Flexible electric heater and method of its manufacture
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field survey and can be used in flexible heaters made from polymer materials used for space heating. Flexible heater contains dugoobraznye conductive weft threads with the deflection in the plane of the resistive element, equal to 0.02 - 0.3 distance between the electrodes. The ends of the conductive weft filaments flattened, twisted insulating warp outside of strip electrodes. Insulating layers of polyethylene or polypropylene are in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element 1 from 0.5 : 1 to 1 : 1. Flexible heater is produced by laminating at a rate of 0.5 - 10 m/min with education sootvetstvuyushie deflection of conductive weft yarns. The outer insulating layers 12, 13 are made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15 to 80 μm. The technical result is to increase the uniformity of the temperature field across the width of the heater and increasing reliability in manufacturing. 2 S. and 3 C.p. f-crystals, 6 ill. The invention relates to the field of special requests and can be used in electron flexible flexible electric heater made of polymeric material, containing planar resistive layer of woven material with electrodes and covering it with both sides of the insulating layers .The disadvantages of the heater should be attributed to the instability and irregularity of temperature distribution on the surface of the heater, which reduces their reliability in conditions of intense heat during operation.Also known flexible electric heater made of polymeric material , containing planar resistive element from a fabric of plain weave with electrodes and covering it with both sides of the insulating layers (woven electric auth. Vitimin C. S., etc).The specified electromagnetical has similar disadvantages.The closest analogue, selected as a prototype, is a flexible heater containing planar resistive element woven material of insulating fibers with conductive thread, tape electrodes on the edges of the woven conductive fibers and covering insulating layers .A known method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater, the weft thread which is made of conductive material, and yatela is carried out by overlaying the insulating layers one upon the other with the insertion between them of conductive weft yarns and compression at the temperature of the crosslinking material.Known another method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater , including the application of the conductive layer and the strip electrodes with gluing insulating layers.These methods are complex and require expensive equipment, energy-intensive processes.A known method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater with woven resistive element with insulating thermoplasticity layers by passing electric current .The closest analogue, selected as a prototype, is a method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater  , including the application of layers of insulating material on the fabric resistive element attached to her belt electrodes of woven conductive fibers with subsequent lamination of the layers when heated to the melting temperature impregnating him thermoplastic material, providing fill the cells of the tissue of the resistive element.The main disadvantage of the prototype is the difficulty of laying resistive layer.The main task is the development of a flexible electric heater and method of manufacturing such structures and technologies that have allowed the item to get the heaters of various widths between the strip electrodes and thereby to extend the range of electric heaters, without modifying the original materials.The technical result, which can be obtained from the implementation of the invention is the provision of uniformity of the temperature field across the width of the heater, the improvement of quality and reliability in continuous stable production.The main problem is solved and the technical result achieved by changing the design of a resistive element and a process of laminating a layer package. To do this in a flexible electric heater, containing planar resistive element woven of insulating material with conductive threads and the threads on the duck tape electrodes on the edges of the woven conductive fibers and covering insulating layers, conductive weft threads resistive element made in the form of a system of parallel arcs located between the electrodes in the plane of the fabric of the resistive element with the deflection arcs equal to 0,02-0,3 distance between the electrodes, insulating layers are made of double-layer in which the layer from the side of a resistive element made of polyethylene or polypropylene, in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element from 0.5:1 to 1:1 when the external insulating slozhnykh electrode in a length of 3-5 mm and twisted 2-5 main insulating threads, moreover, the ends of conductive weft yarns are flattened in the plane of the fabric.In the method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater, including the application of layers of insulating material on the fabric resistive element attached to her belt electrodes of woven