Artificial leather and method of reception

 

(57) Abstract:

The inventive artificial leather-based vinyl chloride polymer and plasticizer has a cellular porous stitched the stricture. To obtain a powdery vinyl chloride polymer molded, foamed when heated to temperatures above 180oC, incubated at 20 - 70oC for 1 to 30 minutes in a solution of plasticizer (esters of phthalic, sebacinales, phosphoric acid) in organic solvents (ketones, allylacetate, alkylchloride) when the content of the plasticizer in the solution of 3 - 25 wt.%, and then dried. Before exposure to the solution of the plasticizer material may be subjected to rolling on the cold roll mill or multiple folds with the advanced shutter speed within 1 to 5 min in water (at ambient temperature under vacuum or at 80 - 100oAnd atmospheric pressure). After soaking in the solution of the plasticizer material may be rinsed with water or a mixture of oxen with acetone (up to 1.5 wt.h. 1 wt.h. water) at 20 - 40oC for 10 - 30 minutes the Material can be dyed by introducing a soluble dye in the solution of the plasticizer or by introducing carbon black into the vinyl chloride polymer prior to molding. To make walnut surface grinding or cutting parallel to the surfaces. 2 C. and 7 C.p. f-crystals, 2 tab.

The invention relates to porous materials based on vinyl chloride polymers to be used as artificial skin in the manufacture of upholstery, clothing, technical materials, haberdashery, etc., and to methods for their preparation.

Known artificial leather comprising a composition consisting of vinyl chloride polymer or its mixture with other polymers, plasticizer, Converter and other special additives, as well as a textile basis [1-4].

Known methods for producing porous artificial leather of vinyl chloride polymer [1,2], or mixtures thereof with other polymers, such as rubber latex [3] , or polyurethane and polyacrylate [4] , by contacting (mixing) of the polymer or mixture of polymers with a plasticizer, blowing agent and other targeted supplements, applying the resulting mixture on a textile basis and subsequent gelatinization when heated.

Known artificial leather-based vinyl chloride polymer having otkrytostju seamless structure and consisting of a vinyl chloride polymer and polyurethane [5].

A method of obtaining porous artificial leather from a mixture mininium solution of a mixture of original substances, his application of the detachable substrate, the coagulation of the polymer from a solution in an atmosphere containing water vapor, drying the resulting film, and the Department of unsupported film from the substrate [5].

Closest to the proposed technical substance is known artificial leather-based vinyl chloride polymer with a honeycomb porous crosslinked structure and consisting of a vinyl chloride polymer, polyurethane thermoplastic, plasticizer, blowing agent, a crosslinking agent and stabilizer [8].

Closest to the proposed to the technical essence is a method of obtaining porous unsupported artificial leather from a mixture of vinyl chloride polymer (polymers) with polyurethane thermoplastic contacts (a) blending the above-mentioned mixture of the polymer with a plasticizer, a blowing agent, a crosslinking agent and stabilizer, forming the resulting composition in the extruder and its foaming during heating at 180-250oC [8].

Known artificial leather and method of reception are characterized by the complexity of the used composition.

To get useful material on the basis of simple composition predlojennaya from the composition, comprising vinyl chloride polymer and plasticizer, by molding and foaming at temperatures above 180oC, characterized in that it is obtained by the sequential implementation molding of vinyl chloride polymer, foaming, exposure in 20-70oC for 1-30 min in a mixture of plasticizer and an organic solvent at a content of plasticizer in the mixture 3-25 wt.% and drying the obtained material, and method for producing artificial leather of vinyl chloride polymer by contacting vinyl chloride polymer with a plasticizer, forming vinyl chloride polymer and foaming vinyl chloride polymer at a temperature above 180oC, characterized in that exercise consistently forming vinyl chloride polymer, its foaming, exposure at 20-70oC for 1-30 min in a mixture of plasticizer and an organic solvent at a content of plasticizer in the mixture 3-25 wt.% and drying the obtained material.

The technical result of the invention to provide on the basis of a small number of components (vinyl chloride polymer and plasticizer) material that can be used as unsupported artificial leather possessing sufficient strength is spent material after its connection with any basis, for example textile.

The obtained material thickness of 0.5-5.0 mm is characterized leather imitation view, cellular porous structure, the content of insoluble fraction (degree of crosslinking) 5-98 wt.%, an apparent density of 0.25 to 0.85 g/cm3destroying the stress at elongation of 1.1-4.5 MPa, elongation of 50-150%.

For artificial skin according to the invention can be used as various industrial varieties of PVC and copolymers of vinyl chloride with other monomers, such as acrylate.

Molding and foaming vinyl chloride polymer before the processing plasticizer can be performed by known methods, for example by molding at a pressure of 0.5 to 400 MPa and a temperature of 20-170oC to achieve a density of 0.85-1,38 g/cm3followed by heating at 190-300oC for 3-15 min [6] , or by granulation, screening fraction with grain sizes of 0.2-4 mm, forming in the free state in the form of a layer height of 4-16 mm followed by heating at 190-300oC for 3-15 min [7].

