Cleaning device

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention can be used for cleaning soil contaminated with radionuclides and petroleum products. The inventive device is made in a single body consisting of two connected parts. The case contains a separator for separating the coarse fraction in the form of an inclined spiral mesh classifier for the separation of the soil in the form of columns, washer clean water in the vertical pipe and the collector particle fraction for washing, situated between the load tool and washer. The device is provided with polycaprolactam with Pulckerrimi attached to the washer and the bottom of the hull. The apparatus is filled with water, apply a low-frequency ripple, providing the necessary hydrodynamic mixing mode, and dosed the original soil and the circulating water. Soil resultatives, coarse fraction, is not transmitted by the grid, is separated. Passed through a mesh fraction of the soil is classified in the column variable cross-section with a nozzle. Small fractions raise in the collector and then into the washer with clean water after cleaning device for unloading. The fraction of intermediate size is the result: increased efficiency purification of soil, simplifying purification technology. 17 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il., 7 table.

The invention relates to the field of engineering and is aimed at the design of the apparatus for cleaning contaminated soil.

The issues of rehabilitation of territories contaminated as a result of activity of enterprises of oil and nuclear industries, as well as due to accidents, include a range of activities for the cleaning of buildings, facilities, adjacent to the enterprises of the contaminated zones. The most important and urgent task in all areas of rehabilitation of territories is the cleaning of the soil.

In the event of an accident the enterprises of nuclear industry, soils and soils contain the largest part of the ejected by the explosion of radionuclides, being the main source of external exposure of the population. Radionuclides and petroleum products in soils and soils that can have a direct impact on ecosystems for a long time. Thus, cleaning the soil is one of the most important components of rehabilitation of the affected territories.

In the method of cleaning the principle of allocation of the total mass and the removal of the most contaminated fraction of the soil. One I had esnecially (10-20%). Thus, removal of minor amounts of fine fraction of the soil greatly reduces its pollution and allows you to use most of the remaining part for commercial purposes.

Known installation for cleanup of soils containing vessel with the slurry that is connected via a pump classifier and cyclone associated with the classifier pipeline [1]. However, this setting does not provide the necessary degree of purification of the soil.

Closest to the proposed to the technical essence and the achieved result is a device for purifying polluted soil containing bootable tool, a separator for separating the coarse fraction, the classifier for the separation of the soil, the washer clean water, collection of fines and contaminants and a device for discharging pure fractions of the soil [2].

Belt conveyor delivers the material separator (drum with blades and basket) for separating the coarse fraction which take away through the device for discharge in the form of cleared ground. The suspension is fed into the classifier (vibrating screen), fraction of soil irrigated with clean water, relatively large fraction believe purified soil, and small f. Further fine fraction is sent to a special collection.

The disadvantages are the counterpart low coefficient of cleaning and complexity in hardware design.

The technical result of the invention is to increase the coefficient of purification with simultaneous simplification of the purification process of the soil.

The technical result is achieved in that the device for purifying polluted soil containing the boot device, a separator for separating the coarse fraction, the classifier for the separation of the soil, the washer clean water, collection of fines and contaminants and a device for discharging pure fractions of the soil, according to the invention is equipped with a catcher particle fraction for washing device for discharging the intermediate fraction and polycaprolactam with polskamebel, a separator for separating the coarse fraction is made in the form of an inclined spiral mesh classifier for fractionation is made in the form of columns with variable cross-section, washer clean water made in the form of a vertical pipe, catcher particle fraction for flushing is located between the loading means and the washer, and the separator, classifier, p is scoy, and the body is made of two connected parts.

