(57) Abstract:The proposed microwave generator has an "interdigital" the structure of the resonator for the slow wave M-type. In the specified generator anode has an upper, middle and lower resonant disks. The upper disk is elongated downward guiding elements and defines the upper resonance chamber and the lower disk has stretched up guiding elements and defines the lower resonance chamber. The upper and lower resonance chamber are separated from each secondary resonant disk, which has guiding elements, stretched up and down. Between the heater of the cathode and anode placed the emitter, which emits thermal electrons in the working volume when it is heated by the heater. Draw up guiding elements of the middle disk engages with the guide elements of the upper disk type "interdigital" clutch, like linked hands. Elongated down guiding elements of the middle disk engages with the guide elements of the lower disk in the same way. 11 C.p. f-crystals, 10 ill. The present invention relates in General to microwave generators for microwave ovens, and more particularly, to colmatation efficiency of microwave generators and high output characteristics while maintaining a stable operating parameters in the case of a low supply voltage.Description analogs
In Fig. 1-3 shows the structure of a typical microwave generator. As shown in the drawings, the microwave generator contains an even number of guide elements 15. The elements 15 are elongated in the radial direction from the inner surface of the anode cylinder 13 made, for example, in the form of a copper tube. Guiding elements 15 are located relative to each other with the same gaps, forming, thus, a resonant cavity to induce the microwave oscillations. The anode cylinder 13 and the guiding elements 15 form the anode 16 of the generator.The generator also has an internal and external connection cords 15a and 15b for changes in the capacitance and, thus, to obtain a homogeneous resonant frequency. Mentioned connection cords 15a and 15b are located on the guide member 15 so that the connection cords 15a and 15b are alternately in contact with the upper and lower sides of the guide elements 15 free ends of the guide elements 15. In the above-mentioned anode cylinder 13 of the cylindrical working space 12 is defined by the space inside the free ends of the radially elongated guide elements 15.Vnutri. Mentioned wire heater 17 (below it is simply called "heater") is made in the form of a spirally twisted wire of the sintered alloy of tungsten W and thorium oxide ThO2.The top and bottom end caps 20 and 21 are attached to both ends of the heater 17, respectively. Mentioned caps 20 and 21 prevent the loss of thermal electrons or current so that they did not contribute in any form or type of oscillations mentioned generator, in addition to radiation to the Central axis of the cylinder 13. In the center of the lower cap 21 is made the Central hole. The Central holder or the first cathode holder 23 made of molybdenum, axially elongated upward, it passes through the Central hole of the cap 21 and then welded to the lower surface of the upper cap 20. The second cathode holder 25 made of molybdenum, is welded to the lower surface of the aforementioned lower cap 21 on the plot, not coinciding with the first cathode holder 23.The first holder 23 passes through the heater 17 and supports the upper cap 20. The lower portions of the first and second cathode holders 23 and 25 also axially pass through the insulating ceramic element 27 and attached then to the Elia element 27 holds the cathode of the generator. Conclusions 29 and 31 are connected to pins 30b and 32b of the power source, respectively, so the cathode holders 23 and 25 function as electrodes of the heater for the supply of electricity to the heater 17.The first and second contact pin 29 and 31 are electrically connected with the first and second inductors 30 and 32, respectively, i.e., one end of each inductor 30 and 32 is directed to the corresponding output is 29 or 31. The other ends of the inductors 30 and 32 are typically directed to the tank 34, mounted on the side wall of the filter box of the microwave generator. To absorb operating noise in the inductors 30 and 32 axially inserted ferrites 30A and 32A, respectively.The upper and lower magnetic pole pieces 33 and 35, having the form of a socket welded to the top and bottom edges of the anode cylinder 13, respectively. Pole pieces 33 and 35 form the path of the magnetic lines of force in the anode cylinder 13 and, thus, form the inside volume 12 uniform magnetic field.To the top and bottom surfaces mentioned pole pieces 33 and 35 with no gaps is welded to the upper and lower shielding cylinders 37 and 39. To preserve the integrity and maintaining vacuum in the anode cylinder 13 antenna and isol is x cylinders 37 and 39, respectively.The upper and lower shielding cylinders 37 and 39 are surrounded on the outside of the ring magnets 41 and 43. The magnets 41 and 43 provide a homogeneous distribution of the magnetic field within the anode cylinder 13. The upper shielding cylinder 37 forms the output part of the microwave generator. Cylindrical