Extract material in the mixture of solvent and plasticizer at a temperature and time that is less than the lower of the proposed limit, leads to the floor is the more top of the proposed limit - to excessive softness of the material (large relative elongation at break). Increasing the exposure time of the material above the proposed limit does not change the properties of the obtained material, but reduces the efficiency of the process.

As plasticizers in the proposed method, it is preferable to use commonly used for this purpose esters of polybasic acids (phthalic, sebacinales, phosphorus), for example di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, diisodecylphthalate, butylbenzylphthalate, dioctylsebacate, tricresylphosphate, tributyl phosphate, and as solvents - acetone, trichloroethylene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methylethylketone. The concentration of plasticizer in its mixture with the solvent can be changed in the above range - 3-25 wt.%.

In the process of molding and foaming vinyl chloride polymer, as well as when it is treated with a solution of plasticizer, do not use any stabilizers.

Under the proposed method can be used an additional method consists in the fact that the material before exposure to the solution of the plasticizer are rolling on the cold roll mill or multiple folds using Promenaadi within 1-5 min under vacuum (at ambient temperature) or at 80-100oC and atmospheric pressure. The application of these techniques can be either increased softness of the skin (without increasing the consumption of plasticizer), or reduced consumption of plasticizer (without changing the softness of the skin).

For imparting material color simulating the color of the leather, in the framework of the proposed method can be used an additional method consists in the fact that in the mixture of plasticizer and solvent add 0.01 to 0.3 wt. % dye, soluble in the mixture, for example, 0.01 to 0.3 wt. % of nigrosine or a mixture of 0.05 wt.% fat-soluble orange dye and a 0.002-0.004 wt.% fat-soluble green dye. For the same purpose under the proposed method can be used one additional technique, which is that the powder of vinyl chloride polymer prior to molding add 0.5 to 2.0 wt.% carbon black.

To obtain suseptable surface under the proposed method can be used an additional method consists in the fact that either grind the surface of the foam material (on one or both sides), or cut the material parallel to the surfaces (doat) before or after soaking it in a mixture of plasticizer and solvent.

oC for 10-30 minutes More acetone, higher temperatures and duration of leaching reduce the strength of the skin. Washing at a lower temperature and duration does not affect the softness of the skin. The skin after washing dried.

Example 1. Emulsion polyvinyl chloride (PVC) brand 6642 E W TU 6-02-69-89 thermoablative at 120oC in the two-stage high-speed mixer for 7 minutes, rolled with a roller in a layer thickness of 1 mm, is heated at a temperature of 250oC to sintering, is separated from the substrate and foamed at a temperature of 250oC to achieve an apparent density of 0.55 g/cm3. Foamed material is placed in a 7.0 wt.% a solution of di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DOP) in acetone (AC), incubated for 15 min at a temperature of 20oC and then dried. Consumption of plasticizer, which is determined by the increase in weight PVC material after drying, is 38 wt.%. Get artificial foam stitched leather, the feel is similar to natural, with a thickness of 0.8 mm and an apparent density of 0.5 is positive elongation at break of 80%. The processing conditions and material properties for examples 1-12 are shown in table.1.

Example 2. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference that the use of emulsion PVC brand E 6250 according to GOST 14039-78, heteroaromatic, the layer thickness of 0.6 mm and the temperature sintering and foaming 230oC; solvent used chloroform (CHL), as plasticizer - tricresylphosphate (TKF), the content of TKF in a mixture of 25 wt.%, holding temperature 50oC, the exposure time in a mixture of 30 minutes

Example 3. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference that the use of highly dispersed suspension PVC brand Hostalit S 1565, (firm Hoechst, Germany), heteroaromatic, the layer thickness is 1.2 mm, the temperature sintering and foaming 240oC; foamed material before exposure to a mixture of cut parallel to the surface, the solvent used trichloroethylene (TAE) as plasticizer - diisodecylphthalate (DDF), the content of the DDF in the mix - 13 wt.%, holding temperature in a mixture of 70oC, time - 1 minutes Get the blade skin, with one side smooth and the other zamsheviye.

Example 4. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference, Thu use finely dispersed suspension SAP mm; before exposure to a mixture of surface foam material zashlifovyvajut from two sides, as the solvent used methylethylketon (IBC), and as a plasticizer - dioctylsebacate (DOS), the contents of the DOS in a mixture of 3.0 wt.%, holding temperature in a mixture of 20oC, the exposure time ratio is 3 minutes Get the skin samewindow on both sides.

Example 5. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference that use PVC 6642 E W heteroaromatic, PVC before molding add 0.5. % black carbon, the thickness of the formed layer is 1.3 mm, the temperature sintering and foaming 260oC; solvent used butyl acetate (BA), as a plasticizer use butylbenzylphthalate (BBF), the content of BBF in a mixture of 8.5 wt.%, the exposure time in a mixture of 30 minutes After drying, the skin is cut parallel to the surfaces. Get canvas leather dark gray in color, with one side smooth on the other - zamsheviye.

