Digital pyrometer spectral relations
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the control and measuring equipment, devices for measuring the temperature of the heated products in high-temperature processes. The structure of the device includes an integral filter, vibrating scanner with a photodetector, the photocurrent amplifier, two switch, an integrator, two peak detector, clock, key, pulse counter, frequency divider. In the proposed digital pyrometer spectral relations used the principle of operation of analog-to-digital Converter with push-pull integration, which in comparison to deploy time-pulse Converter has a smaller error in conversion caused by the instability of the parameters of the composite nodes. 2 Il. The invention relates to a measuring and control technique, namely, devices for measuring the temperature of the heated products, and can be used in the manufacture sloping, forging and building material.Known opto-electronic system for measuring the temperature of the products of modulation of the radiation flux from the heated products (Postica A. A., Chubarov E. P. Optoelectronic is the basis of semiconductor elements bipolar transistors. This optoelectronic elements has the following disadvantages:
1) the limited accuracy of temperature measurement products because of the dependence of the parameters of semiconductor elements logarithmic converters from external temperature conditions;
2) the complexity of the setup and calibration of such systems due to the inability to control the nonlinear characteristics of semiconductor elements.The closest in technical essence to the invention is an optoelectronic device for measuring the dimensions of the heated products (ed. St. USSR N 1711002, CL G 01 B 21/00, 1992), containing vibrating scanner, two filter photodetector with amplifier photocurrent block automatic gain control (AGC), the Schmitt trigger, the output of which is connected to the amplifier output of the photocurrent, the one-shot connected to a Schmitt trigger, a generator of periodic signals a special form, the second Schmitt trigger, the input connected to the outputs of the two switches, and the output connected with the control input of the third switch is a key connecting the clock pulse generator with pulse counters.This measuring device has a low tekhnicheskikh linear value temperature correction, with low accuracy. The main component of the measurement error of the temperature is determined by the error of approximation of the dependence of the voltage at the amplifier output of the photocurrent on the temperature, because the dependence is approximated by only one function is exponential. In addition, when converting an analog signal into a digital code error occurs when the comparator Schmitt trigger due to the instability of the parameters of the integrating RC circuit.The most important task is the creation of a digital pyrometer spectral ratio, which was carried out by measuring the temperature with sufficient accuracy and the result is represented in digital form.The technical result of the claimed digital pyrometer spectral ratio is to increase the measurement accuracy and ease of use of this measuring device, since the measurement result is represented in a digital code. The digital output from the measuring device can be used in automated control systems of high-temperature technological processes in various industries.This technical resultantly with different bandwidths in the entire temperature range of the heated products vibrating scanner with a sensor located at the bottom-scanning direction perpendicular to the dividing line filters, the photocurrent amplifier, whose input is connected to the output of the photodetector, two switch, an integrator, a peak detector, comparator, made in the form of a Schmitt trigger, connected in series generator of clock pulses, a key and a pulse counter, which is provided with a frequency divider, connected to the input to the generator of clock pulses, and the output to the input of the scanner, an additional peak detector with an inverted output, and trigger the first switch connected between the amplifier output of the photocurrent and the inputs of the peak detectors, and the second switch between the outputs of the peak detectors and the input of the integrator, the control inputs of the switches and one of the trigger inputs connected to the output of the frequency divider, the comparator input connected to the output of the integrator and the output to another input trigger connected to the output with the control input of the key.The specified difference can improve the temperature measurement accuracy, because the digital pyrometer spectral relations used the principle of operation of analog-to-digital Converter with push-pull integrated RESNET conversion, due to the instability of the parameters deploys element and the frequency of the clock.In Fig. 1 depicts a block diagram of thermometer of Fig.2 - time pulse diagram illustrating the operation of the pyrometer.The pyrometer is a lens 1, the image plane is set to the composite optical filter 2, consisting of two filters with different bandwidths and line section perpendicular to the direction of scanning. The spectral bandwidth of the filters are selected in such a way that the luminous flux passing through one filter, more of the light flux passing through the other filter, in the entire temperature range of the heated product. For compound optical filter 2 is fixed to the sensor 3 on the scanner, representing a vibrator with an electromagnetic system 4. The vibrator 4 oscillates with solenoid system connected to the generator of clock pulses 5 through the frequency divider 6.The photocurrent amplifier 7, is connected to the photodetector 3, connected via the first switch 8, the first peak detector 9 and the second peak detector 10, and the output of the second peak detector 10 is connected inverter WMD operational amplifier. Control inputs of the switches 8 and 12 is connected to the output of the frequency divider 6. To the output of the integrator 13 is connected to the comparator 14. representing a Schmitt trigger with a zero threshold, the output of which is connected to one of inputs of the trigger 15, the second input connected to the output of the frequency divider 6. The trigger 15 is triggered from the slices pulses at its inputs. The trigger output is 15 