A method of obtaining a flow of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and isobutanol for use mainly in obtaining high-octane products, from mixtures containing the above-mentioned alcohols, water, and other low - and high-boiling compounds

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: mainly organic synthesis for the preparation of high-octane fusion products, such as tert-butyl and ethyl tert-butyl ether. The essence of the invention: mixtures containing methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, Isobutanol, water, and other high-boiling and low-boiling compounds, receive three separate threads: one - anhydrous stream, consisting mainly of methanol or methanol and ethanol (I), and the other stream containing most of the n-propanol present in the initial mixture (II), and a third stream containing most of the Isobutanol present in the initial mixture (III), using three distillation columns, and flow (I) select from a side point of the first column, the flow (II) receive from the top of the second column and the flow (III) receive from the cube of the second column. 1 C. and 10 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab. 1 Il.

The invention relates to a method for producing streams of alcohols with different characteristics (methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, Isobutanol) from their mixtures with water and other high-boiling and low-boiling compounds.

A mixture of methanol, ethanol, propanol, Isobutanol and other compounds can be obtained with greater or a) from the synthesis gas, received partial oxidation of methane or naphtha, steam reforming of methane or coal gasification.

Such mixtures can be used to obtain high-octane fusion products, especially tert-butyl, and ethyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE and ETBE) products increased interest in light of recent legislation on motor fuel by reason of their octane characteristics, and oxygen content in them. However, the demand for MTBE is especially difficult to cover the synthesis by adding methanol to isobutene found in C4streams PC (steam cracking) and FCC (fluid catalytic cracking) due to difficult accessibility of isobutene.

The mixture of alcohols obtained from CO and H2can also be used as a source of isobutene, if they contain isobutyl alcohol to separate and degidratiruth in the olefin. In this light, such a mixture of alcohols become a source of both raw materials required to produce MTBE and ETBE or mixtures thereof and, therefore, become a strategic alternative to the classical obtaining these compounds PC and the Philippine red cross.

To make the synthesis of high-octane products, such as MTBE and ETBE, CME is the ring restrictions namely:

methanol can be used either individually or in a mixture with ethanol, but in any case, the water level must be very low; in both cases, the level of C3-alcohol should be minimized, as it reacts with isorevenue with unfavorable thermodynamics;

propanol is preferably recycled to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols from CO and H2as this leads to increased production of Isobutanol. When recycling to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols of this thread may contain significant amounts of methanol and ethanol, and the first turns into CO and H2and the second turns into Isobutanol, therefore, the product more valuable.

The distribution of ethanol between the flow taken from the side fitting of the 1st column, and the head stream of the 2nd column essentially depends on whether ethanol for ETBE mixed with MTBE, or isobutyl alcohol to obtain more isobutene and, therefore, more MTBE;

isobutyl alcohol (and any others attending the high-boiling products) used for dehydration to obtain isobutene should have a negligible content of light C2and C3-alcohol is emnd, usually used for the esterification in MTBE and ETBE, and therefore not of interest. However, this flow may allow the presence of high-boiling products (containing or not containing oxygen).

The cycle of separation according to the invention provides a process which satisfies all the above constraints. Select from a mixture of propanol, water, Isobutanol and other heavy compounds is difficult and expensive, particularly because of the formation of homogeneous and heterogeneous binary azeotropes with water.

In this respect, the difference in boiling points between azeotrope n-C3OH and Isobutanol from water is only about 3oC (Azeotropic data III so, N35, series "Advances in Chemistry"); and the azeotrope of Isobutanol heterogeneous. The difficulty of separating these two (alcohols) is additionally aggravated by the hydraulic and mechanical problems inherent in the columns with phase separation (conduct of any high-boiling compounds in relation to water is very similar to the behavior of Isobutanol). Known methods propose to allocate methanol as a head wrap first column, then the water by azeotropic distillation in the presence of a suitable carrier additives (using two columns) and then ethanol and propanda column). In the main branch of the water this cycle has a very high capital and operational cost.

In the method of the invention are achieved all these goals in a more simple installation (only three distillation columns, one of which is small) at a significantly lower operating cost than the cost of known cycles.

