The method of regulating the output signal of the welding apparatus with the actuator (options) and system for its implementation (options)
(57) Abstract:The method and system of regulation of the output signal of the welding machine, characterized by the maximum output voltage open circuit and containing a rotating motor, three phase inverter, rectifier bridge, having a set of electronic switch for supplying current to the output in accordance with the corners start switching means during the appropriate half cycle, means for determining the output current, the means for determining the output voltage, and the microprocessor control unit to control the angles of the launch of the switching means in accordance with the received tone and tension. The method and system use the means of forming the desired volt-ampere characteristic with fixed angle with a means of determining the current voltage/current operating point of the welding machine, the tool changes the angles of the launch of the switching means to shift the current operating point to a new operating point on the desired curve of the voltage/current with a fixed slope. It is preferable to use as a means of switching thyristors for each Phase of the alternator. 4 S. and El for regulating curve current-voltage characteristics of the output signal of the welding apparatus with the drive from the AC generator.To illustrate the welding machine with the drive from the AC generator to which the invention relates, reference may be specified U.S. patent N 5408067. The welding apparatus includes a three-phase synchronous generator and the output of the rectifier, in which the current is rectified for use in the welding operation, is controlled through adjustment upon starting or corners start of anoperation of triacs in the rectifier. Features of the welding apparatus of this type are well known in the art and described by the above patent, so they are not repeated except for the necessary explanations.One of the most common welding machines, DC welding machine is electrically powered, containing the rotating motor, three-phase alternator, rectifier bridge, which includes a number of electronic switching means, such as addoperation triacs, for rectifying power outputted to the output of the welding machine in which the current is determined by the angle of launch of the respective switching means for each respective positive Polini cycle of each phase in the rectifier. Such welding appulse as output current, and output voltage and are used to control the welding current of the welding machine. Although welding machines of this type have become quite common, they have somewhat limited use for oneposition welding, such as welding pipe, where the heat is regulated by the arc current. In such welding processes it is preferable to use DC generators due to their inherent smoothness characteristics of the arc. These generators are cumbersome, expensive and usually require an external power source for excitation. Therefore, limited applications of DC generators together with their cost and complexity lead to the fact that these generators are less used in various operations oneposition welding, for example when welding pipes, carried out on a large scale and require a significant annual cost. There is therefore a need for reliable and economical welding apparatus which can be used for oneposition welding and which has advantages in cost and size compared with the welding apparatus with the drive from the AC generator, such as described in U.S. patent N 5,4 sustained fashion gentle current-voltage static characteristics, very far from the output characteristics of DC generator. Thus, users must choose between a smoother output signal of the DC generator on one side and a smaller size and efficiency of the welding apparatus with the alternator on the other side. To meet the needs of all users, manufacturers of power sources welding machines offer and DC generators and construction on the basis of alternating current generators for welding machines with electric drive.The invention relates to a method and system for regulating the output signal of the welding apparatus with the actuator from the alternator so that the curve of the current-voltage characteristics of the welding unit was essentially a straight line with a fixed slope so that the welding machine with the drive from the AC generator could be used in welding operations that previously required of DC generators.In accordance with the invention offers a method and a device for controlling the output volt-ampere characteristic of the welding unit with electric drive gene from atragene open circuit. They also provide a rotary engine such as a gasoline engine, three-phase alternator and rectifier bridge, containing a set of electronic switching means to direct current output of the welding machine. The value of the output current or the level is determined by the phase angle of launch of the respective switching means or triacs (SCR - Silicon controlled Rectifier), and the use of switching run in adjustable time points in the positive half-cycle to regulate the magnitude of the output current. To change the current and thus the operating point on the characteristic angles of start or a start time triacs are regulated in accordance with the received amount of current and/or voltage. In accordance with the invention, the welding machine with the drive from the AC generator is controlled by a microprocessor and has a manual switch mode selection from a finite set of modes, each of which controls a fixed slope of the volt-ampere characteristics used in the selected mode. To achieve this goal, the mode select switch is set to the desired mode of operation. Mode selection is used for opreanu for volt-ampere characteristics, desirable for the output signal of the welding apparatus with the actuator from the alternator. Fixed tilt is determined by the ratio between the first and second parameters that are used when implementing a manually selected mode of operation. The voltage of the welding operation, i.e., the arc voltage, is used for periodic formation voltage value indicating the output voltage determined in real time. This voltage value is combined with the first slope parameter for obtaining the coordinates of the voltage to determine the inclination to obtain the coordinates of the voltage to determine the slope (slope). Thus is formed the current value indicating the output current in real time, and combined with the second slope parameter selected by the mode selector switch to obtain the coordinates of the current to determine the slope. Two coordinates of the slope are combined together to produce what is known as the "parameter control", or a value indicating the current operating point of the output signal of the welding machine on the curve of the current-voltage characteristics, this working point must be used in accordance with ISO is braunii and current. Parameter regulation outlines the operating point taking into account the