in turn is connected to a control input key 16 connecting the clock generator 5 pulses with pulse counter 17.When the pyrometer signal from the clock 5 frequency f (chart 18 Fig.2) is supplied to the frequency divider 6 with the division factor K. the signal from the frequency divider 6, which has a frequency f/K and period T = K/f (chart 19 Fig. 2) is supplied to the electromagnetic system of the scanner, with which the photodetector 3 performs reciprocating motion, transforming the spatial brightness distribution of the product in a temporary electrical signal, which is amplified by the amplifier photocurrent 7. The signal at the amplifier output of the photocurrent has a stepped shape (diagram 20 of Fig. 2). During the time interval T1=K/2f, i.e., during the time of the photodetector 3 in C is a torus 9 with a time constant of discharge, greater than the scan period. A constant voltage from the peak detector 9 through the second switch 12 to the input of the integrator 13 with a constant time , resulting in the output of the integrator formed by linearly increasing voltage (chart 21 Fig.2). The output voltage of the integrator 13 in the end of the period of time T1is determined by using the expression
< / BR>At time T1switches switches 8 and 12, and setting the trigger 15 in one state. During the time interval T1-T, i.e., during the time of the photodetector 3 in the area of the second filter, the signal photocurrent amplifier via the first switch 8 is supplied to the second peak detector 10, a constant voltage through the inverter 11 and the second switch 12 to the input of the integrator 13, the output of which is formed linearly falling voltage (chart 21 Fig. 2)
< / BR>At the moment of equality to zero of the output voltage of the integrator 13 is triggered comparator 14, which converts the trigger 15 in the zero state. Denoting the time interval from the beginning of the second beat until actuation of the comparator, i.e. the period of time during which the trigger 15 is in a single status>-T1-U2T2= 0. Where T2= T1U1/U2, i.e., the pulse duration at the output of the trigger 15 (chart 22 Fig. 2) is proportional to the ratio of the voltage signals corresponding to different filter. Thus, the pulse duration is proportional to the ratio of the voltages at the amplifier output photocurrent corresponding to different filters. The voltage output from the trigger 15 at time T2opens the key 16 and during this time the pulse counter 17 counts the pulses coming from the clock 5. The number of the received pulse counter for time T2(chart 23 Fig.2) is determined by the expression N = T2f = T1fU1/U2= K U1/2U2from which it follows that slow compared to the frequency f/K changing the frequency of clock pulses and parameters of the integrator does not affect the accuracy of measurement of the ratio of the voltage. In addition, over the entire operating range of measurement temperatures when the comparator does not extend beyond the period T, because the filters are selected in such a way that the voltage U2more voltage U1.The temperature measurement can be directly the spectral ratio can improve the accuracy of temperature measurement products, manufactured in a hot state, and consequently to improve the quality of manufactured products. Digital pyrometer spectral relations containing two filter made with different bandwidths in the entire temperature range of the heated products, vibrating scanner with a sensor located at the bottom-scanning direction perpendicular to the dividing line filters, the photocurrent amplifier, whose input is connected to the output of the photodetector, two switch, an integrator, a peak detector, comparator, made in the form of a Schmitt trigger, connected in series generator of clock pulses, the key and the count pulses, characterized in that it is provided with a frequency divider, connected to the input to the generator of clock pulses, and the output to the input of the scanner, an additional peak detector with an inverted output and a trigger, the first switch connected between the amplifier output of the photocurrent and the inputs of the peak detectors, and a second switch between the outputs of the peak detectors and the input of the integrator, the control inputs of the switches and one of the trigger inputs connected to the output of the frequency divider, the comparator input connected to the output of the integrator, and the output - d
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: device for measuring linear sizes has additional counter, two subtracters, two decoders and AND-OR gate. Output of amplitude selector is connected with inputs of first and second permanent storages through additional counter. Outputs of permanent storages are connected with first inputs of first and second subtracters. The second inputs and outputs of subtracters are connected with output of unit for counting marks and with first inputs of first and second decoders. Outputs of decoders are connected with first and second inputs of AND-OR gate. The third input and output of AND-OR gate are connected correspondingly with output of unit for counting number of marks and with first input of indicator.
EFFECT: reduced influence of error of object installation; improved precision of measurement.
FIELD: device providing receiving of information on condition of object's surface.
SUBSTANCE: device can be used for inspecting surfaces of objects at tunnel and atomic-power modes of operation in scanning probe microscope. Power probe for scanning probe microscope has quartz crystal vibrator provided with needle fixed at surface of one arm of quartz vibrator due to chemical bond between needle and surface. There are variants of the device where thread-shaped crystals are used as needles and nanotubes. Thread-shaped crystals can be made of carbon, metal, semiconductor and isolator. Needles can be also fixed at external surface of arm of quartz vibrator as well as its edge and side surfaces. Needles can be arranges as in parallel to axis of symmetry of quartz vibrator and in perpendicular to its axis. According to one more variant, needle can be fixed at random angle to axis of plane of one arm of quartz vibrator. In some cases surface of arm of quartz vibrator can used for fixing several needles of different lengths.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity of probe; widened operational capabilities.