conductive fibers with subsequent lamination of the layers when heated to the melting temperature impregnating him thermoplastic material, providing the filling of the tissue cells resistive element, when laminating layers of tension on the conductive fabric resistive element is passed through the strip electrodes at a speed of lamination of 0.5-10 m/min with the formation of the deflection in the plane of the fabric weft conductive yarn measuring the width of the tissue between the electrodes and the deflection of the conductive filaments along the main thread, 0,02-0,3 distance between the electrodes as a dielectric material using a two-layer material, which layers are turned to a tissue of a resistive element made of polyethylene or polypropylene, and the outer layers of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15-80 μm, as tissue resistive element using cloth with conductive weft threads, VI, moreover, the ends of the weft threads tapered in the plane of the fabric.Distinctive features of the flexible electric heater are the following features:
- execution of conductive weft yarns resistive element in the form of a system of parallel arcs;
- location system of parallel weft conductive arcs between the strip electrodes;
- location system of arcs in the plane of the fabric of the resistive element with the deflection arcs equal to 0,02-0,3 distance between the electrodes;
- performance insulating layer double layer in which the layer from the side of the resistive element is made of polyethylene or polypropylene;
- volume ratio of polyethylene or polypropylene layers with fabric resistive element from 0.5:1 to 1:1;
- execution of external insulating layers made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15-80 μm;
- execution of conductive weft yarns protruding beyond the strip electrodes on a length of 3-5 mm;
- interlocking protruding ends of conductive weft yarns 2-5 main insulating filaments;
- execution of all conductive weft threads are tapered in the plane of the fabric.Characteristic>- transfer of tension on the conductive fabric tape through the electrodes in the lamination;
the laminating speed of 0.5-10 m/min with the transfer of tension to the fabric through the tape electrodes;
- education trough conductive weft yarns in the plane of the fabric;
- measurement of the deflection of the conductive filaments along the main threads and the width of the tissue between the electrodes;
- providing deflection of within 0.02-0.3 distance between the electrodes;
- use as insulating material two-layer material, which layer facing the fabric of a resistive element made of polyethylene or propylene;
- execution of the outer layers of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15-80 μm;
- use fabric with conductive weft threads extend beyond the strip electrodes on a length of 3-5 mm, and weave them 2-5 main insulating threads, with flattened ends of these weft threads located in the plane of the fabric.These distinctive features are essential, because each of them separately and together is aimed at solving the problem and achieving a new technical result. So, for example electromagnetically various modifications of high quality and reliability, ie is not solved then the main task is not achieved, a new technical result due to the source materials of the same width to the resistive element to obtain a flexible heaters with different heating width of the field and thus constrict the production capability of a manufacturer of electric heating elements. Quality flexible heaters and high reliability are achieved by the lamination process by performing insulating layers of a double layer, with the layers adjacent to the resistive layer of polyethylene or polypropylene in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element from 0.5:1 to 1:1 and the thickness of the outer insulating layers made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15-80 μm. The binding weft threads outside of the strip electrodes in the form of their ends 3-5 mm, twisted insulating 2-5 warp, prevents loss of the edges of the fabric resistive layer conductive thread ribbon electrodes. Shutter speed lamination of 0.5-10 m/min provides complete saturation of the fabric resistive element adjacent layers of polyethylene or polypropylene. When the speed of lamination is less than 0.5 m/min is the extrusion of a sealing p is, the ri speed lamination of more than 10 m/min polyethylene or polypropylene layer does not have time to melt and impregnate the resistive element deteriorates the integrity of the layers decreases the reliability of the heater. At speeds lamination of 0.5-10 m/min provides high quality reliable electric heater, the system conductive weft threads is formed in the form of parallel arcs with the extrusion direction in the plane of the fabric. The interlocking ends of the conductive weft threads outside of strip electrodes eliminates the loss of current-carrying strands of ribbon electrodes in the lamination, provides high-quality sealing tape electrode, this also contributes to and raspushennost ends of the conductive weft threads.These distinctive essential features are new, because their use in the prior art, analogs and prototypes are not