A method of manufacturing the x-ray systems and device for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to x-ray optics and can find application in physical instrumentation, x-ray microlithography, astronomy, medicine, etc. Improve the optical properties and the packing density of the system is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing the x-ray systems (RS) form the packaging of monolithic polycapillary glass assemblies of prismatic shape, each of which with one end is heated to a plastic condition, and at the other end, which is at room temperature, the Assembly is moved translationally along the axis of the Assembly vertically adjustable speed and simultaneously affect all facets of the Assembly in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the Assembly, with the speed and set in accordance with the equality depending on the coordinates X and Y, where Rn- given the estimated bending radius of the peripheral capillary Assembly around the circumference; the X-and Y - coordinates of any capillary at any cross section of the toll system vertically, and the reference point coordinates take the center of a circle of radius Rn. Device for the manufacture of RS represents a frame on which smontirovan, the mechanism of synchronous rotation of the Cams, the number of which corresponds to the number of faces of the Assembly around their axes at an angle of 180owith a screw mechanism and guides the movement of the carriage vertically, containing a stepper motor, heater screen with insulation attached to the frame around the formation mechanism, the socket for the supply neutral environment, insulation screen stepper motor of the rotation mechanism Cam and mechanism of translational movement Assembly vertically. 2 S. and 1 C.p. f-crystals, 7 Il. The invention relates to x-ray optics, in particular to broadband with an angular aperture, and may find application in physical instrumentation, x-ray microlithography, astronomy, medicine, etc.The known method and device fabrication focusing systems of a large number of curved hollow capillaries, in which x-rays of different energy passed on the curved capillaries, forming the x-ray beams of a desired configuration .A disadvantage of the known technical solutions is that they are imperfect for wide practical use in physical instrumentation, x-ray, microlite the Noah labor-intensive Assembly and otherThe closest technical solution is a method of manufacturing a broadband x-ray optics large aperture , which consists in using a large number of curved hollow capillary bending radius which is determined by the ratio , where R is the radius of curvature of the capillary;krcritical angle of total external reflection; r is the radius of the orifice of the capillary; - dimensionless parameter (1).
In the hard x-ray range for better filling of the capillaries radiation it is necessary to collect system this type of capillaries with possibly small in cross section and the maximum packing density in the cross section in the x-ray system.In the device for manufacturing the x-ray systems from capillaries to give a required curvature used spaced over the length of the spacers with holes through which the capillaries. Hole capillaries in the adjacent spacers are arranged so that the capillaries pass through him the entire length of the system, acquire the necessary curvature.For Assembly is also used basis (buffet), optical bench, universal tool (forceps, tweezers, and other).The disadvantages known to the holes in them under capillaries, relatively large holes in the capillaries due to necessary when building their strength (0.36 mm), large lenses (actually made lens has a length of 98 cm and a maximum diameter 11 cm), dense enough (73 %) of the hexagonal packing of the capillaries. These shortcomings reduce the effectiveness of the x-ray system and limit its use in some areas, for example in medicine, when necessary miniature systems, and the design does not provide performance in mass production of such systems.The technical result is to increase the packing density of the capillaries in the systems and a significant decrease in holes in the capillaries (up to several microns), improvement of optical properties in a wide range of frequencies and angles when extending functionality.The technical result is achieved in that in the method of manufacturing the x-ray systems (PC) form glass capillaries in packaging, and the packaging is made of a monolithic polycapillary glass prismatic form assemblies, each of which with one end in the length of PC is heated to a plastic condition, and at the other end, nahodil with adjustable speed and simultaneously affect all facets of the Assembly at a given length of the toll system for the variable length line contact in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the Assembly with speed , providing a likeness of the cross section at any location of the toll system on the initial vertical cross-section of the Assembly, and the speed set in accordance with depending on the coordinates x, y, where Rn- given the estimated bending radius of the peripheral capillary Assembly around the circumference, the x, y coordinates of any capillary at any cross section of the toll system vertically, and at the origin of coordinates is the centre of a circle of radius Rnother capillaries in addition to peripheral acquire the bending radii in the range Rnbefore , where RC- bending radius of the axial capillary manufactured system, after profiling capillary Assembly at the cold end is removed from the heating zone and produce a segment of the packaging of the finished x-ray system from the Assembly at a given length, then the Assembly is dipped one end into the heating zone and the production cycle is repeated, and the device for manufacturing the x-ray systems put the frame on which is mounted the mechanism for moving and clamping driven by a stepper motor, which is fixed to the cold end of the Assembly, the mechanism of synchronous rotation Kula, repository, the cranks of which are mounted on the axes of the Cams, and rods pivotally connected with the total for all Cams of the caliper), with screw mechanism and guides the movement of the carriage vertically, containing a stepper motor, heater screen with insulation attached to the frame around the formation mechanism, the socket for the supply neutral environment, insulation screen stepper motors, swing Cams and transfer mechanism Assembly and clip.In addition, the cylindrical surface of the Cam, the total length l which is at an angle 180corresponds to the length l2peripheral capillary system, made by the spiral of Archimedes increments of t1, and the edges of the cylindrical surfaces is screw with one end of the Cam right and the other left direction of the screw with the same step t2, where n is the number of faces of an Assembly that provides for shaping the x-ray system complete resemblance section anywhere on the initial vertical cross-section of the Assembly.In Fig.1 shows the device in position before forming the x-ray system, vertical section; Fig.2 - the device in the canopy.4 - view B in Fig.1 and 2; Fig.5 - section b-b of Fig.4; Fig.6 - section G-G in Fig.1; Fig.7 - section d-D in Fig.1.Device for producing x-ray systems of the polycapillary prismatic form Assembly includes the frame 1, on which is installed by rack 2 mechanism 3 for moving the Assembly 4 is vertically driven by the program from the stepper motor 5, the mechanism for simultaneous rotation around the axis of the Cams 6 7 consisting of cranks 8, connecting rods 9, the support plate 10, the screw 11, a nut 12, driven in rotation by the program from the stepper motor 13 mounted on a support 14. The translational movement of the carriage is provided by the guides 15 and 16.The space around the Assembly 4 Cams 6, the axes 7, cranks 8, connecting rods 9, the support plate 10, the screw 11, a nut 12 is surrounded by a heater 17, mounted in the housing 18, which is fixed on the frame 1. The remaining elements of the device, placed in the heating zone of the Assembly 4 with the aim of better temperature control and thermal insulation from the outside of the space surrounded by the end of the screen 19, the screen thermal protection cold end Assembly 20, a cylindrical screen 21, a screen protection mechanisms 22, the shield 23.For supplying neutral gas environment is n fitting 24. The Cams 6 have a cylindrical surface 25, is made from the spiral of Archimedes, and the edges of the cylindrical surface 26 is screw with one end of the right, and the other end of the left direction of the screw.For the manufacture of x-ray optics systems of various sizes are used interchangeable Cams.Device for producing x-ray systems of the polycapillary prismatic form Assembly operates as follows.When the heater 17 Assembly 4, e.g. made from glass C-52 at some length brought to a plastic state and at the cold end (t = 25C) secured in the mechanism 3 driven by the program stepper motor 5 receives moving up vertically with speed While moving Assembly 4 at the same time synchronously around the axes 7 turn the Cams 6 through a mechanism consisting of a crank 8, the connecting rod 9, the support plate 10, the screw 11, a nut 12, driven in rotation by the program from the stepper motor 13 mounted on a support 14. When the rotation of the Cams 6 synchronously running Assembly 4 on all sides without slip, compressing it in the direction towards the axis of the workpiece is moved under the program from your computer to all peripheral capillary system was acquired given the estimated radius Rp.The proposed method of manufacturing the x-ray systems of the polycapillary prismatic assemblies and device for its realization can be used in physical experiments in industry for the manufacture of compact, including miniature high-performance x-ray optics systems, for example, to microlithography, astronomy, medicine and other industries, therefore, the proposal is industrially applicable.As a specific example of manufacturing the x-ray system, an example of manufacturing Pawlenty glass C - 52, L = 100 mm, a radius of curvature of the peripheral capillaries Rp= 1000 mm hexagonal prismatic straight Assembly with the distance between the faces B1= 20 mmAssume a given length of the lens and the required radius of the peripheral capillaries. Given that the capillaries in the wide part of the Assembly fit tangent to the normals parallel to the axis of the system, measure the dimensions of the sides of the hexagons in the wide and narrow parts of the lens. In the wide part of the lens (the original section of the Assembly) a1= 11.5 mm, and in uscore Cams and screw step t2= 5,78 mm to the edges of the cylindrical surfaces.Based on the given length of the lens, and given that the cranks can really turn the Cams on the angle = 140determined the average radius of the cylindrical surface of the Cam Rto= 41 mm as the size of the hexagon in the narrow part of the system is B2= 6 mm, while rotation of Cams 140ofull stroke of the cylindrical surfaces of Cams on the spiral of Archimedes is 7 mm With the average velocity of the Assembly vertically forming packaging takes 1 min.The proposed method possible to obtain a compact and small size x-ray systems (L < 50 mm, the sizes of the faces B when the hexagonal packing of the capillaries to a few mm) with a constant density (~ 90%) in each section and the small size of the holes in the capillaries (~ 1 Ám) , which allows an order of magnitude increase energy x-ray radiation. 