Device to control the flow of x-rays and method thereof

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: the invention relates to x-ray optics, in particular, to a device for reflection, rotation, divide, focus and monochromatization of x-ray flux and can be used for carrying out processes of x-ray lithography, x-ray microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, as well as in astronomy, physics, biology, medicine and other fields of technology, which uses x-rays. The inventive device consists of a substrate and alternating layers with different decrements made of a material consisting of atoms of carbon and hydrogen. When this difference decrements layers is achieved by varying the hydrogen content in the layer and different spatial patterns of layers. A method of obtaining a device is to create a substrate of a multilayer structure with varying according to a given law values decrements its constituent layers. Forming at least one layer is produced by deposition from the gaseous carbon-containing environment. The invention allows to improve the performance of devices to control the flow of x-ray and is the competitiveness and shirokopolostnoe, more sophisticated interfaces between layers, as well as reducing the complexity of manufacture of the device. 2 C. and 15 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill.

The invention relates to x-ray optics, in particular, to a device for reflection, rotation, divide, focus and monochromatization of x-ray flux and can be used for carrying out processes rentgenovskoi lithography, x-ray microscopy, x-ray spectroscopy, as well as in astronomy, physics, biology, medicine and other fields technique that uses x-rays.

Widely known two-component device for the reflection of x-rays called x-ray mirrors. These devices represent a multilayered periodic structure, in which silnopologo layers of atoms of heavy metals (W, Re, Ni and others) alternate with that weakly absorb the layers of light atoms (C, B, and others) [1]. An example of this type of x-ray mirrors may be Ni/C x-ray mirror [2]. With the passage of light waves through a similar x-ray mirror is the interference of waves reflected from the boundary layers.

X-ray mirrors harakterizuyu waves formed in the phase it is necessary as a first approximation to fulfill the Bragg condition 2dsin = n n = 1,2..., where d is the period of the structure, the angle of incidence of the wave - length of the waves.

The reflectivity of one of the boundary is determined by the difference in decrements of refraction of the layers for which two mirrors is proportional to the difference in the planes of the layers . Thus the reflection coefficient of the x-ray mirror is greater, the greater the difference in densities of the layers. And resolution mirrors the higher, the smaller the difference in the densities of the layers. The decrement of the refractive index is a valid component of the complex dielectric permittivity () =1-+i (the absorption coefficient).

The disadvantage of these devices is a strong x-ray absorption in the metal layers in soft wavelength range (from 0.5 nm to 30 nm). As a consequence, it is impossible to simultaneously obtain high reflectivity and high resolution. In addition, in this structure, it is difficult to maintain a sharp boundary between the layers due to vzaimodeistvie atoms, caused by the concentration gradient.

Closest to the present invention is a device, which is a multilayered periodic structure made in the form of a substrate with alternating layers, with cerebus the I of boron carbide (B4C) and silicon (Si)[3]. A feature of this type of devices is the reduction in x-ray absorption in both groups, particularly in the wavelength range, large 13 nm, due to the fact that the layers have a close value of the density layers (2,33 g/cm3for Si and 2.52 g/cm3for B4C), which allows to obtain a higher resolution than the use of metal as one of the layers of the periodic structure of the x-ray mirrors.

The disadvantages of this device are blurred boundaries between the layers due to vzaimodeistvie atoms, caused by the concentration gradient, and a great complexity due to the need of the formation of complex chemical compounds B4C. in Addition, this device has good performance only in the long wavelength range (at a wavelength of about 13 nm). For wavelengths smaller than 13 nm, the silicon begins to absorb x-rays, and therefore the working parameters of the device deteriorate abruptly.

A method of obtaining a multilayer periodic structures with varying according to a given value decrements its constituent layers, which consists in alternating Fisichella [3].

The disadvantage of this method is the inability to change the value of the decrement of the produced layers in a wide range because of the "hard" connection between the parameters of the spray material and the parameters obtained by spraying layers. This property is inherent in all variants of the method, where physical sputtering by ions of inert gases.

In the grown layer on the chemical composition and density is almost identical to the material of the target. It is practically not possible by changing the sputtering conditions (gas pressure, voltage discharge, the discharge current) to control the density of the layers and affect the absorption of x-rays in them.

