminal kataliticheskaya and/or cobalt catalyst of the reformer, located in the lower part of the reactor. When passing through the catalyst bed of the residual hydrocarbons in the gas are further reforming with water vapor to hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

In terms of non-catalytic partial oxidation gas discharged from the combustion zone, enriched with carbon monoxide and hydrogen; it directly away from the bottom of the reactor.

With decreasing temperature in the refractory lining, as described above, evaporation does not occur decomposition products of the refractory lining in the exiting hot gas in the top part of the reactor. Thus Pietramala in an appreciable degree of deposition of these substances, which, otherwise, may cause violation of the workflow in the lower part of the reactor or equipment below along the workflow.

1. The reactor for the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide, including working under pressure casing, provided with a device for supplying a source of hydrocarbons and oxygen-containing environment, the refractory lining located on the inner wall of the casing, and a device for displaying product, characterized in that the refractory lining is provided at least in ver, trichosis that its bottom is a layer of catalyst.

 

Same patents:

The invention relates to a device for carrying out catalytic processes in a stationary catalyst bed and can be used in the refining and petrochemical industry, in particular for carrying out the process of catalytic gasoline reformirovania
The invention relates to a process of cooling the catalyst layers, in particular, to a method of performing cooling cavities in catalyst layers

The invention relates to devices used in the catalytic dehydrogenation of hydrocarbons, and can be used in the chemical and petrochemical industry, for example, in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene

The invention relates to the chemical and petroleum industries and can be used in processes that are using granulated catalysts

The invention relates to a device for the recombination of hydrogen and oxygen using a catalyst bodies, the surface of which is provided with a catalytic coating and through which is sent containing want to remove hydrogen gas mixture with the surrounding and holding the catalyst body body

The invention relates to chemical engineering and can be used for cleaning of gases from nitrogen oxides, for example, thermal

The invention relates to the chemical and petrochemical industry and can be used to produce styrene from ethylbenzene

The invention relates to the field of oil refining and petrochemistry

The invention relates to the field of polymer chemistry, in particular to obtain the latest plasma method, and can be used to create polymers with different properties

The gas mixer // 2061536
The invention relates to power engineering, in particular to a device for ejection, mixing and supply of gaseous fuel to the process units, and can be used in the metallurgical industry for blowing into the horn blast furnace, for example, mixtures of natural and coke oven gas, natural and blast furnace, coke oven and blast furnace, natural and oxygen or blast with different oxygen content, etc

The invention relates to the refining of petroleum products

The invention relates to chemical engineering and can be used to produce unsaturated hydrocarbons such as acetylene

The invention relates to chemical technology and can be used in the manufacture of caprolactam

FIELD: inorganic chemistry, chemical technology.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method for preparing chlorine dioxide from chlorate ions and hydrogen peroxide in small scales. Chlorate ions, sulfuric acid and hydrogen peroxide are fed into reactor as aqueous solutions wherein they are mixed. Chlorate ions are reduced to chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide-containing product flow is formed in reactor. Flowing water is fed into ejector fitted by jet by spiral or helically. The product flow from reactor passes into ejector and mixed with water and chlorine dioxide diluted solution is formed. Invention provides preparing chlorine dioxide aqueous solution of high concentration and high output.

EFFECT: improved preparing method.

18 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; methods of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the method of production of polyethylene in the tubular reactors with the curing chambers or without them. The method provides, that the chain-radical initiator with cold ethylene or without it is fed into the flowing liquid medium containing ethylene with a comonomer. Conduct swirling of two being mixed streams at an angle or by means of the provided swirling component - in the cross section of the stream. In the zone of the area of introduction of the chain-radical initiator there is a narrowing of the cross-section, in which through a eccentrically located optimized outlet hole of the finger-shaped feeding component in the swirled stream introduce the chain-radical initiator.

EFFECT: the invention ensures a reliable introduction of the initiator in the tubular reactors with curing chambers or without them.