The optimal conditions to achieve a technical result is the following:

- bootable tool made in the form of a funnel with a cylindrical bottom part installed in the coaxial pipe string classifier;

- catcher particle fraction for washing made in the form of a truncated cone with an upward basis;

- ulsamer connected to the washer;

- the device is equipped with additional polskamebel connected with the case;

- pulsory made in the form of bent 90oa cylindrical pipe with a valve at the free end for communication with the atmosphere;

- conjugate part of the case is made in the form of a cylinder with a ratio of din>dn,

where din- diameter annular section of the upper part of the body;

dn- the diameter of the annular cross section of the lower part of the body;

- in the column of variable cross-section mounted Poppet nozzle;

vertical pipe washer made with Poppet nozzle;

the washer has a nozzle for supplying pure water located below the nozzle;

- the bottom part of the case is made with a pipe for feeding Oborona discharge Assembly of a large fraction, made in the form of boxes, located at the upper end of the inclined grid under the cover and connected with the chute output for the external wall of the housing;

- the collection of the fine fraction has a nozzle for discharging and is located in the upper part of the body under the cover on the side opposite to the discharge unit of the coarse fraction;

the output device intermediate fraction is made in the form of a valve with a nozzle located in the lower part of the body;

- bottom part of the washer with a device for discharging pure fractions below the hull;

- device for discharging pure fractions are made in the form of a valve fitting and is located in the lower end of the pipe cleaner.

The proposed device is shown in Fig. 1.

The device consists of several functional zones: the preparation of pulp from the original soil and the working solution and the simultaneous separation of coarse fraction of the soil; zones of separation of the fine fraction of soil and dirt; zone leaching of the coarse fraction of the soil with clean water; the allotment area conditionally clean intermediate fractions of the soil.

The cooking area of the pulp from the original ground includes the Tr is xialin its housing 3. In the upper part of the pipe 1 through the device cover 2 is placed a cylindrical shank hoppers 4 with butt plugged and the hole in the side surface. Between the inner surface of the pipe 1 and the outer surface of the shank is inclined spiral mesh 5. The lower and middle part of the tube 1 is filled distribution Poppet nozzle 6. The lower end of the inclined grid ends of the horizontal portion which separates the boot area (top) of the mixing zone (the area of the plates 6). The upper end of the inclined grid ends at the lower edge of the window unload 7 coarse fraction of the soil. The window unload 7 is a duct of rectangular cross section, one end tangentially embedded in the upper part of the pipe 1, and the other connected with a cylindrical chute 8, which serves for discharging coarse fraction of the soil from the apparatus.

On one axis with the pipe 1 at its open lower end is located catcher 9, representing a truncated cone with an upward basis and used to capture a large fraction of the soil and its direction to the leaching area.

Area branch of the fine fraction of soil and dirt includes all the 11, connected with the area of separation of relatively pure intermediate fractions of the soil. The annular cross-section between the inner surface of the housing 3 and the outer surface of the tube 1 along its entire height filled distribution Poppet nozzle 12. To collect merging with the upper edge of the housing 3 of the circulating solution and output along with him fine fraction of the soil is a collection of 13, which is a cylindrical shell with a sloped bottom and a horizontal cover 2 mounted coaxially of the outer surface of the shell 3. At the lowest point of the inclined bottom attached to the fitting 14 conclusion the fine fraction of the soil and of the circulating solution from the apparatus.

The zone of leaching of the coarse fraction of the soil clean water is on the same axis with the cooking area of the pulp from the original soil below the bottom slice of the guide cone 9 and includes a cylindrical tube 15 of the washer, the upper end of which is open and attached to the bottom of the conical passage connected to the valve 16 unloading system of a large fraction of the soil from the apparatus through the nozzle 17. Inside the cylindrical tube 15 along its entire height is the distribution disc nozzle 18. To enter the pure water in the washing area to the external poverhnostnoaguoe fraction of the soil is coaxially aligned with the zone of leaching of the coarse fraction of the soil with clean water and represents the lower part of the housing 3, the upper end of which is attached to the conical passage 11, and the lower ends sloping bottom, at the bottom of which is attached to the fitting 20 with the valve 21 to output an intermediate fraction of the soil from the apparatus. The annular cross-section between the inner surface of the lower shell 3 and the outer surface of tube 15 along its entire height filled distribution Poppet nozzle 22. To enter the circulating solution in the zone to the outer cylindrical surface of the lower shell 3 is attached to the fitting 23.