ceramic antenna element 45 is welded to the upper edge of the above-mentioned cylinder 37 and isolates the antenna Cup, which will be described below.Output tube 47, made of copper, is attached to the upper part of the cylindrical ceramic antenna element 45. Antenna 49 departs from the guide elements 15 and passes through a hole in the top pole tip 33, and then axially directed inside along the ceramic element 45 and the output tube 47 to the attachment in the convex upper end of the tube 47. Antenna 49 outputs the microwave radiation generated in the resonant cavity formed between the guide elements 15.Tube 47, in turn, closed glass antenna 51. This glass antenna 51 protects the area of the tube 47 to which is welded to the antenna, and prevents the formation of a spark discharge by focusing electrostatic electricity. He functioning generator.Around the anode cylinder 13 posted by two yoke 53 and 55, the top and bottom. The two above-mentioned yoke 53 and 55 sets the value of the magnetic flux inside the cylinder 13, so that the circuit of the magnetic flux. Inside the upper yoke 55 axially outside along the cylinder 13 has plenty of cooling fins 57 with the same clearances between the ribs. Ribs 57 are made of aluminum and fixed by means of a number of tabs 55a located on the side wall of the yoke 55. The anode cylinder 13, the annular magnets 41 and 43 and the cooling fins 57 are usually surrounded by upper and lower yokes 53 and 55, which also form the path of the magnetic lines of force.As shown in Fig. 2 and 3, the distance from the Central axis of the heater 17 to the free ends of the guide elements 15 is raand the radius of the heater 17 is rc.When the microwave generator to the first and second contact pin 29 and 31 are powered on, so as to form a closed electrical circuit containing the first contact pin 29 is the first cathode holder 23 to the upper end cap 20 to the heater 17 is a bottom end cap 21 is the second cathode holder 25 to the second contact pin 31. Follow the heats, then starts the emission of thermal electrons in the volume 12 inside the anode cylinder 13.In the above-mentioned state of the operating voltage applied to the second cathode 25 and the anode 16 of the generator, creates a strong electric field within the volume 12, formed between the heater 17 and the guide elements 14. Mentioned electric field is directed from the guide elements 15 to the heater 17.Meanwhile, the magnetic flux generated by the ring magnet 41 and 43, are distributed in the magnetic circuit, which consists of a yoke 53 and the yoke 55, the pole pieces 33 and 35 and a volume of 12. Therefore, the magnetic field in the volume 12 is increased.Thus, thermal electrons emitted by the heater 17 in volume 12, initially moving in the direction of the guide elements 15 or anode cylinder 13 under the action of a strong electric field in the volume 12, i.e., thermal electrons intend to move in the radial direction in the volume 12. In addition, thermal electrons in the above-mentioned condition, which initially move to the anode 16, the force acts in the direction perpendicular to the radial direction in the volume 12, due to the high magnetic field induction is mentioned state power, acting on thermal electrons by the electric field in the volume 12, almost balanced by the force due to magnetic induction in this volume of 12.When thermal electrons revolve in volume 12, they interact with the resonator 10 in the anode 16, stirring in the resonator 10 radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field.The potential energy of thermal electrons in the above-mentioned condition is converted into kinetic energy. In turn, about 70% of the mentioned kinetic energy is converted to RF energy of the electromagnetic field, the remaining kinetic energy of thermal electrons hit the guide members 15. Thus, the extant kinetic energy is converted into heat energy.The RF energy of the electromagnetic field generated in the cavity 10 in the above-mentioned condition, out of the generator through the antenna 49. If on the opposite ends of the emitter 19 and the guide elements 15 is supplied working voltage 4 kV, the microwave generator has high efficiency, not less than 70%.Microwave ovens, which use the described generator, it is preferable that the working napkee voltage Vacan provide a number of advantages from the point of view of operational stability and cost of the generator, i.e. such low operating voltage Vaallows constructively to improve the generator, thus reducing the cost of the electric circuit of the power source decreases, the operating noise, it saves money on insulation schemes and improving the operational efficiency of the generator.The initial (starting) operating voltage Vstfor the mentioned microwave generator, i.e. the voltage at which the heater 17 begin to emit thermal electrons are represented as the following equation (1) corresponding to the Hartree equation.< / BR>where
w = 2f (f is the operating frequency);
n =N/2 - number equal to half of the guide elements;
ra- the distance from the Central axis of the heater to the free ends of the guide elements;