slope of the line. Then build the desired set point for comparison with the generated parameter regulation for determining the deviation of the parameter adjustment from the specified (target) line, which is a characteristic curve that is parallel to the line defined by the first and second parameters and the maximum value for the open circuit. This is the maximum value in practice is fixed at the maximum value of the output signal of the welding machine, but it may have adjustable position to intersect the y-axis (1=0) when the voltage is less than the actual maximum voltage of the welding machine. The set point is on the target line with a fixed slope and the selected voltage is crossing the y-axis. The set point is selected manually in order to obtain the open circuit voltage less than the actual maximum voltage open circuit, or a selected maximum voltage of the welding machine is electrically powered from the alternator. By comparing the desired set point parameter regulation, as defined by the current voltage and use to change the angles of the running means of switching or triacs, in accordance with the magnitude of the error signal during each sampling stage of the main program of the microprocessor. In accordance with another aspect of the invention is used to adjust the gain at which the magnitude of the error signal is increased by the difference between the fixed point and the dynamic parameter adjustment. In addition, the difference between the current parameter regulation and the nearest previous parameter regulation can be used as a second gain for corrective action received errors. Using these principles, the corners start triacs are regulated to ensure movement of the output characteristics of the welding machine with the drive from the AC generator along a pre-selected fixed angle as in the case of a DC generator. Adjustment from one time sample to a different point in the sample, which can be several within 1 s, can be modulated with a corresponding gain to the error signal.On the characteristic curve, according to the invention, the voltage and current are regulated as appropriate fixed straight line l is ay installation control switch mode. The intersection of the y-axis of a given line is determined by the switch mode control and exact potentiometer. Line, which determines the output characteristics, is the product of the slope and current, while the intersection of the y-axis or the voltage is the parameter that is monitored and regulated according to the invention. The intersection of the y-axis, or the open circuit voltage, periodically compared with the set point, which also corresponds to the intersection of the y-axis or the intersection of the curve characteristics of the open circuit voltage. The exact regulating potentiometer shifts real fixed curve so that it is tracked by the control device corresponding to the invention, between the maximum and minimum values of the open circuit voltage. Using the invention, it is possible to adjust the welding machine is electrically powered from the AC generator so that this welding machine had a fixed output curve characteristics similar to the corresponding characteristics of the welding machine with a DC generator. The parameters that define the parameter regulation, are defined by the following equation:
Vout= (K1)V<Varc= -(K2/K1)Iarc+ (1/K1)Vout.In accordance with Fig. 3 equation can be transformed to the form:
V = -(K2/K1)I + Vout/K1,
V is the value of y;
I - the value of x;
K2/K1 is the slope;
Vout/K1 - crossing the y-axis.Parameter regulation Voutequal to the nominal operating point for any given parameter, and the specified point has coordinates of voltage and current on a fixed line, where the intersection of the y-axis is defined as Vout/K1 or rated voltage divided by K1.The method and system of regulation of the output signal in the selected lines generate parameter regulation Voutand current and voltage regulation, providing the movement of the Voutto set the point of the Vspby setting the angles or the launch of triacs rectifier 30. The set point corresponds to a fixed crossing the y-axis divided by K1 to determine the line.In accordance with the invention, as described above, is formed is real-time or signal, this signal is the sum of two continuously changing signals, one signal is the average arc voltage in any specified the time, multiplied by another constant (K2). The ratio of two constants (K1, K2) is the slope and the ordinate represents voltage and the abscissa is the current. The ratio in which the signal is determined by summing the component of voltage and current component is line with the average voltage value equal to the slope of the line multiplied by the average current and the intersection of the y-axis, or ordinate, is a parameter of the control value or signal Voutdivided by K1 - one of the constants of the slope. This signal is the instantaneous output is a microprocessor controlled welding machine with electric drive from the alternator when the operator selects the operating point on the line given load. If the working point is not given on this line, the corners start means switching on the triacs are changed to shift the output signal of the welding unit to the desired line from the rejected instantaneous operating point. In accordance with the invention is formed by the set point of the SR, which has a fixed value for each selected mode of operation. The set point SR is equivalent to the regulation, value, or signal Vout. The us is Prairie and output current of the welding machine to bring the parameter regulation Voutat a predetermined point. The value of the set point is controlled by the mode select switch, which selects the desired inclination and the desired minimum voltage open circuit to generate the desired line. The difference between the selected voltage open circuit and the actual maximum voltage open circuit or a selected maximum voltage determines the operating range for the particular mode selected. The set point is then moved vertically to obtain the exact position of the target line, with the slope determined K1, K2, and voltage open circuit (or the intersection of the y axis) between the selected maximum voltage and the selected minimum voltage for this mode. The target line parallel to the line described earlier, with a shift in the vertical direction determined by manual adjustment using precision potentiometer that provides precise adjustment of the monitored line, so that the line is monitored, when the control system is forcibly shifts the parameter control to the set point, is parallel to the line voltage (or the intersection of the y axis) between the real or the selected maximum voltage times the override mode select switch. When the mode select switch changes the fixed tilt mode, the minimum voltage crossing the y-axis can be adjusted. It is not necessary that this minimum value was regulated. The maximum value of the voltage crossing is usually constant, but if desired it can be changed when the