detected, which allows to characterize the proposed technical solutions according to the criterion of "novelty".One set of new essential features with commonly known essential features that allow one to solve the problem and achieve new technical result that Harmonie differences. New technical solutions are the result of scientific-research and experimental-technological testing of flexible heaters and creative contribution without the use of any standard or design developments, the guidelines in this branch of engineering, in its originality and content development meet the criterion of "inventive step".In Fig. 1 presents a General view of the flexible heater; Fig.2 - the same, in terms of Fig.3 - the same, the section a-a in Fig.2; Fig.4 is a view in plan on the resistive layer in the heater after the lamination of Fig.5 - the basic structure of laminating fabric resistive element with tape electrodes, covering the insulating layer; Fig.6 - scheme transfer tension on the fabric resistive element through the tension of the ribbon electrodes.Flexible heater contains planar resistive element 1, the tape electrodes 2, 3, covering the insulating layers 4, 5.Planar resistive element 1 is a conductive fabric conductive weft yarns 6 and insulating warp 7 tape electrodes 2, 3 at its ends in the form of woven proscillaridin arcs 9 (Fig.2, 4) with deflection arcs equal to 0,02-0,3 distance between the electrodes. The arrow in Fig.4 shows the deflection. Insulating layers 4, 5 are made with two layers, in which layers 10, 11 from the side of the resistive element 1 is made of polyethylene or polypropylene, in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element 1 from 0.5:1 to 1:1. The outer insulating layers 12, 13 are made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness selected in the range of 15-80 μm. When a volume ratio of polyethylene or polypropylene cloth resistive element 1 is smaller than 0.5:1, there is nodeproperty tissue resistive element 1, the formation porosity, volumetric ratio of polyethylene or polypropylene cloth resistive element 1 over 1:1 is observed for the extrusion of molten polyethylene or polypropylene lamination package, its leakage, which degrades the quality of electric heaters and increases material consumption.Best processability of the layers of the heater is achieved when the ratio of polyethylene or polypropylene cloth resistive element 1, which is in the range from 0.5:1 to 1:1, ensuring high quality and reliability of the heater.External electric is olypropylene, but possess high strength, higher temperature resistance than the layers 10, 11, provide the required dielectric characteristics and high quality of the outer surface.Weft conductive yarn 6 protrude from the strip electrodes 2, 3-size of 3-5 mm and twisted 2-5 insulating warp threads 14, the ends 15 of conductive weft yarns 6 are flattened in the plane of the fabric of the resistive element 1.The procedure for manufacturing a flexible electric heater is as follows. Fabric resistive element 1 mounted on it along the edges of the tape electrodes 2, 3 in the form of strips of woven conductive filaments 8 is applied a two-layer insulating layers 4, 5 in which the inner layers 10. 11 - of polyethylene or polypropylene facing fabric resistive layer 1 and the insulating layers 12, 13 made of polyethylene terephthalate are external, and laminated layers when heated to the melting temperature impregnating him thermoplastic material, providing the filling of the tissue cells resistive element, which is polyethylene or polypropylene in the form of layers 10, 11 of the tape material 12, 13 made of polyethylene terephthalate according to the scheme of Fig.5 and 6 using jus the nonlinear speed of 0.5-10 m/min with the formation of the deflection in the plane of the fabric of the resistive element 1 conductive weft threads 6 in the form of a system of parallel arcs 9 under the control of the deflection of within, 0,02-0,3 width of the fabric. When laminating by heat from the pressing rolls is melt layers 10, 11 of polyethylene or polypropylene and pressing them into the fabric of the resistive element 1 with the filling of the cells 17 of the fabric to the formation of the monolithic package and bonding layers 12, 13. Outside the width of the resistive layer along the belt elements are formed of insulating field 16. Continuously layup layers wound under tension in the roll of the finished material. The lamination process is accompanied by the transmission of tension to the resistive element through the strip electrodes 2, 3 so that the melt viscosity of polyethylene or polypropylene provides the necessary parallel stretching and bending conductive weft thread 6 (Fig.6). Because of the bending of the conductive weft yarn 6, then the original fabric resistive element 1 is narrowed, depending on a given deflection of, the melt viscosity of polyethylene or polypropylene, the speed of lamination is selected corresponding to the width of the resistive element 1 and the flexible electric heater as a whole.On the basis of new technical solutions were prototypes of full-scale flexible heaters. Fabric resistivity insulating non-conductive yarns used nylon filament, as the conductive thread ribbon