e - the amount of electric charge of thermoelectron (1,6210-19CL);
m is the mass of thermoelectron.Usually wnabout 1.3 - 2 w, if the initial operating voltage Vstfor a generator operating at a voltage of 550 V, is 12 - 20 CenturyFrom equation (1) widn is velichenie number N of the guide elements 15, either by reducing the distances rafrom the Central axis of the heater to the free ends of the guide elements 15.However, increasing the number of guide elements 15 also leads, unfortunately, to the emergence of some problems, i.e., the increased number of guide elements 15 causes not only a problem associated with the manufacture of such generators, but it also leads to reduction of the operational stability of the generator due to the fact that the generator encounter one or more unwanted modes of oscillation. In addition, the number N of the guide elements 15 in the generator operating at a voltage of 550 V, should be increased approximately 53 times, if a microwave generator, designed for a working voltage 4 kV, is used at a lower operating voltage. This increase in the number of guide elements 15, unfortunately, also leads to an increase in the anode volume while reducing the operational efficiency of the generator.On the other hand, the decrease of the distance rafrom the Central axis of the filament to the free ends of the guide elements 15 leads to the fact that thermal electrons are easily emitted from the outer ends twisted at the sloanie raalso increases the drift velocity of thermal electrons in the moment when thermal electrons reach the guide elements 15. This, unfortunately, is accompanied by an increase of heat losses and reduce the operational efficiency of the generator.Heat loss or lost heat energy Wdissdue to an increase in the drift velocity of thermal electrons is expressed by the following equation (2).Wdiss=mv2/2
m is the mass of thermoelectron;
v is the drift velocity of thermal electrons.The ratio of the conversion of potential energy of thermal electrons in the RF energy of the electromagnetic field or electron efficiencyewill be represented as the following equation (3).e= 1-[Wdiss/(eVa)] (3)
e - the amount of electric charge of thermoelectron;
Va- working voltage.From the above equations (2) and (3) it is obvious that the increase in the drift velocity of thermal electrons leads to an increase in heat loss, and reducing a distance rathere is a reduction in operational efficiency of the generator.Thus, in the described generator having a working voltage Va4 to the forth voltage Va.Thus, the aim of the present invention is to provide a structurally improved microwave generator, which can be overcome mentioned problems and which has an "interdigital" the design of the resonator for the slow wave M-type, thus achieving high operational efficiency, not less than 70%, in conditions of low operating voltage. In the generator according to this invention, the term "M-type" means a direct wave in which the magnetic field acts on the electrons in the direction perpendicular to the direction of motion of the electron or the direction of the electric field, and the term "interdigital" means the clutch guide elements, which is similar to the compressed hand, when interlock the fingers of both hands.For such purpose in the preferred embodiment of the invention, the microwave generator includes a heater cathode, providing a high temperature when power is applied to the two cathode holder, anode surrounding the heater, having a working volume, formed around the heater, and providing the generation of microwave radiation, and the antenna that provides the output microvi several guide elements, elongated in a downward direction, and defines the upper resonance chamber of the resonator, the lower the resonant disk, provided with several guide elements elongated in the upward direction, and defining the bottom resonance chamber of the resonator, and the average resonant disc placed between the upper and lower resonant disks to separate the upper and lower resonant chambers from each other. The said generator further comprises an emitter installed between the heater and anode and providing for the emission of thermal electrons in the working volume, when the emitter is heated by the heater.Mentioned objective, and other objectives, features and advantages of the invention will be clearer from the detailed description presented together with the attached drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a cross section showing the construction of a conventional microwave generator;
Fig. 2 - the incision is made along lines A-A in Fig. 1, showing the relative positions of the heater and guide elements inside the anode cylinder;
Fig. 3 - section made along line B-B in Fig. 2, illustrating the same distance from the Central axis of the heater to the outer edges curled in a V is s microwave generator according to a preferred variant of the invention;
Fig. 5 is a section along lines C-C in Fig.4, showing the relative positions of the heater, the emitter and guide elements inside the anode;
Fig. 6 is a section along lines C-C in Fig. 4, showing the formation of e-groups within the working volume;