20 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: oil processing industry; mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to mixing devices of the reactors of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking and may be used in oil processing industry. The mixing device of the reactor of the hydrocarbons catalytic cracking contains the central collector of the granulated catalytic agent with the annular diaphragm and the peripheral pipelines for discharge of the catalytic agent, the internal injector for feeding of the two-phase gas-raw mixture (GRM) and the mixing chamber. Additionally the mixing device contains: the assembly of the preliminary mixing of the liquid and steam stages, consisting of the central fairing and three or more guiding vanes mounted at an angle of 45-60° to the axis of the fairing; the assembly of dispersion of the GRM, which is mounted in front of the injector and representing the cylindrical pipe with the holes in its wall for the steam supply arranged at an angle, which corresponds to the angle of the spin of the stream of the GRM coming out from the assembly of the preliminary mixing. The injector has the diffuser and the fairing with the through vertical hole. The invention increases conversion of the raw material in the reactor of the catalytic cracking and reduces formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased conversion of the raw materials in the reactor of the catalytic cracking, reduced formation on the catalytic agent of the coke high the high contents of hydrogen causing the thermal destruction of the catalytic agent in the regenerator.

1 ex, 1 tbl, 1 dwg

FIELD: petrochemical industry; devices for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, oil shales, peat, paper, board, domestic and agricultural wastes.

SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the devices intended for the high-temperature reprocessing of the raw oil, and also the shales, peat, paper, board, agricultural wastes and the domestic waste. The reaction chamber of the high-temperature reactor has the water-cooled body opened from both butts. In the internal volume of the body there is the chamber of the pyrolysis (4), the hardening chamber (5) and the sparger, which has been made with the capability of the water sputtering in the hardening chamber (5). The reaction chamber is supplied with the injectors (8) and the enveloping the body first toroidal collector (12) for the gas feeding and the second toroidal collector (15) for feeding of the reprocessing stock into the injectors (8). The body consists of two parts, the first of which is made in the form of the cone. The smaller diameter conical part (1) is adjoined with the cylindrical part (2), which diameter exceeds the greater diameter of the conic part (1). The sparger is made in the form of the parallel small pipes (3) orientated in the plane, which is perpendicular to the axis of the body, and dividing its volume into the pyrolysis chamber (4) and the hardening chamber (5). The small pipes (3) in their middle have the section salient towards the conical part (1). The small pipes have the holes (7) orientated towards the hardening chamber (50. The injectors (8) are evenly distributed along the circumference. Their outlet nozzles (9) are located in the pyrolysis chamber (4), and the inlet nozzles (10) are connected to the first toroidal collector (12). In the lateral wall of each injector (8) there is the channel (14) connected to the second collector (15). The outlet nozzles (9) of the injectors (8) can be located both in the conical part (1) of the body, and in its cylindrical part (2). The invention expands the technological capabilities of the process.

EFFECT: the invention ensures expansion of the technological capabilities of the process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: equipment for processing of bottoms, tars, bitumens, petroleum residues etc.

SUBSTANCE: reactor has unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and built-up cooled casing consisting of working fluid generation chamber 5, pyrolysis chamber with unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed, and quenching chambers 7. Reactant supply and discharge branch pipes are attached to casing. Reactor is further provided with hot gas generator 4 whose outlet is connected to inlet of working fluid generation chamber 5. Hot gas generator 4 has internal combustion chamber 9 equipped with walls 10 coaxial to casing of hot gas generator 4. Combustion chamber 9 is communicating with unit 8 for ignition of gaseous mixture and is equipped with branch pipe 13 for feeding of combustion initiating gas. Collector 16 with radial openings 17 is established in inlet part of working fluid generation chamber 5. Collector 16 is communicating with branch pipe 18 for feeding of combustible. Unit 19 for feeding of crude material to be processed is positioned between working fluid generation chamber 5 and pyrolysis chamber 6. Unit 19 is made in the form of radial nozzles 20 fixed on reactor casing. Unit for feeding of hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas positioned between pyrolysis chamber 6 and quenching chamber 7 is made in the form radial nozzles 22 fixed on reactor casing.

EFFECT: improved quality of resultant product and substantially increased time between servicing.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 4 ex

Up!