The invention is directed to the achievement of the technical result consists in the improved performance of the device to control the flow of x-ray radiation by reducing the absorption coefficient of x-ray resolution and bandwidth (in the range of up to 13 nm), more sophisticated boundary layers, as well as reducing the complexity of manufacture of the device.

This is achieved by a device for controlling the x-ray flux) is different decrements, when this alternating layers made of a material consisting of atoms of carbon and hydrogen, the difference decrements provided by different hydrogen concentrations and different spatial patterns of layers; a substrate device has a complex surface topography and thickness of the layers changes on the surface of the substrate; the thickness of the layers is changed in the direction from the first layer to the last by the given law; the working surface is part of the device between the substrate and the first adjacent layer of the device is located intermediate structure; in the volume of the device made the picture by the given law; multi-layer structure contains a protective coating; the substrate is discontinuous; change decrements layers is achieved through the introduction of additional atoms of other elements.

A method of obtaining a device is to create a substrate of a multilayer structure with varying according to a given value decrements its constituent layers, forming at least one layer is produced by deposition from the gas carbon environment; the formation of the layers is made by alternating deposition from the gas uglevodosoderjati changes of carbon-containing gas environment; the formation of layers is produced from multiple sources operating at different carbon-bearing gases; the formation of the layers is achieved by changing the type of the gas discharge in the deposition of carbon from the gas environment; the formation of the layers is made simultaneously from multiple sources with different types of gas discharge; forming layer is made from a carbon-containing gas environment by changing at least one of the parameters of the technological process; forming layer is alternately turning on one or more sources, changing if necessary the composition of the working gas.

The possibility of creating such a device is based on unique properties of the carbon atom (C), capable of forming various types of spatial structures in the solid, and the exceptional value of the ratio Z/A (where Z is the atomic number of the element, A is the atomic weight) equal to 1 only for hydrogen (all other elements of Z/A1/2).

The expression for the decrement of the refractive index of the material is:

,

where

B - constant - decrement, the wavelength, the density of the substance.

In different prototype in decrements layers are due to change is atipa ZSi= 14 and ZB4C=26, and for Ni/C mirrors ZNi= 28 and ZC= 6. Changing the elemental composition automatically leads to a change in density, and, through it, to change the damping. The ratio Z/A for different substances (Ni, C, Si, B4C) does not change, since all elements of Z/A - 1/2. Therefore, the change of the damping layers can only be achieved by changing one factor in the expression (1).

In the proposed device changes decrement can be achieved both by density and by factorZ/A.. The elemental composition (C and H) layers is not changed. Indeed, in the particular case, when 0% of hydrogen in the layer of amorphous carbonZ/A=0,5.. And at 50% hydrogenZ/A=0,54.. Thus, even at a constant value of the density of the layers due to changes in the content of hydrogen can be obtained distinction in decrements layers 8%. This is comparable to the difference in decrements of layers obtained due to the difference in densities in the prototype (also 8%).

In the General case, the change of the damping layers of amorphous carbon occurs as due to changes in density layers, and due to a change in hydrogen content.

Carbon is the only one which leads to the possibility of the existence of substances, consisting of only carbon atoms, but with a completely different structure: sp3- hybridization links carbon atoms (for example diamond), sp2- hybridization relations atom of carbon (e.g. graphite), sp - hybridization links carbon atoms (for example, carbin). Each of these materials has the inherent physical properties (in particular, the density of diamond is 3.5 g/cm3and the density of graphite of 2.26 g/cm3. Upon receipt of amorphous carbon ion-plasma methods simultaneous existence in a single layer of carbon atoms with different types of hybridization in different percentages, as well as in a variety of mixed and deformed States. As a result, the density of words, and hence the value of the decrement of amorphous carbon can be controlled by simply changing the percentages between different hybridisable States.

Another distinctive feature of amorphous carbon is the possibility of detention in the amount of 50% of the bound and unbound hydrogen, which can be captured directly in the process of growth layers.