Fig. 7 - a picture of a disassembled perspective view of the design of the anode generator according to the invention;
Fig. 8 is a cross section showing the connection between the antenna and the resonator in the oscillator, made according to the invention;
Fig. 9 - image guide elements from the cathode, illustrating the system slow "interdigital" type resonator according to the invention;
Fig. 10 is an electrical diagram of the power supply to the generator, corresponding to the invention.In Fig. 4 - 10 shows the microwave generator and its elements according to the best (preferred) version of the invention. Most elements of this option are the same with the elements version of the generator is known from the prior art. Therefore in Fig. 4 - 10 elements similar to the elements of known variant of the generator indicated by the same digital items and their description is not given.As shown in Fig. 4 and 5, the cathode 102 and the anode 104 is between them. The anode 104 is a cylindrical body with resonator 106. The resonator 106 interacts with the electrons moving in the working volume 100, thus, formation of a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic field within the volume 100. The resonator 106, which is formed between the several guide elements 108, 148 and 150, the anode 104 and the upper and lower resonant disks 138 and 146, is divided secondary resonant disk 136 two resonance chamber, i.e. on the upper and lower resonance chamber. The average resonant disk 136 generally extends in a horizontal direction between the guide elements 108 and the anode 104.The cathode 102 includes twisted into coils of the filament or heater flat type 114. The heater 114 cathode connected to the first and second outer contact the conclusions 110 and 112 and provides a high temperature, when it through the conclusions 110 and 112 powered on. The cathode 102 also comprises a cylindrical emitter 116. The emitter 116 surrounds the heater 114 and combined together with the heater 114 in a single element, thus, when heating is carried out by using a heater 114, is accompanied by the emission of thermal electrons in a volume of 100. The cathode 102 is additionally sod is remotely 114, but also keep the emitter 116 integral with the heater 114.The cathode 102 is fabricated by the following process. BaOY2ABOUT3S2On thermally decomposed to strontium + barium oxide before they are crushed into powder. The resulting powder is then added to the acetate and due to the binder coating is formed. Next, the resulting coating is sprayed on the cathode 102, thus covering the cathode 102. To improve the secondary electron emission in the generator, the electrons generated as a result of thermoemissive that occurs from the cathode, using cool ThO2to which is added 0.25% tungsten (W). In the above-mentioned process, the temperature rises only slightly. Previously emitted electrons return to their original position, they collide with other electrons and, thus, there is the excitement of the other electrons. Therefore, in the generator are generated and used in practice secondary electrons.The upper and lower magnetic pole pieces 120 and 122, having the form of a socket welded to the upper and lower ends of the anode 104, respectively. Pole Nakonechna in the amount of 100, concluded between the emitter 116 and the guide elements 108, 148 and 150.To the upper and lower surfaces of the pole pieces 120 and 122 tightly, without gaps, is welded to the upper and lower shielding cylinders 104 and 126. In order to sealing and vacuuming the anode 104, an antenna and an insulating ceramic elements 128 and 130 tightly, without gaps, welded to the upper and lower ends of the shielding cylinders 124 and 126, respectively.The upper shielding cylinder 124 is the output part of the microwave generator. Cylindrical ceramic antenna element 128 is welded to the upper end of cylinder 124 and isolates the antenna 134, which will be described below. To the top of the ceramic antenna element 128 attached to the output tube 132, made of copper.Antenna 134 extends from the guide elements and passes through a hole in the top pole tip 120 and then axially stretched inside the ceramic element 128 and the output of the tube 132 to attach one end to the top of the tube 132.Antenna 134 outputs the microwave radiation generated in the resonator 106, which is limited to a volume between the guide elements and the anode 104. Another is the claim 138, therefore, the disk 138 is provided with a hole 140 for reliable retention of the antenna 134.In the area under the lower pole tip 122, the gap between the heater 114 of the cathode and the cathode holder 118, the cylindrical first insulating ring 142, and thus the insulation of the heater 114 of the cathode holder 118. Under the first ring 142 is cylindrical second insulating ring 144, which isolates the cathode holder 118 from the first contact output 110, and thanks to the cathode holder 118 is connected only to the second contact output 112.In Fig. 7 and 8 shows the structure of the portion of the generator, which defines a cavity 106 within the anode 