Example 6. Emulsion PVC brand E 6642 W TU 6-02-69-89 thermoablative at 120oC in the two-stage high-speed mixer for 7 minutes, add 2.0 wt.% soot, rolled with a roller in a layer thickness of 3.0 mm, a layer of froth on the substrate, heating it up to achieve an apparent density is Atara with the solvent, and as a plasticizer using tributyl phosphate (TBP), and the solvent - ethyl acetate (WA). After drying, the surface of the skin with one hand zashlifovyvajut. Get the black leather on one side smooth on the other - samewindow.

Example 7. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference that the foamed material before exposure to the mixture rolled in cold roll mill; the content of the plasticizer in the mixture of 5 wt.%. In the mixture of plasticizer and solvent added 0.01 wt.% of nigrosine. Get the skin a dark gray color.

Example 8. The skin get analogously to example 7 with the difference that the material before the rolling mill stand in water at 20oC under vacuum for 1 min, the content of the plasticizer in a solvent to 3.0 wt.%. In the mixture of plasticizer and solvent added to 0.3 wt.% of nigrosine. Get the black leather.

Example 9. The skin get analogously to example 7 with the difference that the material before the rolling mill stand in water at 80oC for 5 min, the content of the plasticizer in a solvent to 3.0 wt.%. In the mixture of plasticizer and solvent added to 0.05 wt.% the fat-soluble dye orange and 0.002 wt. % dye gironas the difference, what material before rolling on rollers kept in water at 100oC for 3 min; the content of the plasticizer in a solvent to 7.0 wt.%. In the mixture of plasticizer and solvent added 0.1 wt.% the fat-soluble dye orange and 0,004% fat-soluble green. Get the skin brown.

Example 11. The skin get analogously to example 6 with the difference that the layer is foamed by heating it to achieve an apparent density of 0.85 g/cm3as the solvent used methylethylketon (IBC) as a plasticizer - DOP, and the content of DOP in the mixture to 8.0 wt.%.

Example 12. The skin get analogously to example 1, with the difference that the powder is rolled with a roller in a layer thickness of 6.5 mm; foamed material before exposure to the mixture of solvent plasticizer is subjected to repeated bending using Malki.

Examples 13-17. The skin get analogously to example 1 with the difference that PVC laminate roller in a layer thickness of 1.9 mm, sintering and foaming is carried out at a temperature of 280", and the material after soaking in solvent mixture with plasticizer is washed with water or mixtures of water with acetone. The washing conditions and the properties of the material obtained are given in table.2 is the established levels, made from a composition comprising vinyl chloride polymer and plasticizer, by molding and foaming at temperatures above 180o, Characterized in that it is obtained by the sequential implementation molding of vinyl chloride polymer, foaming, shutter speed at 20 - 70oC for 1 to 30 minutes in a mixture of plasticizer and an organic solvent at a content of plasticizer in the mixture 3 to 25 wt.% and drying the obtained material.

2. The method of obtaining artificial leather of vinyl chloride polymer by contacting vinyl chloride polymer with a plasticizer, forming vinyl chloride polymer and foaming vinyl chloride polymer at a temperature above 180o, Characterized in that exercise consistently forming vinyl chloride polymer, its foaming, exposure at 20 - 70oC for 1 to 30 minutes in a mixture of plasticizer and an organic solvent at a content of plasticizer in the mixture 3 to 25 wt.% and drying the obtained material.

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that the use of plasticizer selected from the group comprising di(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate, diisodecylphthalate, butylbenzylphthalate, dioctylsebacate, tricresylphosphate, tributyl is at, methylethylketon.

4. The method according to PP.2 and 3, characterized in that the material before exposure to the mixture of plasticizer and solvent are subjected to rolling on the cold roll mill or multiple folds.

5. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that the material before the rolling or repeated bending stand in water for 1 to 5 minutes under vacuum or at 80 - 100oAnd atmospheric pressure.

6. The method according to PP.2 to 5, characterized in that the mixture of plasticizer and solvent add 0.01 to 0.3 wt.% dye, soluble in the mixture.

7. The method according to PP.2 to 5, characterized in that before forming vinyl chloride polymer is mixed with 0.5 to 2.0 wt.% carbon black.

8. The method according to PP.2 to 7, characterized in that the material before or after soaking it in a mixture of plasticizer and solvent are subjected to surface grinding or cutting parallel to the surfaces.

9. The method according to PP.2 to 8, characterized in that the material after soaking in a mixture of plasticizer and solvent washed at 20 - 40oC for 10 to 30 minutes with water or mixtures of water with acetone in a ratio of up to 1.5 wt.h. acetone 1 wt.h. water.

 

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