mode selection. Using this control scheme, the output signal of the welding machine with electric forced to monitor preselected rectilinear characteristic as opposed to the standard static curve characteristics of the welding machine with the drive from the AC generator.In a preferred implementation of the invention, the microprocessor or microcontroller uses software that implements the method and system corresponding to the invention. The invention can be implemented in hardware, as shown in the present description, programmatically or through another variant implementation of the method and system. The invention provides for the combination of the regulation of the arc current and arc voltage and generates an output signal of the slope, which effectively simulates the output of a static SS="ptx2">In accordance with another aspect of the invention proposes a system or method with dynamic control, just as in the schemes of proportional-integral-differential control in which the gain is selected based on the relative proportions of or based on the difference, or integration. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the gain control in the dynamic sense is based on the proportionality of the error signal and the difference between the existing parameter regulation to the nearest previous regulatory parameters.In a preferred embodiment, the slope control is introduced in the main operating software of the welding machine with the specified welding machine as a whole is controlled by mircoprocessor. The program recorded in the nonvolatile electrically erasable ROM (EPROM microcontroller Motorola HC 11E9, which is the main element of the motherboard control the personal computer. Working program for welding in accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention has a main loop that runs or cycleroad every 30 including reading the data input signals of the user, which determine the set point in accordance with the invention. Manual adjustable inputs used in the invention are the mode select switch, the switch control precision potentiometer. The main control loop welding machine is interrupted 18 times for 60-Hz line cycle to run interruption sample, during which the measured arc voltage and the arc current and are used with manually selected point setting of the current SP to calculate the correct angle of conduction of the switching means of the rectifier, such as triacs. Aspect tilt according to the invention consists in breaking the sample main program to use when using the welding machine, and runs only when the user has selected one of the six available modes of slope, using the seven provisions of the mode select switch on the front panel of the welding machine. In accordance with the method and apparatus of the invention obtained values of arc current and arc voltage are combined together with the constants K1, K2, which are pre-programmed in the EPROM to determine the output tilt, welding machine which will maintain as l is ATEM are selected from a table depending on the position of the manual selection switch. The slope of the static characteristic is equal to the ratio K1/K2. Current voltage or a voltage real-time is determined by the discretization of the arc voltage specified number of times, for example 16, and the current value in real time is determined by a single sample. These operations are carried out during the interruption to fetch the main working program of the welding machine. Parameter control value or signal Voutcreated in this way is a parameter that is compared with the manually selected set point SP, which together with the slope defines a line that is monitored during operation of the welding machine. The set point SP is determined based on the position of the mode select switch in combination with a potentiometer for fine adjustment. Potentiometer for fine adjustment has a large number of installations, for example 256. This is regulated by the vertical line that is specified by using the set point. The set point is determined by the sum of the selected minimum voltage open circuit and multiple values defined by the selected position of the potentiometer fine adjustment and the difference between the maximum and the minimum voltage is the ETP fine adjustment generates a value which is used for adjusting the vertical position of the curve with a fixed slope, determined by the ratio K2/K1 constants (K1, K2), selected using the mode select switch. Maximum output voltage is a limitation inherent in the welding apparatus with the actuator from the alternator. The invention uses the value of the maximum voltage that can be issued by the welding apparatus when the selected maximum voltage. The minimum voltage used in accordance with the method and system according to the invention is pre-programmed value for the open circuit voltage of the welding machine, which is selected from a table depending on the position of the main control switch modes. Thus, the set point SP is a line parallel to a fixed line defined by the Voutbut situated in one of the 256 positions between the maximum open circuit voltage and the minimum open circuit voltage of the welding machine with electric drive.During normal operation when the interrupt for sampling the set point SP compares the key. In accordance with one aspect of the invention installed the current SP and the parameter regulation Voutcombined with dynamic signal amplification C1, C2 in the above embodiment of the invention are fixed constants for all of the selected modes. The error signal is evaluated not only on the specified difference in the set point SP and the parameter regulation Voutbut also on the difference between the current parameter Voutand the previous parameter regulation Voutp. Thus, the proportional gain C1 and differential reinforcement of C2 can be combined in the error signal before the error signal is used to adjust the angles of the start of the triacs to bring the operating point (voltage or current) selected by the user, to the point of voltage or current on a straight line that is monitored in accordance with the invention. When the user changes the line load of the welding machine, the working point identified by the current voltage and current changes in the implementation of user-welding. This changes the operating point tends to occur along the curve of the nominal characteristics of the welding machine with electronic is adovate given a fixed tilt so, to effective output characteristic essentially would monitor characteristic with a fixed slope in the same way as for the DC generator.Object of the invention is a method and system for modifying the output characteristic of a microprocessor controlled welding machine with electric drive, which uses alternating current generator and a controlled output rectifier triacs.The invention is also a method and system, as defined above, with which the curve output characteristics of a microprocessor controlled welding unit with electric drive can be approximated curve output