The method of rice cultivation
(57) Abstract:The method of rice cultivation is intended for use in agriculture. Vegetating the rice plants sprayed once at the tillering stage, the aqueous solution of silk at a concentration of 50 - 100 mg/l dose of 20 to 40 g/ha Efficacy of the method is also installed at pre-treatment of rice seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5 to 10 mg/l at a rate of flow of the working solution of 250 liters per 1 ton of seeds (which corresponds to the dose of 1.25 - 2.5 g/t seed). 11 table. The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for growing rice.One of the urgent tasks of further development of agriculture is to increase the productivity of agricultural crops, including rice. Along with reclamation, breeding an important reserve for the successful solution of this problem is the use of growth regulators, which allow you to increase or decrease the expression of the characteristics and properties of plants within the reaction norms determined by the genotype, heredity.Growth regulators (phytoregulators) are exogenous synthetic or natural organic soeda actions and are not the source of power.By this time discovered and studied about 5,000 compounds (chemical, microbial and plant origin), which has a regulatory effect, but the world works, about 50, which suggests that their industrial application only begins [1-3] .Various methods of rice cultivation with the use of synthetic growth regulators, such as the Avion, Benzyladenine, 2,4-D, Cachename, Kitchen, Methionine, Exibiton, Tachigaren, Fuji-1 . In order to apply the above-mentioned growth regulators is the acceleration of rooting in seed rice and increased resistance to lodging.However, the known growth regulators have insufficient efficacy and quite expensive, as are the imported drugs, the leading chemical companies in foreign countries.Closest to the claimed method of the prototype, is a method of rice cultivation, including the processing plant growth regulator "salted" in a dose of 1.8-2.4 kg/ha under current substance for 40-60 days to heading .The drug salted (4-chloro-2/ -hydroxybenzyl) isonicotinamide is sobeit resistance of rice plants to lodging.The disadvantage of this method is the narrow scope of the drug salted and high doses used drug that is depressing to plants decreases their productivity, deteriorating quality indicators of commercial products.The technical object of the present invention is to reduce the consumption rates of growth regulator and increase the yield of rice.This object is achieved by the proposed method lies in the following.The rice plants grown under traditional technology process at the tillering stage, the aqueous solution of silk at a concentration of 50-100 mg/l, with a consumption rate of the working solution of 400 l/ha, which corresponds to the dose of 20-40 g/ha (or 1-2 g/ha according to the current matter).The effectiveness of the proposed method is also installed at pre-sowing treatment of seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5-10 mg/l, with a consumption rate of the working solution of 250 liters per 1 ton of seeds, which corresponds to the dose of 1.25-2.5 g/t of seeds (or 62.5-125 mg/ton of seeds on nutrient content). Seeds were soaked in an aqueous solution of silk within 1-2 h for 70-10 days before sowing.The increase in rice yield amounted to 10-11% (5,0-5,6 kg/ha) due to the increase of otras below, than in the prototype.Commercial preparation of silk represents a 5% aqueous emulsion (concentrate) or extruded briquettes weighing 30-40 g, containing 10% of active substance. Before applying the medication silk plant with water to the desired concentration of the working solution, equal to 50-100 mg/l for treatment of vegetating plants and 5-10 mg/l for presowing treatment of seeds by soaking in the working solution.Activetestsuite substance drug get silk way , which are as follows:
A dry, shredded green fir (253,4 g) fill in 0.8 l of a mixture of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate (1:1 by volume) and infused at room temperature. After 6 hours, the extract is drained, and the material is poured new portion (0.8 l) of the same extract and infuse for 12 hours, the Extract is drained, and repeat the extraction with the same volume of extractant 24 hours combined extracts evaporated to dryness and get to 24.7 g (9.7 per cent) buttery extract, which was dissolved in 0.5 l of ethyl acetate and treated with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (200 ml), then acidified with hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted with ethyl acetate (2X 200 ml). After removal of ethyl acetate to obtain 6.3 g (2,5%) of the drug, representing the sum triterpenoid active substance at least 95%. Activetestsuite substance is not soluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents and emulsifiers. It is not toxic (LD50-6,68 g/kg for white rats, 4-group risk), does not provide local and resorptive action on the skin. TPL- 60-69oC. the Data of elemental analysis, %: C 74,41; H 9,92.The drug has been tested and included in the list of approved products for use in agriculture .The defining difference of the proposed method from the prototype is the use of biostimulant is the drug of silk in experimentally selected optimal dose (20-40 g/ha) and the most critical for the growth of rice plants the vegetation phase (the phase of tillering). A similar effect of presowing treatment of seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5-10 mg/L.Known drug use silk to