104. For the formation of the cavity 106, which includes two resonance chamber inside the anode 104, the upper resonant disk 138, with several guide elements 148, elongated downwards, horizontally located in the upper part of the anode 104. Upper disc 138 determines the upper resonance chamber of the resonator 106. The lower resonance chamber cavity 106 is defined using the lower resonance of the disk 146. The lower disk 146 provided with several guide elements 150, directed upward, and horizontally installed at the bottom is except that guide members 148 and 150 are oriented in opposite directions. In the upper and lower disks 138 and 146 of the respective guide members 148 and 150 are located on the same places.The upper and lower resonance chamber resonator 106 are separated from each secondary resonant disk 136, which is mounted horizontally in the middle part, between the upper and lower disks 138 and 146. Average disk 136 are keyed 108, stretched up and down.Each group corresponding guide elements 108 of the middle disk 136, coming from the same place on the inner face of the disk 136, directed in opposite directions. Guide members 108 of the middle disk, upward, and guide members 148 of the upper disk 138 do not come in contact with each other, and are arranged alternately. Similarly guiding elements 108 of the middle disk 136, directed downward, and the guide members 150 of the lower disk 146 do not come in contact with each other, and are arranged alternately, i.e., the guide members 108 of the middle disk 136 interlock with the guide elements 148 and 150 of the upper and lower disks 138 and 146 forming the interdigital structure similar to that of the x elements 108 and 148 disks 136 and 138 shown in Fig. 9.In Fig. 10 shows the electrical circuit of the power supply to the said microwave generator. The circuit includes a first diode D1 and a capacitor C1 for straightening positive AC voltage supplied from source 99 AC power. The electrical circuit also includes a second diode D2 and the capacitor C2 for straightening negative AC voltage supplied from source 99. The electrical circuit further comprises a protective inductor L1 for matching impedance in the circuit and protect the generator 101.The generator works as follows.In the above oscillator, the resonator 106 inside the anode 104 is "interdigital" design for slow wave M-type. In the cavity 106, the expression "M-type" means a direct wave, in which a magnetic field is applied to the electrons in the direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of electrons, or in the direction of the electric field. The expression "interdigital" means the alternating structure of the guide elements, such as the one which is formed by the grip hand, when the contact fingers of both hands.In the generator, which generates the oscillations is in the range from 24 to 30, and the height of each of the guide elements 108, 148 and 150 is approximately 20 mm, the Radius of the anode is equal to about 4.5 mmThe magnetic field for deflection of the electrons within the volume 100 is 1200 - 1300 Gauss. Each gap between the guide elements is approximately 1 mmIn low-voltage microwave generator made according to the invention, it is not possible to use a cathode for up to 4 kV, which is made of peremeshennoi and sintered cermet W-ThO2and is typically used in conventional microwave ovens.This conclusion is based on the fact that the anode current in the generator is inversely proportional to the operating voltage used in the generator, i.e., the anodic current increases with a decrease in the operating voltage. Because of the low voltage microwave generator requires an electric current in a 3-4 And the cross-sectional area of the cathode should be increased to 3 cm3. The heater 114 in the above-mentioned generator must be supplied with the electric power of 200 watts.Therefore, the generator made according to the invention emits electrons due to the emission of thermal electrons. Previously emitted electrons in proishodit generation of secondary electrons, almost are then used in the generator. From this point of view, in the oscillator according to the invention uses a cold cathode ThO2.Meanwhile, the power P, which determines the output power of the microwave generator can be expressed as the following equation (4).P = wW/Q (4)
w = 2f (f is the operating frequency);
W - stored energy;
Q is the quality score is equal to the ratio of the lost thermal energy Wdiss to stored energy WMentioned stored energy W can be expressed as the following equation (5).W=V2CN (5)
N is the number of guide elements;
V - radio frequency voltage.The substitution of equation (5) into equation (4) the magnitude of the output power P of the generator can be expressed as the following equation (6).P=wV2CN/Q (6)