characteristics of DC generator.In addition, the object of the invention is a method and system, as defined above, with the provision that the above method and system may be implemented in any managed microprocessor welding apparatus, electric, with little change in the overall control system or method.Also object of the invention is a method and system, as defined above, and the specified device with DC drive.In addition, the above method and system are economical, easy to implement and allow the use of welding machines with electric drive from the alternator to oneposition welding in the field with the achievement of the advantages of the welding apparatus with the actuator from the alternator and advantages of the DC generator.These and other objectives and advantages of the invention will be more apparent from the subsequent description.In Fig.1 shows a General view of the welding apparatus with the actuator that implements the method and system according to a preferred variant embodiment of the invention; Fig. 2 is an electric diagram of a welding apparatus with electric type welding machine for U.S. patent N 5,408,067 and used in the method and system in accordance with the invention; Fig.3 is a graph of the characteristics obtained when using the preferred alternative implementation of the system and method in accordance with the invention; Fig. 4 is an enlarged view of the region shown in the graph of Fig. 3 explaining the features of the method and system corresponding to a preferred variant embodiment of the invention; Fig. 5 is a graph, similar to the variant embodiment of the invention; in Fig.6 is a table permanently stored in the microprocessor memory device with electric drive, illustrating the parameters for the different modes, selected in accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention; Fig.7 is a block diagram illustrating the receive parameter control values or signal Voutin accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention; Fig. 8 is a block diagram illustrating a system and method for forming the current set point SP using the installation provisions of the two switches or circular scales for comparison with the signal Voutgenerated by the device shown in Fig.7; Fig.9 is a block diagram illustrating one aspect of the method and system in accordance with the invention, according to which the set point SP generated by the device according to Fig.8, is combined with the signal Voutcreated by the device according to Fig.8, and is used to adjust the angles of the launch or the launch of triacs in the output rectifier welding machine with electric drive shown in Fig. 1 and 2; Fig. 10 is a graph similar to that shown in Fig. 3, illustrating a slight modification of the preferred alternative implementation of rtii serve to illustrate a preferred variant of the invention, and not for limitation. Fig. 1 and 2 illustrate the welding machine And the DC drive of the type which is driven by a rotating motor 10, for example, a gasoline engine, containing the drive shaft 12 for rotation standard three-phase alternating current generator 14. Three-phase output 16 of the alternator 14 sends the current on the lines 22A, 22B and 22 ° C on the rectifier 30 standard designs. This three-phase rectifier contains transistors (SCR) 32, 32 and 33 having respective control inputs G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The impetus for these control inputs during the positive half cycle applied to the trinistor corresponding phase starts or switches to the conducting state trinistor passing current toward the outlet 40. The diodes 34, 35 or 36 of this three-phase rectifier circuit 30 is connected with the output conductor 42. The direct current generated between the input wires 40,42 rectifier 30 is directed to the welding unit represented by the electrode 41, the workpiece 43 and arc 44. In accordance with standard practice, the arc current is determined by using the shunt 46 and sent to the corresponding analog-to-digital Converter (ADC) 46a is of the arc current during the welding operation. In the same manner determined by the voltage through lines 48, 49. These lines are connected to the ADC 48a so that the output 48b ADC 48a is formed an instant or perceived by the arc voltage during welding. Standard inductor coil 50 is used in the scheme of welding for well known reasons. As is shown in Fig. 2, the measured current and the measured voltage are fed to the microprocessor 60, located in the housing of the welding apparatus And, as shown in Fig.1. The microprocessor is a standard digital processing circuit having the appropriate memory card and chain hardware for analog inputs, such as line feed signals to the control circuit 60, as shown in Fig. 2. Voltage and current are regulated by arc length and other parameters in the implementation process. As shown in Fig.2, three-phase alternating current generator 14 has a corresponding synchronization line 64 to the microprocessor control circuit 60. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the synchronization signal or pulse in the line 64 is produced with a field winding and is used to synchronize the starting time of the triacs. These features synchronization according to the ATA And has a switch 100 mode selection, switched to the provisions of modes 1-6, and the precise control potentiometer 102 for forming 256 different vertical positions on a given line. As shown in Fig. 3-5, when the switch 100 is installed in a specified position, such as "MODE 2" (Mode 2), curve output characteristics in accordance with the invention takes place along a straight line 110 crossing the y-axis, which is the maximum open circuit voltage of the welding machine A. the Specific position of the switch 100 determines the slope of the line 110, the specified slope is the negative of the maximum open circuit voltage to low voltage with increasing current. The slope and the intersection of the axis line 110 define this line. In accordance with another aspect of the invention a fixed slope of a line 110 may be shifted vertically down to the line 112 through manual adjustment fine adjustment potentiometer 102. This is more clearly shown in Fig. 5. Potentiometer for fine adjustment shifts the actual of the selected characteristic curve of the welding machine And vertically down to the line 140. There are 256 of provisions adjustment to get the bottom line 140. The mode switch selects the slope (K2/K1) line crossing the y-axis, awsomeeeeee operating level. Specific adjustment of the switch 100 and the potentiometer 102 will determine the actual output curve of the working characteristics generated by the user when carrying out the invention.To illustrate the advantages of the invention and its functions assume that the selected line 140 is line 110, as shown in Fig. 3-5. Normal curve operating characteristics for welding with self-excited alternator of the type to which the invention relates, depicted as line 120. After the operator or the user has adjusted the