1. A method of manufacturing the x-ray systems, which form the glass capillaries in a package, wherein the package is made of a monolithic polycapillary glass prismatic shape of the Assembly with one end on the th, the Assembly is moved translationally along the axis of the Assembly vertically adjustable speed and simultaneously affect all facets of the Assembly at the desired length for variable length line contact in a direction perpendicular to the axis of the Assembly, with a speed providing a likeness of the cross section at any location of the toll system on the initial vertical cross-section of the Assembly, and the speed set in accordance with the equality depending on X, Y coordinates, where Rp- given the estimated bending radius of the peripheral capillary Assembly on a circle, the X and Y coordinates of any capillary in any cross section of the system vertically from the origin of coordinates at the centre of a circle of radius Rpto give the rest of the capillaries, in addition to the peripheral bending radii in the range Rpto RC= , where RC- bending radius of the axial capillary system, after profiling capillary Assembly at the cold end is removed from the heating zone and produce packaging segment at a given length, then the Assembly is again placed one end into the heating zone and the production cycle is repeated.2. Device for producing x-ray systems containing a mechanism forma mounted the mechanism for moving and clamping driven by a stepper motor, which is fixed to the cold end of the Assembly, the mechanism of synchronous rotation of the Cams, the number of which corresponds to the number of faces of the Assembly around their axes at an angle of 180for example, crank, the cranks of which are mounted on the axes of the Cams, and rods pivotally connected with the total for all Cams of the carriage, a screw mechanism and the guide to move vertically, containing a stepper motor, heater screen with insulation attached to the frame around the formation mechanism, the socket for the supply of neutral gas medium, insulation screen stepper motor of the rotation mechanism of Cams and transfer mechanism.3. The device according to p. 2, characterized in that the cylindrical surface of the Cam, the total length l which is at an angle 180corresponds to the length l2peripheral capillary system, made by the spiral of Archimedes increments of t1, and the edges of the cylindrical surfaces is screw from one end of the first Cam and the other of the left direction of the screw with the same step t2and t2= t1tg 180o/n, where n is the number of faces of the Assembly.
SUBSTANCE: flexible fiber-optic cable, which has many optical fibers connected together in form of bundle with flexible central part inside which part optical fibers move relatively adjacent fibers in fiber-optic bundle. The cable also has two rigid end parts. Any of two rigid end parts has thickness-uniform protection layer, disposed along their external surface starting from point disposed at distance from free end of end part and is directed inside. Tip is disposed around protection layer and is put with tension on protection layer in such a manner that end part is centered in tip. Binder is disposed between tip and rigid part from point, disposed at distance from free end of any of end parts to inside, till free end of end part for connection with rigid end part.
EFFECT: centering of end parts of fiber-optic bundle in tips; lesser damage of fibers of end of parts of cable.
18 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: technology for laying light conductor packets.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, method includes gradually laying single filaments into two similar supports, having shape of bushings with slits across thickness of torn ring type, internal diameter of which is appropriate for given thickness of packet, mounted at a distance from each other on rigid horizontal guide with possible removal of supports from it. Gradual laying of single filaments is realized under continuous visual control of quality of filaments being laid on basis of cleanness of their outer surface in reflected light, also regular evening out and compaction is performed by means of vibration of laid part of filaments using a glass stick, and after whole working space if filled, assembled packet is tightly strapped in several places along its length, removed from horizontal guide together with supports, freed from supports and fastened to vibration device in vertical position.
EFFECT: production of regular hexagonal structure of packet of single filaments of round cross-section by means of simple and relatively simple method for laying a packet of light conductors.