The method of obtaining the three separated streams, one of which is a waterless stream consisting essentially of methanol or methanol and ethanol (I), one consisting mainly of n-propanol present in the original mixture, together with small amounts of methanol, ethanol, Isobutanol and water (II) and one containing mainly Isobutanol and other high-boiling compounds present in the initial mixture (III), from a mixture containing 1-70 wt.% methanol, preferably 5-30 wt.%, 0.1 to 10 wt.% ethanol, preferably 0.1 to 5 wt.%, 0.1 to 20 wt.% n-propanol, preferably 1-15 wt.%, 2-80 wt. % Isobutanol, preferably 25-70 wt.% and 0.1-50 wt.% water, preferably 1-30 wt.%, moreover, the balance to 100 essentially consists of two low-boiling and high-boiling organic compounds or types of alcohols (such as isopropanol, n-butanol, and so on), l the heterocyclic compounds, and so on, and/or not containing oxygen compounds, such as saturated, unsaturated, aromatic hydrocarbons, and so on), is characterized by the following stages:

the filing of the original mixture in the first distillation column with selection as the head of a shoulder strap of a stream containing inert components and low-boiling compounds, the selection of a side point above the point of feed of anhydrous liquid stream (I) consisting essentially of methanol or methanol and ethanol, and obtaining from the cube liquid stream containing substantially all n-propanol, Isobutanol, water, and other high-boiling compounds, part of the methanol and part or all of the ethanol present in the initial mixture;

flow from the cube first distillation column or organic phase, which can be obtained by separation of the phases that the cubic flow on the cold, in the second distillation column to obtain as the head of a shoulder strap of the stream (II), containing the greater part of n-propanol original mix, with a selection from a side point below the point of feed liquid stream, which after cooling is separated into two phases, aqueous and organic, the latter being recycled to a point directly below the point of sampling, and obtaining from the cube of flow and;

feeding the aqueous phase separated from the liquid stream taken from a lateral point of the second distillation column, together perhaps with the aqueous phase separated from the flow allocated from the cube first distillation column into a third distillation column with selection as the head of a shoulder strap of alcohols and other organic compounds and sampling cube from a stream consisting essentially of water,

working pressure in the columns of and apparatus for the separation of phases is chosen in the range of 30-500 kPa (absolute), preferably 100-300 kPa.

Antifoaming solution, for example an aqueous solution of silicone, may be filed in the first distillation column, preferably at a point directly below the point side of the selected stream (I), and/or the second distillation column, preferably in the liquid phase condenser).

Stream (III) is preferably used for isobutene dehydration in the presence of a suitable catalyst. Flow (I) (water content which is always less than 1000 million-1by weight), selected from a lateral point of the first column, is preferably used to join isobutene obtained by the dehydration of Isobutanol and, consequently, to obtain the MT is used for other purposes (such as the production of methanol, suitable as the solvent, if the ethanol completely take away from the cube first column).

Stream (II) is preferably recycled to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols from CO and H2for the conversion of n-propanol in Isobutanol and, consequently, enhancement of n-propanol. Even relatively high amounts of methanol, ethanol and Isobutanol may be in the stream (II), because the recirculation in the reactor makes possible their regeneration. For the same reason (recirculation in the reactor), the water content may be as low as in the stream (I).

Phase separation of the liquid stream taken from a lateral point of the second distillation column allows you to remove a large part of the water applied to the column, so that the separation of n-propanol and Isobutanol in the lower part of the column occurs in the absence of water, leading to a significant increase in razdelimosti system of the invention. This is indicated by the fact that the boiling point of the two anhydrous compounds differ by 10oC instead of about 3oC in a water system. Lack of water also relieves the mechanical problems associated with the separation of the phases on the plates, increasing their efficiency.

Stream (III) does not contain n-prop is Nole or methanol and ethanol flux (I) for MTBE, or a mixture of MTBE and ETBE.

If the effluent of the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols contains a relatively high concentration of aldehyde, ketone or acid by-products, it may be subjected to hydrogenation prior to feeding into the cycle of separation of the invention.

To completely remove traces of acidic compounds, this thread or the thread allocated from the cube the first column (before any separation of the phases), or stream, selected from the side fitting of the second column (before separation of the phases), or organic phase discharged from the first apparatus for phase separation (if present) can be skipped through the layers of basic ion-exchange resins of different types (for example, of the type containing a Quaternary ammonium group-N(Ri)3OH) or alternatively treated with aqueous solutions of NaOH and/or other major products such as carbonates, phosphates, alkali or alkaline-earth metals and/or other basic nitrogenous compounds of type, etc.

The cycle can be easily used for the production of Isobutanol high purity, even if the input raw material contains a high concentration of high-boiling compounds. To achieve this goal it is necessary to direct the flow of the cube of the second column in the auxiliary rivers is , for example (dehydration in isobutene with subsequent etherification) of high-octane mixtures with a higher content of MTBE.

The drawing shows a diagram representing a preferred, but non-limiting variant of the invention.

After a possible hydrogenation, not shown in the drawing, the mixture of alcohols from synthesis reactor reaches cycle separated by lines 1 and together with recycled stream 2 is pre-heated in 32 and fed through line 3 into the distillation column 4. After the partial condensation of 5 gaseous stream 7 leaves a capacity of 6 irrigation and is available to remove all low-boiling compounds or compounds of such behavior through education of the low-boiling azeotropes (ethers, hydrocarbons, and so on). Liquid flow 8 allocated from the tank 6, return to the upper plate (possibly after pre-heating in the heat exchanger, not shown). Thread 9 of anhydrous methanol and ethanol are taken from the plate of the column above the plate input. Antifoaming solution available on line 10 directly below the line 9. CBM thread 11 (not containing methanol and ethanol) is selected and, if thread 1 is enriched with water, is subjected to separation of the phases in aemula cycle. The organic phase 14 discharged from the apparatus 13, or alternatively the flow II, if the device 13 is missing, served in the second distillation column 20.