desired current and started welding, point welding in accordance with the current and the voltage on line 110 is represented as the working point P1 welding. It is located on the load line A. When the user operates according to the line And changes, such as increasing the arc length, and other variables of the welding process, will cause a shift of the load line And to the new load line and operating point P2a. This is best shown in Fig.4. Using the invention, the corners of the triacs 31, 32 and 33 are regulated several times per second to forced displacement of the working point P2andfrom the natural characteristics 120 to fixed the current and corresponds to the output characteristic of some standard DC type. When working in a new point P2bapply a new standard curve 120A characteristics of the alternator. Assume now that the operator shifts back working a given line 126, as shown in Fig.4, the welding unit DC found a new operating point P3a. However, the working point must be P3b. In accordance with the invention, the working point is moved from P3ain P3bso, to support feature 110. In accordance with the invention, the welding unit with electric motor from an alternating current generator controlled by the microprocessor. In engineering there are various ways to control the output slope characteristics, but none of these control methods is not used to achieve the objectives of the invention, according to which is controlled by the output signal of a particular welding machine DC.In accordance with this embodiment of the invention the screening table 160 is used in conjunction with the mode select switch or dial 100. This table is used in the present embodiment, is permanently stored in non-volatile memory which defines the slope, has a pre-selected value from a to f in accordance with the particular selected mode, such as MODE 1 - MODE 6 Mode 1 - Mode 6). This area of non-volatile memory designated 160A. Region 160b includes a second constant K2, which determines the slope and have values from g to L. In accordance with the invention, when the switch 100 is rotated into position MODE 1 (Mode 1), the pointer points to the upper part of the region 100A. The constant K1 has the value a, and the constant K2 is set to g. These two constants define the static aspect according to the invention. Other static characteristics is the minimum voltage. As shown in Fig. 3, the minimum voltage is adjusted lower position of the y-coordinate. Table 160 minimum voltage p is used for MODE 2 (Mode 2). Minimum voltage t is used for MODE 6 (Mode 6). MODE 6 (6) has, therefore, work restrictions, represented by two parallel lines 130, 132, as shown in Fig.3. Mode 2 has operational constraints, represented by two parallel lines 110, 112. The minimum open circuit voltage is changed in accordance with the selected mode. It sets various operating range in population C1, C2. These values are used for proportional and differential dynamic regulation of the generated error signal. Although these gain value C1, C2 can be changed, in practice they have fixed values of m and n, respectively. If desired, these dynamic values control the gain can be changed in accordance with the selected mode. Almost the maximum voltage is the same for all modes, therefore, are not presented in table 160. Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 10, the maximum voltage can be selected by switch 100, and the value of this parameter must then be included in the table 160.The first aspect of the preferred variant of the invention is a system and method for selecting regulatory values or signal Voutmoreover , this signal determines the current operating point to the desired output curve with a fixed inclination, such as line 140. This output signal or parameter regulation Voutdefines a static line with a slope controlled by the constants K1, K2. The signal Voutdivided by a constant K1, is in fact the intersection of the y axis line in accordance with which Rabah. 7, in which the mode select switch 100 index table 160 to obtain the desired output constants of regions 160A, 160b, and these constants K1, K2 indicate the selected mode of operation. The selected mode determines the fixed slope of the output characteristic, which must follow the welding machine, the constant slope values are in regions 160A, 160b in the table 160. The output data supplied from the table 160 in line 162, contain one of the values K1, shown in Fig.6. The voltage level of the arc of the line 48b is applied to the input circuit of the sample 170, the circuit samples the 16 consecutive values of arc voltage in line 48b, sum these values and the divider 16. This processing can be performed in the integrator circuit. The circuit 170 generates a voltage signal in real time in line 172; this signal is sent together with the signal on line 162 to the scheme of multiplying 180 with the output 182. The coordinate of the tilt voltage is generated at line 182 in the form of a digital signal. In the same way, the output signal 164 table 160 is multiplied by the coordinate of the slope current in real time in line 46b multiplier 190 to obtain the coordinates of the slope current in the line 192. Values or C is B>outin line 200. The parameter Voutis a fixed value, changing at each interrupt sampling of current or voltage. Therefore, the parameter Voutis changed in accordance with the working point of the welding unit DC.Consider a block device or a program for generating a given or fixed line curve output characteristics. In Fig. 8 shows the circuit used to generate a fixed set point SP, is used to control the output signal of the welding apparatus A. the electrical signal line 210 has a fixed value that represents the maximum open circuit voltage welding apparatus A. In the preferred embodiment, this voltage is characteristic of the welding machine. Signals in this embodiment of the present invention may be digital or analog, and can be programmatically generated number. Table 160 has an area a, which stores values selected by moving the selector 100 selects the mode to obtain disengaging the minimum signal voltage for each selected mode. The minimum voltage is the value, the treatment of y current curve 140. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, the signal lines 210 and 212 or program values are subtracted in the circuit or routine 220 to obtain a difference voltage or signal line 222. The fine adjustment potentiometer 102 controls the output signal of the circuit 230 so that the exact meaning of the regulation was formed in the output line 232. The value in line 232 is multiplied by the difference between the maximum and minimum voltages in the circuit 240. The output signal 242 of the multiplication circuit or program 240 determines essentially vertical position between the maximum voltage and the minimum voltage, choose the exact adjustment with fine adjustment potentiometer 102. This concept is best illustrated in Fig.5. To form the value of the set point, use the selection with fine adjustment potentiometer 102 and the selection using the mode select switch 100. The output 242 is formed a signal having a value corresponding to the adjusted position between the maximum and minimum voltage that is determined by the exact position of the potentiometer 102. In line 212, a signal is generated with a value that determines the current installation pausina on lines 212, 242, are combined in a summing unit or program 250 to get in line 252 signal of the set point SP. The signal of the set point SP corresponds to the intersection of the axis at the desired curve taking into account the constant K1. Similarly, the signal Vouton line 200 refers to the intersection of the y axis of the curve with a slope determined by the constants K1 and K2, and contains the current operating point of the welding machine. In other words, the values in lines 200, 252 define the desired vertical position by means of the control system or process and the current vertical position of the working point used welding machine at any given time. In accordance with the invention, these two values should be used to change the angles of the running managed silicon diodes 31, 32 and 33. To achieve this, there may be used various schemes, programmes or other implementation procedures. In accordance with the invention, two values in lines 200, 252 is used to regulate the corners start managed silicon diodes using the circuits shown in Fig.9. In accordance with the illustrated variant of the invention, the fixed set point or the specified line SP is the value in line ia magnitude of the error between the desired position and current position is entered, the comparison circuit, a device or program 300 connected to line 302. The level of the signal on line 302 indicates the difference between the desired and the current operating point of the welding machine on the selected parallel lines 140. In practice, this signal can be used to install the next corner run managed silicon diodes. In accordance with this embodiment of the invention, this error signal is modified by the circuit shown in Fig.9. Constant proportional gain C1 outputted from the area 160s, as shown in Fig.6. The value of the constants C1, i.e., m, appears in line 304. This value m is a gain factor that will limit the error signal in line 302. To achieve this goal the strengthening of C1 is multiplied by the current error in line 302 circuit 310 for receiving the amplified modified error signal in line 312. Next previous values of the angles of the start, stored in the memory of the control circuit in position 320, can be increased or decreased in value in line 312 to determine the following angles start to triacs. This should be done periodically, when you interrupt the program for sampling in accordance with Fig. 7, 8 and 9. Increase or decrease vypolnyu as the following values of the angles start in the field of 340 memory of the microprocessor. Then must be implemented in the startup sequence using the new values of the angles.In accordance with another aspect of the preferred alternative implementation of the scheme of differential adjustment 350 modifies the error signal in line 312. This scheme prevents excessive corrective action taken by the control circuit using the invention. Diagram 350 looking at the previous value of the control line 200. This signal or value is supplied from the input line 352 and is subtracted from Voutin line 200 with schema 360. The difference between the current value in the line 200 and the previous value in the line 352 is formed in line 362. This signal or value shows the difference between the previous operating point and the current point. The constant gain of C2 region 160d table 160 is issued by the switch 100 of the mode selector line 364. The difference between operating positions issued in line 362 multiplies circuit 370 to the gain value C2 in line 364 for receiving the difference signals in line 372. This signal is added to the error signal in line 312 by using the summation circuit 380 to obtain the final signal ERROR (Error) line 382. This is elicina changes from one cycle to the other so to the signal line 382 issued structured change the angles of the run to prevent unstable operation of the control system and/or method. The signal on line 382 reduces or increases the actual angles of the start, stored in region 320, to obtain a new stored corners start or values in line 340. In this way, the output signal of the welding machine And electric, as depicted in Fig. 1 and 2, is supported on a curve characteristic with fixed angle as shown in Fig.3.A slight modification of the preferred alternative embodiment of the invention shown in Fig. 10. MODE 1 (Mode 1) is similar to MODE 2 (Mode 2), is shown in Fig.3. The estimated nominal operating point no on line 400 has a coordinate voltage Vnoand the coordinate of the current ino. The intersection of the y-axis corresponding to Vout/K1, is Vno/K1. In this embodiment, the maximum voltage V6 for MODE 6 (Mode 6) moves below the actual maximum voltage V1 of the welding machine. 1. The method of regulating the output of the welding machine with electric drive, mainly motor, three-phase alternating current generator, a rectifier lots of current and output voltage, the change of the output current by changing the angles of the launch of electronic means, depending on the values of the output current and output voltage, characterized in that to form one of several types of volt-ampere characteristics Saratoga apparatus, determine the value of the current operating point of the welding apparatus according to mathematical expression
Vaut= (K1) Varc+(K2) Iarc,
where K1 and K2 are parameters of volt-ampere characteristics, and K2/K1 is the slope of the volt-ampere characteristics,
Varc, Iarc- output voltage and current,
accordingly define the value of a given technology operating point of the welding apparatus in the coordinates of the voltage - current and the specified point is determined from the condition of finding it on the previously formed parallel volt-ampere characteristic with a slope of K2/K1 and the open circuit voltage of the welding machine is less possible values of the open circuit voltage of the welding machine, determine the error signal by subtracting the coordinate values of the specified technology and current operating points of the welding machine, change the angles of the launch of the e-credibity point, a given technology.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that increase the value of the error signal in accordance with a difference between the current and previous time values of the coordinates of the working point of the welding machine.