electrodes were used yarn brand MB-2 TU 17 of the RSFSR-304457-78, Straseni in bunches of 16 units. the Number of beams in each electrode 18.As insulation was used polyethylene terephthalate laminated film brand PNL-3 TU 6-49-5761783-90 thickness of 0.14 mm and a thickness of a layer of polyethylene was 0,115 mm, and the thickness of the layer of polyethylene terephthalate was 0.025 mmReceived heaters were tested, the results are positive. Temperature variation across the field of electric heater was not more than 3oC. Insulating layers of the heater were tested for breakdown, the breakdown voltage of more than 10,000 Century.Thus, a flexible electric heater of the proposed design and the manufacturing method are reproducible by industrial means.New technical solutions meet the criterion of "industrial applicability", i.e. the level of inventions. On their creation and use, it is advisable to protect the exclusive rights of the patent. 1. Flexible motor containing planar resistive element woven material consisting of an insulating bat is in the fabric resistive element conductive thread and covering insulating thermoplastic layer, characterized in that the weft conductive yarn resistive element arranged in the form of a system of parallel arcs between the electrodes in the plane of the fabric resistive element with the deflection of the arc is equal to 0,02 - 0,3 distance between the electrodes.2. The heater on p. 1, wherein each insulating layer is made double, in which the inner layers facing the resistive element is made of polyethylene or polypropylene, and polyethylene, and the inner layers are in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element from 0.5 : 1 to 1 : 1, and the outer insulating layers are made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15 to 80 μm.3. The heater under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the weft conductive yarn is made extend beyond the strip electrodes on a 3 - 5 mm long and twisted with 2 - 5 insulating warp threads and the weft ends of the conductive filaments flattened in the plane of the fabric.4. A method of manufacturing a flexible electric heater, which is applied layers of insulating thermoplastic material on the fabric resistive element attached to her belt electrodes from itetancalty insulating thermoplastic material, ensuring the filling of the tissue cells resistive element, wherein when laminating at a rate of 0.5 - 10 m/min exercise tension fabric resistive element through the strip electrodes with the formation of the deflection of the weft conductive yarn in the plane of the fabric with the deflection along the main threads equal to 0,02 - 0,3 distance between the electrodes, and the insulating material using a two-layer material, in which the inner layer facing the fabric of a resistive element made of polyethylene or polypropylene in a volume ratio with cloth resistive element from 0.5 : 1 to 1 : 1, and the outer layer is made of polyethylene terephthalate with a thickness of 15 to 80 μm.5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the fabric resistive element perform the weft threads extend beyond the strip electrodes on a 3 - 5 mm long, protruding ends twist with 2 - 5 insulating warp threads and the ends of the weft threads taper in the plane of the fabric.
FIELD: furniture, particularly heated furniture piece that may be used in home, possibly for medical-prophylactic purposes.
SUBSTANCE: furniture object includes support for engaging with user having on surface layer of mineral material selected from group containing ceramics and natural stone. Support is provided at least with one electric heating device mounted at least on part of its surface turned to user and placed under layer of mineral material. Said device is in the form of panel electric heater irradiating heat for heating layer of mineral material along its thickness in temperature range 30-50°C in order to generate in said layer elastic acoustic waves in ultrasound and hyper-sound bands. Support is provided with unit for controlling temperature of heating layer of mineral material under which respective panel of electric heater is arranged.
EFFECT: enhanced comfort, intensified process of metabolism of user, keeping healthy state of user and providing prophylaxis of diseases due to heat action upon organism of user.
9 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: production of fabrics which generate heat by means of power source and may be used for manufacture of clothing, seats, quilts, etc.
SUBSTANCE: thermal fabric comprises non-conductive thread, heating thread with positive temperature coefficient, and two current-conductive terminals. Heating thread comprises core, enclosure made from matrix including embedded current-conductive particles, and isolating sheath.
EFFECT: provision for creating fabric free of wires and possessing the function of self-regulating heating.
29 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: electric engineering, in particular, electrothermics, concerns engineering of electro-heating fabric, which can be used in heating devices for home and industrial use, and also concerns method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread for said fabric.
