The method of rice cultivation

 

(57) Abstract:

The method of rice cultivation is intended for use in agriculture. Vegetating the rice plants sprayed once at the tillering stage, the aqueous solution of silk at a concentration of 50 - 100 mg/l dose of 20 to 40 g/ha Efficacy of the method is also installed at pre-treatment of rice seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5 to 10 mg/l at a rate of flow of the working solution of 250 liters per 1 ton of seeds (which corresponds to the dose of 1.25 - 2.5 g/t seed). 11 table.

The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for growing rice.

One of the urgent tasks of further development of agriculture is to increase the productivity of agricultural crops, including rice. Along with reclamation, breeding an important reserve for the successful solution of this problem is the use of growth regulators, which allow you to increase or decrease the expression of the characteristics and properties of plants within the reaction norms determined by the genotype, heredity.

Growth regulators (phytoregulators) are exogenous synthetic or natural organic soeda actions and are not the source of power.

By this time discovered and studied about 5,000 compounds (chemical, microbial and plant origin), which has a regulatory effect, but the world works, about 50, which suggests that their industrial application only begins [1-3] .

Various methods of rice cultivation with the use of synthetic growth regulators, such as the Avion, Benzyladenine, 2,4-D, Cachename, Kitchen, Methionine, Exibiton, Tachigaren, Fuji-1 [4]. In order to apply the above-mentioned growth regulators is the acceleration of rooting in seed rice and increased resistance to lodging.

However, the known growth regulators have insufficient efficacy and quite expensive, as are the imported drugs, the leading chemical companies in foreign countries.

Closest to the claimed method of the prototype, is a method of rice cultivation, including the processing plant growth regulator "salted" in a dose of 1.8-2.4 kg/ha under current substance for 40-60 days to heading [4].

The drug salted (4-chloro-2/ -hydroxybenzyl) isonicotinamide is sobeit resistance of rice plants to lodging.

The disadvantage of this method is the narrow scope of the drug salted and high doses used drug that is depressing to plants decreases their productivity, deteriorating quality indicators of commercial products.

The technical object of the present invention is to reduce the consumption rates of growth regulator and increase the yield of rice.

This object is achieved by the proposed method lies in the following.

The rice plants grown under traditional technology process at the tillering stage, the aqueous solution of silk at a concentration of 50-100 mg/l, with a consumption rate of the working solution of 400 l/ha, which corresponds to the dose of 20-40 g/ha (or 1-2 g/ha according to the current matter).

The effectiveness of the proposed method is also installed at pre-sowing treatment of seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5-10 mg/l, with a consumption rate of the working solution of 250 liters per 1 ton of seeds, which corresponds to the dose of 1.25-2.5 g/t of seeds (or 62.5-125 mg/ton of seeds on nutrient content). Seeds were soaked in an aqueous solution of silk within 1-2 h for 70-10 days before sowing.

The increase in rice yield amounted to 10-11% (5,0-5,6 kg/ha) due to the increase of otras below, than in the prototype.

Commercial preparation of silk represents a 5% aqueous emulsion (concentrate) or extruded briquettes weighing 30-40 g, containing 10% of active substance. Before applying the medication silk plant with water to the desired concentration of the working solution, equal to 50-100 mg/l for treatment of vegetating plants and 5-10 mg/l for presowing treatment of seeds by soaking in the working solution.

Activetestsuite substance drug get silk way [5], which are as follows:

A dry, shredded green fir (253,4 g) fill in 0.8 l of a mixture of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate (1:1 by volume) and infused at room temperature. After 6 hours, the extract is drained, and the material is poured new portion (0.8 l) of the same extract and infuse for 12 hours, the Extract is drained, and repeat the extraction with the same volume of extractant 24 hours combined extracts evaporated to dryness and get to 24.7 g (9.7 per cent) buttery extract, which was dissolved in 0.5 l of ethyl acetate and treated with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (200 ml), then acidified with hydrochloric acid to pH 2 and extracted with ethyl acetate (2X 200 ml). After removal of ethyl acetate to obtain 6.3 g (2,5%) of the drug, representing the sum triterpenoid active substance at least 95%. Activetestsuite substance is not soluble in water, but soluble in organic solvents and emulsifiers. It is not toxic (LD50-6,68 g/kg for white rats, 4-group risk), does not provide local and resorptive action on the skin. TPL- 60-69oC. the Data of elemental analysis, %: C 74,41; H 9,92.

The drug has been tested and included in the list of approved products for use in agriculture [6].

The defining difference of the proposed method from the prototype is the use of biostimulant is the drug of silk in experimentally selected optimal dose (20-40 g/ha) and the most critical for the growth of rice plants the vegetation phase (the phase of tillering). A similar effect of presowing treatment of seeds with an aqueous solution of the preparation of silk at a concentration of 5-10 mg/L.

Known drug use silk to fight wilt of cotton, but do not know its use on rice to stimulate growth and development of plants, which is a new and unexpected property of this drug.

From the literature and from experiments it is known that the application of plant growth regulators not automatically lead to the manifestation of those or other polozhitelnymi the crops, the timing of the treatments, the doses of the drugs used, weather conditions, etc., These conditions will be shown in the following examples of specific performance.