fight wilt of cotton, but do not know its use on rice to stimulate growth and development of plants, which is a new and unexpected property of this drug.From the literature and from experiments it is known that the application of plant growth regulators not automatically lead to the manifestation of those or other polozhitelnymi the crops, the timing of the treatments, the doses of the drugs used, weather conditions, etc., These conditions will be shown in the following examples of specific performance.Example 1. Field trials were carried out on experimental plots of the Kuban state agrarian University (ksam) on rice varieties estuary. Experiment was repeated 4 times. Square plots of 10 m2.Soil type - meadow marsh (with rice systems p/s "Horde").Irrigation regime - shortened flooding. In a more active phase of vegetation - phase tasseling was carried out the following measurements:
in roots: length, volume, weight of wet and dry matter (weight method);
in above-ground organs: plant height, the amount of leaf area, weight of wet and dry substance;
Soil - meadow-marsh, soil loam. The humus content of 30-70%: gross phosphoric acid 0,15-0,18%; gross nitrogen is 0.22 to 0.44%. The absorption capacity of 6.0 to 6.5 mg equiv/100 g of soil.Caring for plants is carried out according to standard technology.Before sowing the seeds of rice were zamachivalis in aqueous solutions of the drug silk with concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10 mg/l, which corresponded to a dose of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 g of 1 achivaniem seeds was carried out in 1-2, as control served as untreated seed.The results of the tests are presented in table.1-5.Table 1-5 shows that the optimal concentration of the drug silk for seed treatment concentration (5-10 mg/l), which corresponds to a dose of 1.25-2.5 g of seeds for drug or 62.5-125 mg D. substance. From table. 1 shows that pre-treatment of rice seeds contributes to the formation of a stronger root system of plants (volume and root length).Significantly influenced by seed treatment of drug silk on plant height (PL.2), the accumulation of dry matter of roots and above-ground organs of rice (table.3), as well as forming the sheet surface of the main shoot. In all experimental variants at the time of sampling noted a greater number of leaves and larger in size, which contributed to the increase in rice yield. From table. 5 shows that the yield increase in the application of the snare were 5.0 and 5.6 kg/ha (11,0-11,1%).Example 2. Field tests were carried out analogously to example 1 from the experimental plots under the supervision of the rice varieties estuary.Soil preparation, irrigation, planting and caring for crops of rice were conducted according to standard technology.Obrabotke drug solution with a concentration of 50, 100 and 150 mg/l at the rate of 400 l/ha, which corresponded to doses of 20, 40 and 60 g/ha (or 1, 2 and 3 g/ha according to the current matter). Control the crops were treated water.The results of the tests are presented in table. 6-11.As can be seen from the table. 6 and 7, the treatment of vegetating plants preparation of silk increases the activity of the growth and the formation of a leaf. The individual elements of the yield in the process of ontogenesis crops develop gradually. The main elements of the structure of rice crop are: tillering, grain number in ear and grain weight with plants.Presented in table.8 the data shows that the use of rice and preparation of silk accelerates the process of pobegoobrazuyuschaya, increasing the number of kernels and grain mass.Given that the highest yields are obtained when the formation of the crops on a single-stemmed plants, the role of the panicle of the main stem is very high. When processing Power plants, as can be seen from the table.9, on the main stem are formed larger in size (the length of the panicle 10,6-11,77 cm in the control 10.2 cm), more Semenya (control 63,8 pieces in the advanced options 67,9-79,2 PCs), with greater grain weight (1,60 g in the control, 1,93-2,12 g - in the advanced options).Kakki with a large number of spikelets and with a higher mass.From table. 6-11 shows that the optimal concentration of the aqueous solution of silk lies in the range of 50-100 mg/l (dose 20-40 g/ha in preparation). Higher concentrations of an aqueous solution of the drug does not lead to a significant increase in rice yield, therefore, uneconomical.The experimental data shows that pre-sowing treatment of seeds or vegetative plants (tillering stage) preparation of silk in appropriate doses, allows you to increase rice yield of 5.0 to 5.6 t/ha compared to control.The proposed method allows also:
to improve the quality of commercial products by increasing the number of kernels of plants and increase grain weight;
to expand the scope of use of natural growth regulator of the preparation of silk produced on an industrial scale from the available raw bark and green fir;
to reduce the consumption rate of the drug in 2.5 to 7.5 times.Preparation of silk is an environmentally safe and affordable medication.Sources of information