SUBSTANCE: electro-heating fabric is a cloth formed of intertwined threads, consisting of main non-electro-conductive threads, having first direction, and electro-conductive resistive threads, having second direction, perpendicular to the first one, each one of which consists of central fiber with cover of polymer resistive material, containing carbon filler, consisting of technical carbon and graphite, and provided with conductive threads, main non-electro-conductive threads and electro-conductive resistive threads are intertwined in form of mesh, forming cells, value of step h between electro-conductive resistive threads is determined from mathematical expression. Technical result is also achieved, because method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread, including production of solution of polymer resistive material by diluting polymer binding agent in solvent and mixing of resulting solution with carbon filler, then applying of produced mixture in form of cover onto central fiber by drawing it through solution and draw plate, removing solvent from resistive cover by drying the thread in a flow of hot air, while as polymer binding agent, polyurethane resin is utilized, as central fiber, a thread of polyacrylnitrile fiber is utilized or combined fiber of basalt and polyester fibers, draw plate is mounted in vertical position with possible rotation around its axis and with possible inclination of its vertical position, while lower aperture of draw plate is dipped in solution of polymer carbon-containing resistive material and has larger diameter, than upper aperture, while drying of thread is performed at temperature 150-160°. Angle of inclination of draw plate from vertical position is 10-20°.
EFFECT: stable electrical resistance along whole length of product being produced, reliable electrical contact, method for producing electro-conductive resistive thread also provides for lower costs of product due to creation of continuous process.
2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: electrothermy, electric heaters such as fiber-plastic ones for medicine, agriculture, liquid and gaseous media heating devices for various industries.
SUBSTANCE: proposed woven resistor unit has electricity conducting and heat liberating threads disposed in parallel with power electrodes made of tinsel threads and separated from them by insulating threads; uniformly distributed perpendicular to electricity conducting and heat liberating threads and tinsel threads of power electrodes throughout resistor unit length are additional and current-distributing electrodes made of tinsel threads. Manufacture of woven resistor unit involves cutting of resistor unit blank of desired geometry from current-conducting fabric followed by cutting peripheral zones of all current distributing electrodes and some of peripheral zones of additional electrodes in pack of insulating threads contacting power electrodes on one end and pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads, on other end; peripheral zones of additional electrodes are cut out of alternating sides of pack of electricity conducting and heat liberating threads for switching circuit of desired resistor unit; terminal current conductors made, for instance, from copper foil run over with tin and provided with power cord are attached to edges of power and additional electrodes of resistor unit.
EFFECT: enhanced electric safety and reliability of woven resistor unit.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering; thermoelectric mats for heating concrete, soil, fillers, and the like.
SUBSTANCE: proposed thermoelectric mat has layer-by-layer arranged external moisture-proof insulating coating contacting surface being heated in the course of mat operation, heating element made of at least two parallel strips of flexible nonmetal current-conducting material separated by insulating inserts and provided with electrodes at edges, internal insulating layer, heat-insulating layer, and moisture-proof coating; thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating where h is thickness of external moisture-proof insulating coating; K1 = 0.01 - 0.03 is factor depending on kind of material being heated; K2 = 0.01 - 0.06 is factor characterizing strength of external moisture-proof insulating coating material; S is thermoelectric mat surface area; internal insulating layer is disposed under elastic conducting strips at distance of minimum 1 mm therefrom.
EFFECT: enlarged service life of thermoelectric mat.
1 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of cure includes mode of magneto-therapeutic influence by single-directed magnetic field and/or mode of simultaneous influence of hyperthermia and magnetic therapy at values of magnetic induction of 30-50 mT and temperature of 40-55°C while temperature alternately changes within 40-55°C at temperature gradient of 0,1-1°C per second. Device has two plates for therapeutic influence. Plates are connected together by elastic connecting member and provided with cases made of plastic mass. Plastic mass tightly embraces magnetic filed sources, disposed in it, and heating wires. Heating wires are connected with electric power unit through current input member. Electric supply unit is made for periodical interruption of voltage supply onto heating wires made of Ni-Cr alloy. Magnetic field sources have to be permanent magnets embraced with turns of heating wires. Electric supply unit has voltage converter. First output of converter is connected with input of processor; output of converter is connected with first input of switch. Voltage converter has its second output connected with second input of switch; output of switch has to be output of electric supply unit for connecting to heating wires.