A set of methods for obtaining layers of amorphous carbon is much wider than for the metal is not only by physical sputtering of a solid target, but from gaseous carbon-containing environment in the plasma electric gas discharge. In the latter case, the possibility of controlling the properties of the layers of amorphous carbon during their growth significantly expanded. Primarily, this is due to the fact that immediately you can use carbon compounds with different types of hybridization chemical bonds of carbon atoms. An example might be numerous class of hydrocarbons (composed of atoms of carbon and hydrogen). For example, acetylene - C2H2(sp - hybridization), benzene - C6H6(sp2- hybridization), cyclohexane - C6H12and methane CH4(sp3- hybridization). It is important to note that the layers obtained from the gaseous phase will contain hydrogen, the concentration of which depends on the ratio of C/H in the source material and growth conditions of the layers. Therefore, it becomes possible to control the values of decrements layers of amorphous carbon not only by varying the ratio between the different hybridized States, but also by changing the hydrogen concentration in layers that can be included in connection with a different type of hybridization.

Most simply in this case to manage decre the th carbon target.

In addition, the hydrogen concentration in the layer of amorphous carbon and the relationship between the hybridized States (hence decrements layers) can also be controlled using:

- of a kind used for excitation of the plasma electric gas discharge (discharge at a constant current, high-frequency discharge, electron - cyclotron discharge and others);

- energy ions impinging on the growing layer;

- pressure in the vacuum chamber;

- changes in the composition of the gas mixture;

- power deposited in the discharge;

the substrate temperature.

As a result, the change of the damping layers of amorphous carbon containing hydrogen, is achieved through changes in their spatial patterns, and layers containing hydrogen, as by changing the hydrogen content, and spatial structure.

In addition, factor affecting the density of the layers, is the concentration of microscopic pores in the volume of the grown layer.

In General these dependencies is extremely difficult, but possible experimental selection of layers of amorphous carbon with desired values of decrements.

It is important to note that a set of carbon-containing substances that moghazy, and liquids with high vapour pressure. Each of these substances has its own structure and different C/H. Moreover, the composition of these compounds can include addition of hydrogen atoms and atoms of other substances: oxygen (O), fluorine (F), nitrogen (N) and others, as well as the elements having a solid phase (e.g., Si). In General, the presence of atoms of other elements creates additional opportunities to control the properties of the layers of amorphous carbon.

An important advantage of layers of amorphous carbon, compared with layers of other materials is significantly lower roughness of its surface [4]. This allows you to exclude the operation of polishing each layer before applying the next. Therefore, the complexity of manufacture of the device is reduced.

In the end, a wide range of changes in the properties of amorphous carbon and a much greater range of methods of obtaining the allow device to control the flow of x-ray radiation with predetermined values decrements layers and thereby to control the parameters of the device as a whole. In particular, it is possible to create x-ray mirrors, which consists not only of two alternating layers of different elements, but of the three and Balasta can be attributed to the devices of a fundamentally new type, because they are created using only one component of carbon, and not two as it was before. The features of these devices allow you to obtain x-ray mirrors with high resolution and at the same time with sufficient reflectivity in a wide spectral interval by increasing the number of periods in the device. No restrictions on the ratio of the thicknesses of the individual layers in the period allows you to easily meet the conditions required to suppress reflections of higher periods, and consequently, to obtain monopolygame mirror without deterioration of reflectance and resolution. However, the absence of concentration gradient on the boundary layer allows to minimize diffusion blur and thereby get more advanced, stable structure.

An important feature of the above devices is the ease of removal ("erase") laminated carbon structures from the substrate by the methods of plasma-chemical etching in an oxygen-containing environment. In this etching are formed volatile carbon compounds CO and CO2. The etching is automatically stopped after removing the last layer of amorphous carbon with the receipt of a new device.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic representation of the structure of the device of Fig. 2 - scheme of the installation for the production of carbon x-ray mirrors; Fig. 3 is a schematic representation of variants of the device: the device substrate has a complex surface topography (a), the thickness of the layers of the device are modified on the surface of the substrate (b) or from the first layer to the last (in), between the substrate and the first layer is the intermediate structure of Fig. 4 is a schematic illustration of the device variants: in the volume of the multilayer structure made of the figure (a), the substrate of the device is made of non-continuous (b) of Fig. 5 experimental dependence of the reflection coefficient R = f() for carbon x-ray mirrors at a wavelength of 0.154 nm; Fig. 6 experimental dependence of the reflection coefficient R = f() for carbon x-ray mirrors, which consists of two multilayer structures deposited one on another at a wavelength of 0.154 nm.

The best variant of the invention

The proposed device in the described embodiment is implemented in the form of carbon x-ray mirrors (Fig. 1) containing the substrate 1 and the alternating layers with different decrements.