Thread 24 taken from the top and condensed 25, partially recycled to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols (line 40) and partially return as irrigation (line 18) after pre-heating up to 21. Stream 40 contains most of the propanol entered in the cycle, all of the methanol and ethanol, are still present in the stream 14, and a small amount of Isobutanol. This recycled stream can tolerate the presence of water, originating from azeotropic water-ethanol, water-propanol and water and Isobutanol. The liquid flow 16 taken from the plate below the point of entry, cool 36 and is directed to the apparatus 17 for separation of the phases, where the flow is separated into the aqueous phase 26 and the organic phase 19 (saturated water mixture, consisting mainly of Isobutanol and high-boiling compounds), which after pre-heating at 37 recycle line 29 to column 29 directly below the plates, which are selected stream 16. The aqueous phase 26 at low concentrations of Isobutanol contains all the water lodged in the cycle of separation, except selected from the top of Colo), enables separation of propanol and Isobutanol in the lower part of the column 20 in anhydrous conditions. These conditions are much more favorable than water conditions, and provide an opportunity to select without difficulty from the cube (line 22), containing most of the Isobutanol entered in the cycle (along with other high-boiling compounds present in the stream 14, and a very small number of propanol).

An aqueous solution of NaOH can be submitted on line 12 to neutralize the acidic constituents present. The formed salt is removed by line 26.

Stream 22 is directed into the reactor dehydration in isobutan (other olefins can be formed from the present heavy compounds). Isobutan then fed into the esterification reactor, where together with the flow 9 in the presence of a suitable catalyst is transformed into MTBE and ETBE (other ethers are also derived from other olefins formed from heavy compounds).

The water stream 26 together with the thread 15 (if used apparatus 13 for phase separation) is available on line 39 into the heat exchanger 27 and then in the final column of division 28 of the cube which are selected stream 29, consisting only of water (possibly the presence of salts, if NaOH or other osnovati water for final cleaning.

Head flow 30 condense 31 and then partially serves as an irrigation line 38 (after possible pre-heating, not shown), and partially recycle feedstock cycle for regeneration of Isobutanol present in the stream 39. The tank 41 is designed for continuous full refund of any aqueous phase present in it, to guarantee recirculatory only organic phase in line 2.

Example. The method is carried out according to the scheme of drawing.

In the first distillation column 4 (step column with glass plates, = 50 mm, 80 plates in General, the insertion point on the plate 25 from Cuba, the pressure in the atmospheric column head, side selection on the 70th plate from Cuba) served at 55oC thread 3 (flow amount 1 (effluent from the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols) and stream 2 (recycling from the column 28), consisting of the components listed in the table.1.

The gas flow 7, 10.0 g/h is withdrawn from the tank 6 at 40oC. It contains together with other organic compounds entire dimethyl ether present in the raw materials, and a small amount of methanol (1.0 g/h). The liquid phase 8 in equilibrium the return as irrigation with speed 677,9 g/h Liquid flow, select the R>
Total: - of 188.3 g/h

An aqueous solution containing 1 wt.% silicone defoaming means (1.0 g/h is not considered in the mass balance), served on the 65-th plate.

Stream II away from the cube (102oC) and served in the column 20-shaped column with the same characteristics as the previous one, working at atmospheric pressure, 70 plates in General, the input to the 40-th plate, side selection with 35 plates). The threads 40 and 18 recycle from the top of the column (with 89oC) in the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols and column respectively. The content flows see table.2.

The aqueous phase 16 selected (with 95oC) with 35 plates, cooled to 20oC 36 and subjected to separation of the phases in 17, where divert the water stream 26 containing, g/h:

Water - 43,0

Propanol - 2,4

Isobutanol - 1,9

Total - 47,3

Organic stream 29 recycle after pre-heating to 90oC 37. From the cube at 120oC discharge stream 22 containing, g/h:

Propanol - 1,8

Isobutanol - 382,3

Hard - of 230.5

Total - 614,6

Thread 26, preheated to 80oC 27, is fed into the column 28-shaped column with the same characteristics as the previous one, working at atmospheric pressure, only 25 partially return as irrigation through the line 38 (18.3 g/h), and partially recycle in the cycle as raw materials in line 2 (6,1 g/h). CBM flow 29 (41,2 g/h) consists only of water and discarded.