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the coordinate value of a given technology operating point set by manual adjustment of the switching device with multiple provisions adjustment for parallel movement volt-ampere characteristics.4. The method according to p. 1, wherein increasing the corners start electronic means, depending on the values of the previous time values of the angles of the start and the error signal.5. The method according to p. 2, wherein increasing the corners start electronic means, depending on the values of the previous time values of the angles of the start and the error signal.6. The method according to p. 1, wherein changing the angles of the start of the thyristors.7. The method according to p. 2, wherein changing the angles of the start of the thyristors.8. The method according to p. 4, characterized in that changing the angles of the start of the thyristors.9. Regulation of the output signal of the welding machine si rectifier bridge with a set of electronic switch, means for determining the values of output current and voltage, are connected to the inputs of a microprocessor control unit, the outputs of which are connected to the electronic switching means, characterized in that it is provided with means for determining the coordinate values of the current operating point of the welding apparatus, means for determining the coordinate values of a given technology operating point of the welding apparatus, means for generating the error signal by subtracting the coordinate values of the current and of the specified technology operating points, and means for changing the angle of the launch of the switching means, and means for determining the coordinate values of the current operating point includes means for manual selection of one of several modes, each of which is characterized by a preselected form of volt-ampere characteristic with a fixed inclination, coupled with the means of forming the first and second parameters of slope, the first and second outputs of which are connected with the first inputs of the first and second multipliers, respectively, the second input of the first multiplier is connected to the means for determining the value of the output voltage, the second input of the second multiplier sodiumor, the output which is the output of the means for determining the coordinate values of the current operating point.10. The system under item 9, characterized in that the means to change the start angle switching means includes a means of remembering the previous time the angles of the start and the means of increasing the launch angle in accordance with the magnitude of the error signal at the output means of the formation of the error signal.11. The system under item 9, characterized in that as a means of switch used thyristors.12. The method of regulating the output of the welding machine with electric drive, mainly motor, three-phase alternating current generator, a rectifier bridge with a set of electronic switch, a microprocessor-based device, including the measurement of the output current and output voltage, the change of the output current by changing the angles of the launch of electronic means, depending on the values of the output current and output voltage, characterized in that it further form specified by the technology of the volt-ampere characteristic with a fixed slope, determine the value of the current operating point of the welding apparatus in the coordinates of the voltage that is operating point, a given technology.13. Regulation of the output signal of the welding machine with electric drive containing serially connected motor, three-phase alternator and rectifier bridge with a set of electronic switch, means for determining the values of output current and voltage, are connected to the inputs of a microprocessor control unit, the outputs of which are connected to the electronic switching means, characterized in that it is provided with means forming a given technology the volt-ampere characteristic with a fixed inclination, means for determining the current working welding machine in the coordinates of the voltage - current and the means to change the angles of the launch of the switching means to move the coordinates of the working point to the coordinate position of the working point, a given technology.14. System on p. 13, characterized in that as a means of switch used thyristors.
FIELD: electric arc welding processes and equipment, possibly manual electric arc welding by means of coated electrode that may be in different spatial positions.
SUBSTANCE: welding is realized by means of modulated electric current at separate regulation of pulse and pause duration of welding electric current. During pause additional pulses with amplitude equal to that of main pulses, frequency no less than 50 Hz, duration (0.5 - 2) ms are applied on small welding current 5 - 30 A. Heat power of welding current is automatically realized according to action of welding operator due to changing parameters of main pulses depending upon fluctuation of mean voltage of electric arc from predetermined value at relatively small change of arc gap (2 - 2.5)V.
EFFECT: lowered contrast degree of irradiation of electric arc during pulse and pause, enhanced quality of welded joint, possibility for controlling heat power of electric arc according to desire of welding operator, improved topography of welded seam.
5 cl, 5 dwg, 5 ex
FIELD: electric welding processes and equipment, namely regulated power source for manual electric arc welding, possibly in workshops, in domestic or industrial condition.
SUBSTANCE: inlet of bridge type diode rectifier is connected with one section of secondary winding of transformer. Two gangs of capacitors are connected in parallel with diodes of one arm of bridge type rectifier and with one outlet of said section. Smoothing choke with split windings is connected between arms of bridge type rectifier. Secondary winding of transformer includes additional booster section to which two thyristors are connected. Said thyristors are controlled by means of pulse-phase control system. The last includes double-threshold comparator whose inlet is connected with outlet of power source and whose outlet is connected with inlet for interlocking pulses of pulse-phase control system.
EFFECT: possibility for proving smooth regulation of welding electric current in desired range.
FIELD: welding processes and equipment, namely method for controlling manufacturing equipment providing pulse feed of welding wire to electric arc zone.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying signal to adaptive system for controlling mechanism for pulse feed of welding wire. During automatic mode in said system control signal source is operated. Source of control signal is in the form of pickup for measuring welding wire force in guiding duct of welding hose and feed stroke pickup. Pulse is generated at time moment when welding wire achieves in guiding duct energy corresponding to optimal acceleration of welding wire motion. Pulse repetition frequency is set by adjustment of force pickup, by speed of feed mechanism and by stroke set by welding wire feed stroke pickup.
EFFECT: simplified control circuit, regulation of stroke of welding wire feed and therefore of size of drops of electrode metal transferred to welding bath.