1. Regulators of growth and development of plants. Abstracts 1 all-Union conference. M., "Nauka", 19812. Use the reg the growth and productivity of plants. //Muromtsev, S. and others-M.: Agropromizdat, 1987 C.4. The plant growth regulators. M, Agropromizdat, 1990, S. 22-25.5. The method of obtaining biologically active natural amount of triterpene acids// Patent RF N 1809975 MKI4C 07 C 51/00; BI N 14, 19936. Addition to the list of accepted drugs. //Plant protection. 1995, N 10. 1. The method of rice cultivation, including the processing plant growth regulator, characterized in that as a growth regulator drug use silk extracted from green fir, which handles the seeds at a dose of 1.25 - 2.5 g per 1 ton or plants at the tillering stage, when plants are treated with a single dose 20,0 - 40,0 g/ha2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for seed treatment using an aqueous solution of silk with a concentration of 5 to 10 mg/l at the rate of 250 l/t of seed, and for treatment of vegetating plants with concentrations of 50 - 100 mg/l at the rate of 400 l/ha
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cultivating soil by forming ridges after germination of weedage and providing subsequent cultivation procedures by breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ridges; providing presowing soil treatment by embedding germinated weedage, stubble and other plant remains axially of ridges and simultaneously introducing microbiological humus-forming preparation; 20-40 days after introducing of humus-forming preparation (according to first version), breaking formerly formed ridges and forming new ones and simultaneously sowing late crops; according to second version, providing sowing of farm crops simultaneously with embedding of germinated weedage and introducing of humus-forming preparation. Methods allow total of active soil temperatures during presowing period to be increased owing to composting effect.
EFFECT: increased effectiveness of weedage control and improved soil fertility.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, amelioration method used for creating of fertile layer on low-humus sandy soil.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying lime and organic fertilizer into humus-depleted soil, said organic fertilizer being introduced in the form of ground plant remains and/or other forms in an amount of up to 40% the volume of ridges by distributing said fertilizer in furrows between ridges; forming ridges in the course of presowing treatment; applying layer of colmatant providing total volume of at least 20% the volume of pores of formed fertile layer; forming ridges with following breaking of formerly created ridges; embedding organic fertilizer and simultaneously applying biologically active preparation; 30-40 days later, reapplying organic fertilizer; reforming ridges and simultaneously irrigating ground organic with biologically active preparation; sowing seeds of cultured crops.
EFFECT: reduced time for creating on humus-depleted sandy soil of fertile layer adapted for immediate agricultural application, reduced wind and water erosion and provision for forming of recreational zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing sorts of soya with different ripening time; simultaneously sowing sorts of soya of at least four different ripening time in adjacent rows, with early ripening sorts being combined with late ripening sorts; setting seeding norm for early ripening sorts of soya in the range of 600,000-650,000 pieces/hectare and for late ripening sorts of soya in the range of 400,000-450,000 pieces/hectare.
EFFECT: improved quality of seeds and reduced seed losses.
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, protection of wheat crops from complex of pests with reduced application of insecticides.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming entomofauna of crop agrocenosis by accumulating pests on restricted territory for creating attracting strips of spring wheat of two sowing periods with break-off time between said periods of five to seven days around winter wheat strips; providing feed stock conveyor system for complex of pests; applying insecticides only on basic winter wheat strips and attracting strips of spring wheat strips, with basic spring wheat strips being excluded from treatment process.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in protecting of sown wheat crops by accumulating of pests on restricted territory, reduced consumption of insecticides and provision for keeping grain yield and grain quality.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying alternative organic fertilizer into soil, with alternative organic fertilizer being straw used in an amount of 4.5-5.6 t/hectare and green mass of stubble green manure crop (lupine) used in an amount of 7.9-8.6 t/hectare; plowing-in said organic fertilizer into soil in the autumn.
EFFECT: increased farm crop yield owing to increased soil fertility, provision for obtaining of ecologically safe product, and reduced labor consumption.
1 tbl, 4 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, fertilizer irrigation of farm crops with sewage water or liquid fertilizer.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting furrow by means of soil cutting tool; feeding water or liquid fertilizer into furrow and covering furrow. Uniform distribution of fertilizer applied to compound intersected relief is provided by forming web of height smaller than plowing depth by 0.4-0.7 time before supplying of water or liquid fertilizer into open furrow. Apparatus has frame with plow bodies equipped with tine having share and moldboard and fixed on frame. Web forming device mounted on frame behind outer plow body is made in the form of rotor with vertical shaft of rotation and blades for moving soil from ridges of adjacent plowed strips. Apparatus has drive. Rotor drive is kinematically connected and aligned with frame carrier wheel.