EFFECT: simplified design; improved efficiency of cure.
9 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: flat electric heaters of emitting type, in particular, film electric heaters, used as a basis for creating radiation heating systems of industrial, social, cultural and inhabited rooms, and also in systems for heating young animals and birds.
SUBSTANCE: film electric heater contains meander-shaped thin resistive heating and emitting element made of foil in form of continuous ribbon of precision current-conductive material, positioned between two flexible thermo-resistant electro-isolating films and provided with contacts for connection to electric network. The electric heater is provided with emitting element in form of aluminum foil, mounted between external electro-isolation film and resistive heating and emitting element, and separated from resistive heating and emitting element by electro-isolating film, no more than 30 micrometers thick. The distance between adjacent edges of parallel stripes of resistive element equals 20-100 millimeters.
EFFECT: reduced flow of precision material and increased reliability due to reduction of total length of current-conductive section of heater.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to electric engineering, in particular to multilayer thermostatic pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products which contain outer and inner protective layers between which there are mated heat-insulation inserts and strips of current-conducting material with dielectric layers. Multilayer pack follows the geometry of temperature-controlled product. The case is made of separate sections whose layers are formed by dust-proof-and-moisture-proof fabric with textile fasteners interconnected along conjugation lines at joints of heat-insulating inserts which are additionally fixed by mechanical clamps. In this multilayer pack its top part consists of tapered portion and cylindrical portion made of separate sections in the form of a book consisting of two or more mechanically interconnected components where terminating component is fitted with apron with through holes in fabric. In this multilayer pack, resistive components in peripheral zone of current distributing electrodes are located in the array of insulating fibers with interlacing, are cut through alternately on one and on the other side of electric-conducting fiber band. Resistive components together with power electrodes form switching comb of specified resistive component. On tips of power and current-distributing electrodes, tinned foil copper tinned is soldered. Power cords are passed through multilayer pack mass. Each of separate sections along product generatrix are interconnected in series and in parallel by electric connectors.
EFFECT: improvement of operability and operation reliability of multilayer pack for temperature control of complex geometric configuration products.
3 cl, 11 dwg
FIELD: air transport.
SUBSTANCE: device contains thermal mat made of flexible woven electric heater closed by protective electric insulating material. Water repellent material and double layer of heat insulation and water repellent are placed at internal and external surfaces of protective electric insulating material. There is DC power supply source. Thermal mat is divided into number of sections, each having its heating area. Sections of flexible woven electric heater are divided into number of units with different power defined by preset length and width of flexible woven electric heater. Thermal mat is fixed at horizontal surface of aircraft by tapes or fast-type fixing.
EFFECT: enhancement of efficiency in snow and ice removal from lateral surfaces of the aircraft; ecologic cleanliness of maintenance with use of safety power supply at optimal regulation of power consumption and simplification of structure.
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for heating domestic and industrial rooms, as well as for manufacturing such electric heaters. Ceiling film electric heater includes resistive radiating element having in plan view a meander shape and arranged between two layers of electric insulating films. Resistive radiating element is equipped with outputs to be connected to electric mains. Parallel strips of resistive radiating element are connected in series by means of their L-shaped bending towards the next strip transversely on one and the other side. Edges of upper and lower electric insulating layers are connected be means of tape with self-adhesive base. According to invention, room heating system includes heat insulator representing a foam heat-insulating material with reflecting layer. Outputs of resistive radiating element of ceiling film electric heater are connected via control and protection devices to power network. Device for manufacturing the bed of ceiling film electric heater includes uncoiler for strips of resistive radiating element, uncoilers of upper and lower layers of electric insulating films, device for supply of tape with self-adhesive base, laminating machine with thermal shafts and winding shafts of the ready bed, which are installed in one process line.
EFFECT: low production cost and possible use in large-scale production.
16 cl, 9 dwg