To obtain the proposed carbon is. the inside of pumped vacuum chamber integrated magnetron source with a graphite target 2 with the flap 3 and the ion beam source 4 gate 5. The substrate 6 is attached to polictial 7. Speed podarkticules is set by the motor 8. Polictial 7 is connected with a high frequency generator 9. The flow of working gas through the gas bleeding-in system 10 directly through the sources 2 and 4. To control the parameters of the growth process of the individual layers to a vacuum chamber attached system in-situ x-ray control of thickness, density and roughness of the surface layers on the amplitude and frequency of oscillations reflected from the substrate of the x-ray beam during the process. The input and output of the x-ray beam through a special window 11. The system consists of an x-ray tube 12, collimation system 13, a detector 14, the registration unit 15 connected to the computer 16.

The proposed device in this way can be obtained by rotation of podarkticules 7 with the desired speed as when simultaneously operating the magnetron 2 and the ion source 4, and when they are alternately turned on. The passage podlojili with the given parameters. Then the process repeats continuously until it is grown on the device with the desired number of layers.

During operation of the magnetron source of growth layers of amorphous carbon is due to the sputtering of graphite. If the working gas is an inert gas, the grown layer does not contain hydrogen. The ion source operates on gaseous uglevodosoderjati gas. Therefore, a layer of amorphous carbon obtained from the ion source will necessarily contain one or ion concentration of hydrogen (an exception may be only in the case of a special allocation from the stream of particles coming from the ion source, only ions of carbon C+). If the sources are at the same time, the camera will be a mixture of gases (inert and hydrocarbon. Therefore, both layers will contain hydrogen, the concentration of which in the General case will be different.

In order to increase the spectral resolution of the device, the device substrate may have a complex surface topography. Such a device is a conventional diffraction grating with a depth profile component units or tens of nanometers, and a smooth surface on which to put megol inherent diffraction gratings, and a high aperture ratio, as applied to its surface x-ray mirrors can operate at angles of incidence up to normal. Changing the depth profile of the original underlying lattice, it is possible to minimize secretyou component of reflection corresponding to the zero order of diffraction, and selecting the shape of the stroke profile of the diffraction grating, it is possible to concentrate the maximum of reflection in higher orders of diffraction. With the same purpose in the volume of the device can be made drawing on a given law (Fig. 4, a).

The thickness of the layers of the device can vary over the surface of the substrate or in a direction from the first layer to the last by the given law (Fig. 3, b and Fig. 3). The period change with depth in the structure leads to an increase of the integral reflection coefficient, and the change along the surface allows the focusing of x-rays. Devices with varying depth in the structure period can be obtained by changing the thickness of one layer, and both layers of the structure. This change may be either continuous or intermittent, and the period may have the greatest value of either the substrate or on the surface of the structure.

Work is, which was carried out applying a multilayer structure, and the end face of the device, since it is periodic.

Between the substrate and the first adjacent layer device is an intermediate structure that improves the adhesion of the multilayer structure to the substrate (Fig. 3 g).

With the purpose of obtaining a semi-transparent mirror substrate of the device may be made discontinuous (Fig. 4, b). Translucent mirrors are svobodnaia mnogosloinye patterns that allow part of the x-ray radiation.

Example 1. Production of carbon x-ray mirror polished quartz substrate with an equal number of layers of the first and second type of equal thickness, the total number of layers 118, the period of 9.4 nm and the difference in decrements layers 1.210-6when = 0.154 nm. The method of obtaining the device in question is as follows. A quartz substrate (6) is fixed on polictial (7), pumped vacuum chamber (1) to a residual pressure of 10-5mm RT.article Next, through a system of Nataputta (10) putting the oxygen (O2) to a pressure of 10-1mm RT.article and in the plasma of high-frequency electric discharge, vozbuzhdaemogo bias on the substrate 200 C. After completion of the cleaning process chamber (1) is again pumped to a pressure of 10-5mm RT.article and through the gas bleeding-in system (10) let a couple of cyclohexane (C6H12) and argon (Ar), which is injected into the chamber, respectively, by ion-beam source and a magnetron source. The partial pressure of C6H12and Ar is equal and 810-2mm RT. Art. Include sources (2) and (4), set operating parameters, which provide a predetermined difference in the densities of the layers, put the desired speed of rotation of podarkticules ensuring the growth of the layer thickness of 4.7 nm for a single pass of the substrate above one and another source, open valve (3) and (5) sources and include an electric motor (8) and make 59 turns of podarkticules. Then turn off the sources, performing the above operations in reverse order. In Fig. 5 presents the experimental dependence of the reflection coefficient f() for carbon x-ray mirror a-C:HI/a-C:HIIobtained by the method described above at a wavelength of 0.154 nm. The maximum value of the reflection coefficient R=41%, the width of the first Bragg reflection peak = 0.02. In addition, visible, cm equal thickness layers and good constancy of the thickness of the individual layers in each period.