EFFECT: uniform distribution of liquid fertilizer applied into soil and equalized plant mass over the entire area of irrigated soil, increased soil fertility and improved ecology control by preventing environment from contamination.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: agriculture, agricultural engineering, pharmaceutical, confectionery, canned food, chemical, perfume, food-processing, tobacco industry and some special branches of industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mowing and grinding licorice vegetative buds and accompanying plants in association of low-productivity licorice undergrowth by means of haying machines to produce cuttings; while mowing, uniformly distributing ground mass over surface of mown strip; providing marker lines and placing planting material in narrow strips at predetermined spacing, with high-quality cuttings of 4-5 years licorice rootages of 12-18 mm diameter and 18-25 cm length being used as planting material; mellowing strips and cutting inclined slits by means of tillage tool; during advancement of machine, moving planting material into inclined slits; simultaneously with planting of cuttings, providing grooves for receiving of mineral fertilizer in surface of inclined wall of slit by means of slitter tine equipped with tiered cutters made in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds; placing nitrogenous fertilizer at norm of 0.2-0.6 kg/running meter in upper tier and phosphorous fertilizer at norm of 1.3-1.8 kg/running meter in middle tier; introducing into lower layer potash fertilizer at norm of 0.8-1.6 kg/running meter for development of plants at second and third years of life; after introducing of mineral fertilizer and placing of cuttings, compacting mellowed strips above inclined slits by means of ring-lug roller sections. Nozzle of pneumatic pipeline is arranged above each cutter. Each pneumatic pipeline is individually connected with seeding unit for withdrawal from fertilizer box of nitrogenous, phosphorous or potash fertilizer. Seeding units are kinematically connected with supporting wheel. Each pneumatic pipeline of tine-cutter is connected with pressure cavity of high-pressure fan equipped with hydraulic drive.
EFFECT: increased yield of green mass and provision for applying of mineral fertilizer to different soil depth.
3 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: growing of high-protein crops, in particular, red clover under clearly defined continental or similar conditions or in arid climatic zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sowing red clover (trifolium pratense L.) and cover crop at optimal time in spring; after harvesting of preceding crop, providing stubble breaking to 0.06-0.08 m depth and ameliorating mellowing to 0.6-0.8 m depth; applying phosphorous-potash fertilizer to provide for 3-4 year life of plants; plowing soil while turning layers by means of bottom-moldboard plows to 0.25-0.27 m depth while fully embedding stubble remains; after deep ameliorating tillage combined with turning of root layer, providing irrigation at the end of September - beginning of October at irrigation rate of 700-900 m3/hectare for keeping pre-irrigation soil moisture threshold; closing moisture feeding in early spring by means of heavy harrows in two tracks transverse to center ridges during moldboard plowing and simultaneously leveling field relief; providing cultivation to 0.05-0.08 m depth for killing cold-resistant weeds by means of A-hoes; providing presowing and postsowing compaction for increasing soil density in seeding layer at 0-10 cm depth; performing interlace sowing in early spring (0.30 m) of cover crop (oats, less commonly barley) at seeding rate of (3.0-3.5)·106 pieces of seeds per 1 hectare (continuous sowing at seeding rate of (8.5-9.5)·106 pieces per hectare to 0.03-0.04 m depth on light soil and 0.02-0.03 m depth on heavy soil for producing of 450-500 plants per 1 m2 at full germination phase, 250-300 plants at spring growing phase of second year of life, 200-220 plants per 1 m2 at spring growing phase of third year of life; providing mineral feeding by applying rated norms of phosphorous-potash fertilizer for stock plowing for three years of utilization of herbage, and applying differentiated doses of nitrous fertilizer for further mowing. Application of up to 100 kg/hectare of nitrogen during growing period at maximal dose of 35 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 60 t/hectare of green mass, and application of 130 kg of nitrogen per hectare during growing period at maximal dose of 45 kg/hectare for first mowing provides yield of up to 80 t/hectare of green mass. Yield of 40 t/hectare of green mass is provided at irrigation norm of 850 m3/hectare with minimal period between irrigation procedures of 14-16 days, with total irrigation norm making 3,200-3,400 m3/hectare. Clover is mown at flowering phase. Time between green mass harvesting and irrigation procedures is reduced to 1-3 days. Last mowing procedure is performed 25-30 days before air temperature reaches 00C.
EFFECT: improved quality of feed and predetermined productivity.
12 cl, 2 dwg