FIELD: physics; optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to manufacturing of regularly structured fiber and capillary structures. Assembly diagram of single or multicore rod pack of regular hexagonal shape is changed so as to obtain a structure with one or few rows of rods missing at a single face or at several faces. Multicore rod packs are modified so as to obtain dimpled or indentated relief on one of the faces, created by missing or added rods. Relief equidimensional but opposite in direction to the first one is created at the parallel face. Multicore rods are assembled according to difference in number of elements at the section sides. Supermulticore rods are assembled so as to obtain additional relieves of similar orientation. Basic pack shapes similar to those in the first variant are used. Optically contrast or outline marks in the layer of protective soluble glass on the outside surface of rods are used as supermulticore rod position identification marks.
EFFECT: simplified and more efficient process of directional packing of structural elements; perfect quality of hexagonal structure of high-resolution fiber-optic and microchannel plates.
6 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: flaw inspections, customs examination equipment, medicine, and roentgen diagnosing spectroscopic installations.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray tube has vacuum envelope accommodating anode, X-ray output aperture, cathode assembly incorporating field-radiating cathode in the form of bundle of carbon fibers placed in conducting or semiconducting shell, contact assembly of field-radiating cathode, and cap that functions as control electrode. In order to prevent stray surface electric conductance caused by sputtering of field-radiating cathode material on structural components of X-ray tube, dielectric washer is inserted in this tube wherein during X-ray tube assembly annular cavity is formed between inner hole of washer, field-radiating cathode shell, and upper end of field-radiating cathode contact assembly. Cavity provided in dielectric washer and also its slots prevent formation of solid conducting and semiconducting films which enhances stability of electrical and radiating characteristics of tube. For raising electric strength of tube and excluding breakdown of its envelope cap is installed on dielectric washer that functions as control electrode. Cap is installed so that axis of carbon fiber bundle is aligned with that of optoelectronic system of X-ray tube and symmetry axis of cap.
EFFECT: enhanced operating stability, electric strength, reliability, and service life of X-ray tubes with field-radiating cathode.
1 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering; producing roentgenograms, for instance in medicine.
SUBSTANCE: proposed X-ray source module has X-ray tube incorporating body, cathode and anode assemblies, as well as generator unit incorporating high-rating voltage divider whose high-voltage lead is connected to one of tube assemblies; X-ray tube body is made in the form of metal cylinder accommodating sectionalized cylindrical high-voltage insulator. One of its ends is connected through vacuum-tight joint to one of body ends and other end mounts cathode assembly. Anode assembly is disposed on other end of body and is made in the form of anode tube brought outside the body that carries target on its loose end. Generator unit is disposed inside cylindrical high-voltage insulator whose inner space is filled with oil. Side surface of insulator functions as high-rating voltage divider.
EFFECT: reduced mass and size of module.
1 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: roentgen engineering, in particular, engineering of x-ray emitters, possible use in high energy industrial x-ray devices, and also in customs browsing complexes.
SUBSTANCE: x-ray emitter contains, positioned coaxially, vacuumized semi-wave coaxial resonator, tetrode cannon with radial anode, connection element of generator with resonator in form of anchor ring shaped head and a target. First and second hollow internal semiconductors of resonator are positioned coaxially and separated from each other by high frequency gap. In first internal conductor on the side of its free end injector of electrons is positioned, cathode of which is directed towards the target. Base of second internal conductor is connected to first end wall of resonator. Tetrode cannon and radial anode are positioned between first internal conductor and second end wall of resonator. First internal conductor is connected to radial anode and rigidly connected to external conductor of resonator by means of supporting dielectric isolator positioned between them. The target is positioned in the hollow of second internal conductor or in vacuumized hollow of span tube, positioned outside the resonator coaxially to second internal conductor.
EFFECT: generation of high energy (over 400 keV) flow of electrons with efficiency not less than 30% at working frequency ≈ 300 MHz, increased electric durability, reliability and lifetime.
8 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: physics; X-ray inspection.
SUBSTANCE: X-ray generator includes high DC voltage generator, X-ray tube in the form of a metallic enclosure, anode assembly with a target anode and window for the X-ray radiation output, cathode assembly in the form of a cathode with a filament and a cathode insulator, cathode filament power supply unit; the high DC voltage generator and the cathode filament power supply unit are located in the internal cavity of the cathode insulator, filled with dielectric material.
EFFECT: decrease in dimensions and weight and increase in reliability of device as whole.
2 cl, 1 dwg