For applying pulsations to the reagents in each of the functional areas to the cover unit 2 is attached to the nozzle supply ripple 24. To ensure the required intensity pulsations in the area of separation of relatively pure intermediate fraction of the soil it is equipped with a passive polskamebel representing curved under 90ocylindrical tube 25 with a valve at the upper end to its connection with the atmosphere, the lower end of which is attached to the outer surface of the housing 3 in its lower part. Similarly polskamebel 26 is supplied and the pipe 15 washer large fraction of the soil with clean water.

The device operates as follows.

After pre-filling aproposal outside of the apparatus and fed to him through Polaroid 24 in the cover 2. The regulation of the intensity of low-frequency pulsations in various parts of the apparatus by changing the liquid level in ulsamer 26 and 25 allows to achieve a desired hydrodynamic mode mixing of reagents in different functional areas of the device.

Later in the hopper 4 at the same time begins the dosage of the original soil and circulating water in a ratio. sufficient for the preparation of pulp from the T:W=1:1 to 1:5. Through the lower end of the cylindrical part of the funnel, is coaxially inserted into the tube 1 of the apparatus, the mixture of the original soil and recycled water act on the inclined grid 5, a spiral rising to tangentially positioned window unload 7 lump fraction of the soil. Under the influence of pulsation of the fluid in the pipe 1 apparatus original soil resultatives, the fine fraction passes through the grid 5 and the lump fraction, is not transmitted by the grid, under the influence of pulsation raised it to the window unload 7. Transportation of a large fraction of the grid under the action of normal pulsation only to mirror the fluid in the apparatus. The box unloading is located 100 mm above the liquid mirror in the apparatus. For lifting large fraction up to window level discharge for liquid e lower edge of the window unload. While part of the liquid flows out from the window of the discharge in the discharge pipe 8, grasping some part of the coarse fraction. Separation of the coarse fraction of the soil and recycled water occurs outside of the apparatus for drainage.

Passed through the mesh of the fine fraction of the soil intensively mixed in the pipe 1, which includes a Poppet nozzle 6, TurboLinux pulp under the influence of pulsation. When this occurs, the dispersion of soil agglomerates into smaller components. Resulting from the lower end of the pipe, the pulp goes to the cross section of the device, limited external cylindrical body 3. The fluid flow in this section moving at a certain speed up, so mixing with the flow of the pulp begins to be classified.

Light the fine fraction of soil particles picked up by the fluid flow and begin to climb up the cross section of the apparatus. For averaging the velocity of the upward flow in the cross section of the housing 3 with the Poppet nozzle 12. Large soil particles fall down in located under the pipe truncated cone 9 and later in the upper part of the tube 15 of the washer.

In the lower part of the washer through the fitting 19 is fed clean water. Skorosti parts that eliminates the ingress of particles below a certain size. Trapped particles are subjected to intensive mixing at the expense installed in her Poppet nozzle 18, which facilitates cleaning the surface from soluble impurities and the adhered fine particles. Time and the quality of the processing is determined by the height of the wash zone of the apparatus. The output from the bottom of the wash zone through the valve 16 and the nozzle 17 pure fraction of the soil enters the container, which is removed in its storage.

Particle fractions of the soil of intermediate size, not rising in the main section of the apparatus up and not come down in his leaching area, removed from the apparatus through the annular gap between the pipe 15 and the outer wall of the lower shell 3 and then through the valve 21 with the socket 20 of the apparatus. To prevent this fraction of small particles in the lower part of the annular gap through the fitting 23 serves the circulating water. The speed of the upward flow of this water is equal to the velocity of the upward flow in the main section of the apparatus. For averaging the velocity of the upward flow in the cross section of the annular gap between the pipe 15 of the washer and the housing is installed Poppet nozzle 23. Teaches is on as needed can be returned for re-processing with circulating water for repulpable original soil.