Example 1. Field trials were carried out on experimental plots of the Kuban state agrarian University (ksam) on rice varieties estuary. Experiment was repeated 4 times. Square plots of 10 m2.

Soil type - meadow marsh (with rice systems p/s "Horde").

Irrigation regime - shortened flooding. In a more active phase of vegetation - phase tasseling was carried out the following measurements:

in roots: length, volume, weight of wet and dry matter (weight method);

in above-ground organs: plant height, the amount of leaf area, weight of wet and dry substance;

Soil - meadow-marsh, soil loam. The humus content of 30-70%: gross phosphoric acid 0,15-0,18%; gross nitrogen is 0.22 to 0.44%. The absorption capacity of 6.0 to 6.5 mg equiv/100 g of soil.

Caring for plants is carried out according to standard technology.

Before sowing the seeds of rice were zamachivalis in aqueous solutions of the drug silk with concentrations of 1.0, 5.0 and 10 mg/l, which corresponded to a dose of 0.25, 1.25 and 2.5 g of 1 achivaniem seeds was carried out in 1-2, as control served as untreated seed.

The results of the tests are presented in table.1-5.

Table 1-5 shows that the optimal concentration of the drug silk for seed treatment concentration (5-10 mg/l), which corresponds to a dose of 1.25-2.5 g of seeds for drug or 62.5-125 mg D. substance. From table. 1 shows that pre-treatment of rice seeds contributes to the formation of a stronger root system of plants (volume and root length).

Significantly influenced by seed treatment of drug silk on plant height (PL.2), the accumulation of dry matter of roots and above-ground organs of rice (table.3), as well as forming the sheet surface of the main shoot. In all experimental variants at the time of sampling noted a greater number of leaves and larger in size, which contributed to the increase in rice yield. From table. 5 shows that the yield increase in the application of the snare were 5.0 and 5.6 kg/ha (11,0-11,1%).

Example 2. Field tests were carried out analogously to example 1 from the experimental plots under the supervision of the rice varieties estuary.

Soil preparation, irrigation, planting and caring for crops of rice were conducted according to standard technology.

Obrabotke drug solution with a concentration of 50, 100 and 150 mg/l at the rate of 400 l/ha, which corresponded to doses of 20, 40 and 60 g/ha (or 1, 2 and 3 g/ha according to the current matter). Control the crops were treated water.

The results of the tests are presented in table. 6-11.

As can be seen from the table. 6 and 7, the treatment of vegetating plants preparation of silk increases the activity of the growth and the formation of a leaf. The individual elements of the yield in the process of ontogenesis crops develop gradually. The main elements of the structure of rice crop are: tillering, grain number in ear and grain weight with plants.

Presented in table.8 the data shows that the use of rice and preparation of silk accelerates the process of pobegoobrazuyuschaya, increasing the number of kernels and grain mass.

Given that the highest yields are obtained when the formation of the crops on a single-stemmed plants, the role of the panicle of the main stem is very high. When processing Power plants, as can be seen from the table.9, on the main stem are formed larger in size (the length of the panicle 10,6-11,77 cm in the control 10.2 cm), more Semenya (control 63,8 pieces in the advanced options 67,9-79,2 PCs), with greater grain weight (1,60 g in the control, 1,93-2,12 g - in the advanced options).

Kakki with a large number of spikelets and with a higher mass.

From table. 6-11 shows that the optimal concentration of the aqueous solution of silk lies in the range of 50-100 mg/l (dose 20-40 g/ha in preparation). Higher concentrations of an aqueous solution of the drug does not lead to a significant increase in rice yield, therefore, uneconomical.

The experimental data shows that pre-sowing treatment of seeds or vegetative plants (tillering stage) preparation of silk in appropriate doses, allows you to increase rice yield of 5.0 to 5.6 t/ha compared to control.

The proposed method allows also:

to improve the quality of commercial products by increasing the number of kernels of plants and increase grain weight;

to expand the scope of use of natural growth regulator of the preparation of silk produced on an industrial scale from the available raw bark and green fir;

to reduce the consumption rate of the drug in 2.5 to 7.5 times.

Preparation of silk is an environmentally safe and affordable medication.

Sources of information

1. Regulators of growth and development of plants. Abstracts 1 all-Union conference. M., "Nauka", 1981

2. Use the reg the growth and productivity of plants. //Muromtsev, S. and others-M.: Agropromizdat, 1987 C.

4. The plant growth regulators. M, Agropromizdat, 1990, S. 22-25.

5. The method of obtaining biologically active natural amount of triterpene acids// Patent RF N 1809975 MKI4C 07 C 51/00; BI N 14, 1993

6. Addition to the list of accepted drugs. //Plant protection. 1995, N 10.

1. The method of rice cultivation, including the processing plant growth regulator, characterized in that as a growth regulator drug use silk extracted from green fir, which handles the seeds at a dose of 1.25 - 2.5 g per 1 ton or plants at the tillering stage, when plants are treated with a single dose 20,0 - 40,0 g/ha

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that for seed treatment using an aqueous solution of silk with a concentration of 5 to 10 mg/l at the rate of 250 l/t of seed, and for treatment of vegetating plants with concentrations of 50 - 100 mg/l at the rate of 400 l/ha

 

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