12 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: measuring arrangements.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises unmovable base provided with the first cantilever, two carriages provided with drives controllable with a computer, pickup of linear movements, arrangement for mounting blade and first measuring channel connected with the computer. The first carriage is mounted on the unmovable base and is made for permitting movement parallel to the X-axis. The first measuring passage is defined by the optoelectronic head and units secured to the unmovable base, third carriage provided with an actuator controlled by a computer and pickup of linear displacements, second measuring channel, first and scone markers of the blade with actuating members controlled by a computer, arrangement setting the blade mounted on the first carriage and made for permitting rigid orientation of the blade in the vertical plane, second and third carriages arranged on the first and second cantilevers, respectively, and made for permitting movement parallel to the Z-axis, first and second markers of the blade, fiber optic heads of the first and second measuring channels arranged on the second and third carriages from the both sides of the study blade. The objectives of the fiber optic heads are mounted for permitting triangulation link of the photodetector with the sourced through the blade surface of the blade to be tested.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
6 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: measurement of object shape.
SUBSTANCE: the device has two luminous radiating systems located relative to the measured surfaces of the object, each of them forms luminous lines at the preset sections of the object, a photoreceiver with an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input an objective lens and a computer unit, whose input is connected to the output of the photoreceiver. The photoreceiver is made in the form of a matrix and is optically coupled to each luminous radiating system. In addition, the device has mirrors located relative to the measured surfaces of the object at an acute angle to its surface and is optically coupled to the photo-receiver through the objective lens, whose optical axis is positioned in the plane of symmetry.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement, capacity and simplified construction of the device.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: woodworking industry, particularly for measuring moving timber thickness.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises conveyer for feeding timber material to be adjusted to obtain predetermined timber thickness, thickness measuring means, processing unit to determine insufficient timber thickness, means to distinguish above timber from another ones. Thickness measuring means determines timber thickness in several points during conveyance thereof on the base of main output signals generated by displacement transducers. Displacement transducers are located in several locations along timber width. If timber has several parts of a given length with thicknesses deviated from tolerance band for predetermined value in conveyance direction one can come to conclusion that timber has insufficient thickness.
EFFECT: reduce time of thickness determination, increased quality thereof.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: measurement technology; instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has bed, movable mechanism of movable carriage, optical units of basic and vernier dial of measuring rule, photo-element unit disposed onto movable carriage, mechanism for moving optical units relatively movable carriage, device for counting optical lines of basic and vernier dials of measuring rule, line coincidence unit of basic and vernier dials, difference signal determination unit, correction memory unit. The latter has corrections relatively standard depending on number of line of measuring rule of basic and vernier dials introduced through algebraic adding unit into measuring rule basic and vernier dial number of lines counters and units of determining précised linear value of lines of basic and vernier dials. Basic and vernier dials of measuring rule are reduced relatively minimal interval of length of 0, 5 mm 10 to 40 times by means of photographing.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement of linear distances.
3 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: the mode of measuring the form of an object includes formation of a light line on the surface of the object with the aid of the light-emitting system lying in the preset cross-section of the object, getting the image of the light line, its processing and definition of the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object. AT that collateral light lines are formed on the surface by turns with the aid of two light-emitting systems illuminating the surface in preset cross-section of the object at different angles in its every point, images of light lines are received. On each of them sites are revealed. A resultant image is compiled out of the images of the indicated sites. According to this resultant image the coordinates of the profile of the cross-section of the object are determined. The arrangement for measuring the form of the object has a light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a computing unit. It also has one additional light-emitting system optically connected with a photoreceiver and a commuting unit connected with its input to the computing unit, and with its output - with every light-emitting system. Optical axles of light-emitting system are placed in one plane and located to each other at an angle equal 5-800.
EFFECT: the invention increases accuracy of measuring by way of excluding the distortions of the zone of influence on the results of measuring.
13 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: the invention refers to measuring technique particularly to devices for linear measurements and may be used in machine-tool construction.
SUBSTANCE: the arrangement has a bed, a movable mechanism of a mobile carriage, a main and a nonius scale of a measuring ruler, optical units of a main and a nonius scale of a measuring ruler, a unit of photo , elements, units of coincidence of the stated number of the mark of the main and the nonius scale and exact linear meaning of the stated number of the mark of the main and the nonius scale, a stop unit of the mobile carriage, a unit of algebraical summation, a correction memory unit. At that the main and the nonius scales of the measuring ruler are reduced relatively to the minimum interval of length of 0,5 mm with the aid of photographing in 10 and 40 times.
EFFECT: the invention provides increased accuracy at measuring linear distance.
11 cl, 3 dwg