1. The method of obtaining the three separated streams, one of which is a waterless stream consisting essentially of methanol or methanol and ethanol (I), the second contains the majority of n-propanol present in the original mixture, together with at least small amounts of methanol, ethanol, Isobutanol and water (II) and the third containing the greater part of Isobutanol and other high-boiling compounds present in the initial mixture (III), of a compound containing 1 to 70 wt.% methanol, 0.1 to 10.0 wt.% ethanol, 0.1 to 20.0 wt. % n-propanol, 2 - 80 wt.% Isobutanol and of 0.1 to 50.0 wt.% water, and the remainder up to 100% consists of other low-boiling and high-boiling organic compounds, characterized by the following stages: the feed mixture in the first distillation column with selection as the main product stream containing substantially inert components and low-boiling compounds, the selection of a side point above the point of entry anhydrous liquid stream (I) consisting essentially of methanol or methanol and ethanol, and obtaining from the cube liquid stream containing substantially risotti in the initial mixture; the flow of the cube of the first distillation column or of the organic phase, possibly formed during the separation phase lateral flow in the cold, in the second distillation column to obtain as the head of a shoulder strap of the stream (II), containing the greater part of n-propanol initial mixture together with at least small amounts of methanol, ethanol, isopropanol and water, with a selection from a side point below the point of entry of the liquid stream, which after cooling is separated into two phases, aqueous and organic, the latter recycle at a point directly below the point of selection, and with the removal of the cube of the flow (III), containing most of the Isobutanol and high-boiling compounds initial mixture; feeding the aqueous phase separated from the liquid stream taken from the side fitting of the second distillation column, possibly together with the aqueous phase separated from the flow allocated from the cube first distillation column, in the third distillation column with selection as the head of a shoulder strap of alcohols and other organic compounds present therein, and removal from Cuba of a stream consisting essentially of water, and the working pressure in the columns and the apparatus for phase separation wibit 5 - 30 wt. % methanol, 0.1 to 5.0 wt.% ethanol, 1 - 15.0 wt.% propanol, 25 to 70 wt.% Isobutanol, 1 - 30 wt.% water, and the remainder up to 100% substantially consists of low - and high-boiling organic compounds.

3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the pressure is chosen in the range of 100 - 300 kPa (absolute).

4. The method according to PP. 1 to 3, characterized in that the anti-foam solution is injected into the first and/or second distillation column.

5. The method according to p. 4, wherein the antifoaming solution serves at a point directly below the point side of the selected stream (I).

6. The method according to p. 4, wherein the antifoaming solution is added to the liquid phase of the condenser of the second distillation column.

7. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 - 6, characterized in that the solution of NaOH and/or other basic compounds, such as carbonates, bicarbonates, phosphates, alkali or alkaline earth metal and/or basic nitrogen compounds of the type of amine or alkanolamine add to the stream withdrawn from Cuba first distillation column, or in the stream taken from the lateral point of the second distillation column.

8. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the stream (III) use Alchymist fact, that thread (I) add to isobutene obtained by the dehydration of Isobutanol, for the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether or a mixture of methyl tert-butyl ether and ethyl tert-butyl ether.

10. The method according to p. 9, characterized in that the part of the flow (I) recycle to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols from CO and H2.

11. The method according to one of paragraphs.1 to 7, characterized in that the stream (II) recycle to the reactor for the synthesis of alcohols from CO and H2.

 

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5 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to the method of producing aliphatic alcohols. The method involves feeding the first hydrocarbon stream, obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method, containing olefins and paraffins. The Fischer-Tropsch stream contains 5-80% olefins, with 10-17 average number of carbon atoms. This hydrocarbon stream is fed into the hydrogenation-isomerisation installation, where there is dehydrogenation of at least part of paraffins in the Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon stream to olefins. The installation is also made such that, there is isomerisation of at least part of linear olefins to branched olefins, in the presence of a dehydrogenation-isomerisation catalyst, containing zeolite in hydrogen form, with a ferrierite isotope structure. Duration of stay is such that, conversion of paraffins to olefins is lower than 40%, and at least part of unreacted components of the hydrocarbon stream, obtained using the Fischer-Tropsch method and at least, part of products of the dehydration and isomerisation reaction form a second hydrocarbon stream. This second hydrocarbon stream contains olefins and paraffins. At least some of the olefins in the second hydrocarbon stream are branched. The method also involves feeding at least part of the second hydrocarbon stream into a hydroformylation installation. The hydroformylation installation is made such that, at least part of the olefins in the second hydrocarbon stream can be undergo hydroformylation, obtaining aliphatic alcohols with average number of carbon atoms from 11 to 18, and at least part of the obtained aliphatic alcohols contain branched alkyl groups.

EFFECT: invention can be used for producing surface active substances, detergents and sulphates.

9 cl, 7 tbl, 6 dwg, 6 ex

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