Example 2. Production of carbon x-ray mirrors in the form of two multilayer structures deposited on one another, have different thickness layers of the first and second type. The structure was obtained in the following way. First, on a quartz substrate was grown multiwall carbon structure with a period of 9.4 nm, equal to the thicknesses of the layers in the period (4.7 nm) and the number of layers N = 70. Then, the obtained structure was grown on the second multilayer structure in which the thickness of one of the layers has been reduced so that the ratio of the layers in the period bylo:1. The period of the second multilayer structure is 7.0 nm (4.7 nm and 2.3 nm), the number of layers 70. This was achieved by reducing the partial pressure of C6H12with 810-4mm RT. Art. to 610-4mm RT.article and constant partial pressure of Ar. It is evident from Fig. 6 shows that the experimental dependence of R= f() if the value of the angles corresponding to the first Bragg peak observed maxima of the reflection from the first and second multilayer structures. The width of both peaks is equal to 0.02o. The smaller value of Rmax from the structure with d=7.0 nm compared with the structure with d= 9.4 nm due to the reduction of the reflection coefficient at the interface between the layers when obelit second multilayer structure. Bragg maximum from the first multilayer structure is practically absent. This is due to the suppression of reflection of x-ray waves at an angle corresponding to the second Bragg peak, because of equal thickness layers. In the third order interference Bragg peak from the first multilayer structure is again observed, but disappears Bragg peak from the second multilayer structure. This confirms the expected ratio of the layer thicknesses of 2:1 in the period of the structure.

The device and method can be implemented in terms of industrial production.

Literature:

1. E. Spiller, Soft X - ray Optics, SPIE Optical Engineering Press, 1994.

2. E. J. Puik, M. J. van Oers Wiel, Vacuum, v. 38, No. 8-10, (1988) p. 707-709.

3. J. M. Slaughter, B. S. Medower, Optics Letters, v. 19, No21 (1994), p. 1786-1788.

4. E. Spiller, Proc. SPIE, v. 563, 1985, p. 367.

1. Device to control the flow of x-rays, performed in the form of a periodic multilayer structure comprising a substrate with alternating layers with different elements, characterized in that the alternating layers made of a material consisting of atoms of carbon and hydrogen, with the difference decrements provided by different hydrogen concentrations and different spatial STI.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the thickness of the layers vary according to the substrate surface.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that the thickness of the layers is changed in the direction from the first layer to the last by the given law.

5. The device under item 1, characterized in that the working surface is a face of the device.

6. The device under item 1, characterized in that between the substrate and the first adjacent layer of the device is located intermediate structure.

7. The device under item 1, characterized in that the volume of the device made the picture by the given law.

8. The device under item 1, characterized in that the substrate is non-continuous.

9. The device under item 1, characterized in that the change decrements layers is achieved through the introduction of additional nitrogen, fluorine and oxygen.

10. A method of obtaining a device, consisting in the creation on the substrate multilayer structures with varying according to a given value decrements its constituent layers, wherein the formation of at least one of the layers is produced by deposition from the gaseous carbon-containing environment.

11. FPIC is oosterzee environment with the physical sputtering of solid graphite target.

12. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is achieved by changing the gas carbon environment.

13. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is made from a carbon-containing gas environment from multiple sources using different gases.

14. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is achieved by changing the type of the gas discharge in the deposition of carbon from the gas environment.

15. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is made simultaneously from multiple sources with different types of gas discharge.

16. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is made from a carbon-containing gas environment by changing at least one of the parameters of technological process.

17. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the formation of the layers is made for alternate switching of one or more sources, changing if necessary the composition of the working gas.

 

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