Method of adaptive quantization vectors


(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of digital signal processing image and can be used when transmitting video over narrowband communication channels and implementing quick view large archival databases. The method uses the adaptive quantization vectors. Preserving the topology of the image compression is achieved by the fact that each of the vectors is determined by the minimum Euclidean distance with respect to the reference. Decompression is carried out in relation to the selected reference points in the image.

The invention relates to the field of signal processing image and can be used in the processing and archiving large amounts of video data. For example, when creating a large archive of graphic databases, the implementation of procedures quick view, including encyclopedias on CD-ROM, and when viewing and processing large quantities at a time and at a high tempo information.

Known technical solution for U.S. patent N 5157488, H 04 N 7/13, 1994 u. "Method for adaptive quantization in progressive mode", namely, that when the adaptive quantization in the transmission when Mantovani for each component image. For some tables of quantization of the components of the image determine the overall conversion rate and transmit signals measurement of sequential blocks of video data by passing the General conversion factor as the next component together with components of the image and, thus, perform adaptive quantization video.

The disadvantage of this method of adaptive quantization of video data is the presence of boundaries of groups of data in the restored image when the ratio of > 10.

There is a method of video compression digital television channels (patent of Russian Federation N 2017347 H O 4 N 7/13, 1994), namely, that in the transmit channel delay on the transmission time of 1 picture element, subtract from the direct video signal delayed video signal in each of the fifth picture element in the full code coded signal is a reference signal, to form the inter-element signal-difference simultaneously with the formation of the reference signal and the signal interelement difference, forming a signal line of the differential path delay of the direct signal on one line and subtracted from the direct signal interelement difference in Solow line and inter-element differences, the small signal components are passed alternately with a reference signal in the full code, summed up in odd rows of the reference signals with signals interelement difference, and in even-numbered rows summarize the reference signals of the odd row signal line difference, restored the reference signals are also summed up in even rows with signals interelement difference.

However, compressing the image at the specified method with good quality can only be achieved for simple images and requires a large hardware cost, in addition, is not stored topological structure of the original image.

The invention solves the problem of creating effective method of image compression on the basis of classical methods adaptive quantization vectors, preserving the topology of the original image.

The closest analogue of the claimed technology solutions is a device for encoding and decoding using vector quantization for U.S. patent N 5010401 H O 4 N 7/13, 1991

Converting the image signal at the specified patent is as follows. The signal is divided into blocks according to the counts in each (positive integer) are formed blocks mikekoenigs of image blocks, the code block of the image determines the address of the block in the library of the standards when restoring read this block in the buffer memory with the subsequent formation of the reconstructed image.

The classical method of adaptive quantization vectors is based on preliminary building code tables (code libraries of standards-based learning (adaptation) compression specific blocks of the image.

Used libraries do not preserve the topology of the encoded data, resulting in large errors when encoding in terms of interference. The proposed method of image compression saves the specified topology due to optimization of the learning process and flow as follows.

The original image is divided into blocks of pixels of a certain size, each of which is interpreted as a vector in n-dimensional space. Method adaptive clustering divide this space into m clusters such that density of the clusters corresponded to the probability density vectors in the specified vector space.

Before adaptive clustering designate centers casanellas sampling the training data (n-dimensional vectors), i.e., all blocks of pixels of the encoded image. Based on the analysis of these samples is the adaptation of the provisions of these centers to the statistical properties of the encoded data. For each of the vectors is determined by the deviation from the centers mentioned clusters according to the criterion of the minimum of the Euclidean distances. For each cluster a new center position is calculated as the average of all those caught in the cluster vectors.

In the procedure of training blocks in the code table are ordered by all visual characteristics. Therefore, when performing the encoding operation (replacement of blocks of the image numbers from the code library) General view of the image, i.e., its topology is preserved.

In the encoding process by determining the smallest of the Euclidean distances between the current vector and reference each encoded block of pixels is in accordance "to the closest reference vector from a table encoding.

For transmission over the communication channel or backup compressed image can be decoded. The value of each pixel of the decoded image is the address of the entry in the decoding table, in which joblocom 4x4 pixel. Another important distinguishing feature of the proposed method is that in accordance with the selection of the reference image pixel values of the reference pixels is converted into values of the reference vectors. In accordance with the selected control points in the decompression on the screen of the selected area of the image, i.e., implemented direct access to any portion of an image. This allows to considerably reduce the time for reading the image and outputting it to the screen.

Since the compressed image look like the original, it allows when working with the video data, some preliminary operations, in particular, can be pre-bind image to predetermined standard. This significantly reduced the binding.

Thus, the proposed method has the following distinctive features. When preparing a code library blocks are ordered according to their visual characteristics, so small errors in the selection of blocks in the encoding process or transfer does not result in a significant loss in the quality of the reconstructed image, thus providing povysheniya topological structure of the original image. That is, an array of compressed image when interpreting the code blocks as brightness, looks outwardly similar to the original image (of course, losing spatial resolution of the original image is proportional to the used compression ratio). This feature allows to receive additional benefits in the practical application of the method of image compression:

1. Direct access to compressed images.

In this case, to ensure more rapid preliminary analysis of the image, the user can view the compressed image directly without decompression, to produce a preliminary analysis of the image. After selecting the desired plot is decompression on the screen (or in memory) of the given image. That is implemented direct access to any portion of an image. This allows to considerably reduce the time for reading out the image from the computer's memory (as read compressed many times, instead of the full image, save the image on the screen (as when viewing compressed image smaller than the original).

Compressed images can find its primary use in military applications when creating a large archive of graphic databases (with implementation procedures quick view), when viewing and processing large quantities at a time and in a high rate of video information, for example, aerospace.

1. Method of adaptive quantization vectors, namely, that the image is divided into blocks of pixels of a certain size, each of which is interpreted as a vector in n-dimensional space, creating quantieme vector prostranstvennoi and the squared difference between the current signal value and the corresponding library standards, pairwise sum of the squared differences produce a total memorize the received code block from the buffer memory in accordance with its address in the library standards and form a reconstructed image, wherein the local block from a library of patterns corresponding to each block of the image is found by determining the minimum of the Euclidean distances between the current vector and the reference, select the reference point on the original image, recalculate their values in the value of the reference vectors, the decompression is carried out only certain parts of an image, defined anchor points.

2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that prior to decompression are binding image to predetermined standard.


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