The fine fraction of the soil is carried away by the fluid flow (circulating water) in the main section of the apparatus, and the soil fractions pop-up in the water, removed from the apparatus together with the circulating water, which flows over the upper edge of the upper part of the body 3 of the apparatus in the annular collector 13 and then through the fitting 14 is supplied to the centrifugation. Clarified in the centrifuge process, the circulating water is supplied to Pospelova the original soil, and the resulting precipitate is discharged into a container and then sent for disposal.

An example implementation of a process for purification of soil from radionuclides is presented in the table. 1-4.

As follows from the results presented in table. 4,85% of the soil has a specific activity of less than 2 Bq/g, while 15% has a specific activity of more than 365 Bq/g, while the value of the coefficient of cleaning up to 20.

An example implementation of a process for purification of soil from petroleum products is presented in the form of a table. 5-7. Geometrical dimensions of the functional zones of the apparatus correspond to the data table. 5.

As follows from resole this value of the coefficient of cleaning up to 600.

Thus, the invention allows significantly increase the amount of cleaning factor when carrying out the cleaning process in one device that greatly simplifies the process as a whole.

1. Device for purifying polluted soil containing bootable tool, a separator for separating the coarse fraction, the classifier for the separation of the soil, the washer clean water, collection of fines and contaminants and a device for discharging pure fractions of the soil, characterized in that it is equipped with a catcher particle fraction for washing, a device for discharging an intermediate fraction of the soil and polycaprolactam with polskamebel, a separator for separating the coarse fraction is made in the form of an inclined spiral mesh classifier for fractionation is made in the form of columns with variable cross-section, washer clean water made in the form of a vertical pipe, catcher particle fraction for flushing is located between the classifier and the washer, and the separator, classifier, washer, extractor and a device for discharging pure fractions of soil enclosed in a single housing with a lid, and the body is made of two connected parts.

is she part, installed coaxially to the housing of the classifier.

3. The device under item 1, characterized in that the collector particle fraction for washing made in the form of a truncated cone with an upward basis.

4. The device under item 1, characterized in that ulsamer connected to the washer.

5. The device according to p. 4, characterized in that it is provided with an additional polskamebel connected with the case.

6. The device under item 5, wherein ulsamer made in the form of bent 90oa cylindrical pipe with a valve at the free end for connection with the atmosphere.

7. The device under item 1, characterized in that the paired parts of the body made in the form of a cylinder with a ratio of

dindn,

where din- diameter annular section of the upper part of the body;

dn- the diameter of the annular cross section of the lower part of the body.

8. The device under item 1, characterized in that the column variable cross-section mounted Poppet nozzle.

9. The device under item 1, characterized in that the cylindrical lower part of the boot means mounted Poppet nozzle.

10. The device under item 1, characterized in that CTSA fact, the washer has a nozzle for supplying pure water located below the nozzle.

12. The device under item 1, characterized in that the lower part of the case is made with a pipe for supplying recycled water below the nozzle.

13. The device under item 1, characterized in that Polaroid attached to the cover.

14. The device under item 1, characterized in that it is provided with a discharge Assembly of the coarse fraction, made in the form of boxes, located at the upper end of the inclined grid under the cover and connected with the chute output for the external wall of the housing.

15. The device under item 1, characterized in that the collection of the fine fraction has a nozzle for discharging located at the bottom of the inclined bottom.

16. The device under item 1, characterized in that the output device intermediate fraction is made in the form of a valve fitting and is located in the lower end of the body.

17. The device under item 1, characterized in that the bottom part of the washer with a device for discharging pure fractions below the hull.

18. The device under item 1, characterized in that the device for discharging pure fractions made in the form of the clap

 

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FIELD: environment protection.

SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.

EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.

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