FIELD: mechanical engineering; welding.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to two-stage electric arc welding sets and methods of their operation. Proposed set includes quick-acting impulse supply source 10 with controller 130 for implementing first and second welding processes in space between part to be welded W and welding wire E moved in direction towards part W. During first stage first current signal waveform is used, and during second stage, second current signal waveform. Circuit is provided to change over first and second welding processes. Change-over circuit includes counter 212 to count signals during first and second processes, and circuit 190 to change over from one welding process to other welding process at moment when counted signals in carried out welding process reach preset value for this process. Invention provides quality gas-shielded welding by consumable electrode with changing over of welding process with transfer of metal owing to surface tension, or process of welding at constant stress with jet transfer to other process of welding.
EFFECT: enlarged operating capabilities.
87 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: welding manufacturing processes, namely system for inspecting state of welding zone, possibly used in all branches of machine engineering.
SUBSTANCE: welding control system includes welding apparatus and apparatus for monitoring welding zone state. The last is provided with device for displaying image of welding zone, at least one filter arranged in front of display device or inside it, device for illuminating welding zone by means of UV irradiation. Said filter is band type filter for passing irradiation in vicinity of predetermined wavelength of UV irradiation.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability of welding process.
34 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: welding jobs.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to welding, particularly to the method of welding metal products and to welding apparatus. The welding apparatus incorporates the short-arc welding system and allows the electrode to move towards the structure to be welded and to adjust the arc length. The welded seam produced by the short-arc welding meets the requirements of API 5L for pipe welding of at least X80 class, the arc length in welding not exceeding 0.3 inch. The system additionally comprises a power source with a regulator to create current pulse to feed power to electrode to fuse the self-protected electrode and a section of smooth metal transfer with low current that follows behind the end of fusing pulse during which fused electrode gets connected with the structure being welded.
EFFECT: welding pipelines together.
43 cl, 18 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: welding jobs.
SUBSTANCE: invention covers the method and device of machine arc welding in active gases that features intermittent alternation of the stages and arc discharge and short-circuiting, and can be used for producing seams in whatever spatial positions, for example, in welding the pipelines joints. At the stage of arc discharge bath damping is provided for by stabilising the voltage in two automatic control cycles. The first of them stabilises the voltage of arc proper, while the second stabilises the medium welding voltage. At the short-circuit stage bath damping is provided for by reducing electro dynamic effects onto the bath via reduction in sizes of transferred drops, which is reached thanks to bringing the frequency of pulsed effects into agreement with the natural frequency of drop formation by generating the current fall that initiates the transfer process, and the subsequent short-circuit current peak that allows the drop to detach from the electrode. The device primary power circuit outputs and high-voltage backfeed circuits are integrated and connected, via the current pickup, to external terminals. The current pickup output is connected to the microprocessor controller first measuring input. The voltage pickup output is connected to the microprocessor controller first measuring output. The first control output of microprocessor controller is connected to the controlled input of thyristor rectifier unit. The second control output of microprocessor controller is connected to the control input of the fist magnetic starter. The output of the operating conditions control unit is connected to the data input of microprocessor controller. The device low-voltage backfeed circuit is made up of the following components connected in series, i.e. transformer third output, second magnetic starter, second diode rectifier and controlled throttle. The output of low-voltage backfeed circuit is connected to the current pickup input. The fourth control input of microprocessor controller is connected to the controlled input of the second magnetic starter. The third control output of microprocessor controller is connected with the controlled input of controlled throttle. The output of the external feedback communication voltage pickup is connected to the third measuring input.
EFFECT: control of fused metal bath to produce high-quality welded seam.
6 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method and device for consumable-electrode arc welding and can be used in manual or machine welding of joints of main and industrial pipelines, as well as other metal structures in different industries. When welding, transfer of electrode metal is controlled during the short circuit period. Before the short circuit, welding current is bridged and reduced to zero. Then during the short circuit period, welding current is varied proportionally to electrical conductivity of the liquid metal jumper. At the end of the short circuit, welding current is once again reduced to zero. After the short circuit, bridging is stopped and arcing is induced at the peak level of welding current, which during arcing, is gradually reduced to a base level. The device has a direct current power supply, throttle, current sensor, control unit, electrode, stabilitron, delay line and N diodes, connected in series and accordingly. The throttle has an impregnable magnetic core and a split winding.
EFFECT: prevention of metal sputtering during the short circuit period.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: tandem welding system comprises spaced apart electrodes for movement with same speed and jointly making weld joints. A data storage device stores measured data for each electrode when making a weld joint. The device carries out a process, which includes selection of measured data for each electrode, corresponding to the electrode passing through a control position and comparison of selected measured data of several spaced out electrodes for calculation of the weld joint parametre of the tandem welding system in the control position.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability.
38 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: electrical engineering, welding.
SUBSTANCE: arc is fed by pulsed welding current with parametres that allow arcing in dynamic mode. Arc, in above conditions, features high physical stability given a concentrated heat feed into welded product. Proposed method provided for control over heat feed by smoothly varying pulse repetition frequency and preset current pulse amplitude through variation of power supply voltage and stepwise variation of pulse duration in inverse proportion to departure of mean voltage at arc from preset voltage.
EFFECT: through penetration, formation of keyhole-type pilot hole and root pass in various positions of weld pool.
3 dwg, 1 ex