From equation (6) can be set relative ratio to reduce the operating voltage of the generator, i.e., in low-voltage microwave generator 550 In the number N of guide elements 108, 148 and 150 is increased to 24, which is 2.4 times more than the number of guide elements in a conventional generator 4 kV. CROs conventional generator, designed for 4 kV. The capacity increases almost twice. From this point of view, the present invention allows to create an oscillating tube, suitable for use with a conventional microwave generator.In accordance with the invention, the design of the resonator oscillating tube preferably is an "interdigital" design with appropriate capacity, as shown in Fig. 4 - 9."Interdigital" the design of the resonator not only provides a suitable container in a narrow scope, but also forms at least one cavity inside the anode, thereby successfully improving the output characteristics of the microwave generator at low voltages.When the work mentioned microwave generator low voltage is applied to the anode 104 and cathode 102 through the first and second contact pin 110 and 112. As a result, the heater 114 is supplied operating current and as a result it heats up.When the heater 114 is heated, as described above, the emitter 116, which completely surrounds the heater 114, receives thermal energy from the heater 114 and begins to emit in a working volume of 100 thermal electrons. In a high volume of 100 n is determined by the operating voltage, supplied to the cathode 102 and the anode 104. A strong electric field in the above-mentioned state acts in the direction from the guide elements 108, 140 and 150 to the emitter 116.The magnetic flux generated by the magnets 41 and 43, is distributed in a closed magnetic circuit, which consists of pole pieces 120 and 122 and volume 100. Therefore, the value of the magnetic induction in the amount of 100 increases.Thus, thermal electrons emitted from the heated emitter 116 in the amount of 100, form an e-group due to the strong electric field distributed in the space between the cathode 102 and the anode 104. In the above group of electrons in the above-mentioned state is also the force in the direction perpendicular to the radial direction in the amount of 100 caused by magnetic induction in the amount of 100. As a result, the group of electrons in a volume of 100 rotates.When electronic group reaches the middle of the resonant disk 136, doing rotational movement of 100, the disc 136 acquires a positive potential, ensuring the passage of electric current to the guide elements 148 of the upper resonance of the disk 138. E-group "a" in the above-mentioned condition is ASS="ptx2">In Fig. 6 shows in enlarged scale a working volume of 100 between the cathode 102 and the guide elements 108 and 148 for a more detailed illustration of the formation of the electronic group "a" inside a volume of 100.Thus, microwave oscillations of about 2450 MHz are generated in the cavity 106 through electronic interaction in the volume between the guide elements 108 and 148. Microwave energy stored in the resonator 106, operates in the form of recurring impact on the wall of the resonator 106.In addition, the average resonant disk 136 is an area of concentration of energy generated in the upper and lower resonant chambers, it is preferable that the antenna 134 was directed from the middle of the disk 136 to the output of the microwave generator.For holding the antenna 134 which extends upward from the middle of the disk 136 and passing through the upper disc 138 and the output tube 132 output from the generator in the upper disk 138 is made the hole 140 to the antenna.In the above-mentioned generator electronic group "a", which is formed in the amount of 100 by thermal electrons emitted from the cathode 102, as shown in Fig. 6, should effectively communicate the reason the e-group "a" and the microwave electric field.As shown in Fig. 6, conditions for synchronization are achieved due to the fact that the e-group "a" passes completely two resonance chamber 106 during one period of oscillations, which is expressed by the following equation (7).= 2d/T,
= 2df (7)
- speed electronic band in the resonator;
d is the spatial period corresponding to the resonance;
T - period oscillations;
f - frequency oscillations.In the generator according to the invention the speed of the electronic group "a" is expressed by the ratio: = (2eVc/m)1/2therefore , the voltage sync Vcfor the generator can be expressed as the ratio of Vc= 2d3f2m/e, resulting in the substitution ratios = (2eVc/m)1/2in equation (7).Thus, the maximum electronic efficiency can be expressed as the following equation (8).< / BR>In the above equation (8) Varepresents the anode voltage of the generator, therefore, to obtain the corresponding electron efficiencyemust be following condition is fulfilled.Vc/Va=10
From the specified conditions, you can determine the voltage synchronisatie Vcfor low-voltage microwave generator, designed for a working voltage of 550 V, should be about 50 C. Spatial period corresponding to the resonance, under these conditions is approximately 0.7 to 0.8 mmThus, it can be noted that the manufacture of low-voltage microwave generator in the usual way is almost impossible because of the difficulties associated with the establishment of a regime. To resolve this problem you need to create a resonant system with a single resonator. This resonant system must be equipped with the system slowing down, as shown in Fig. 9. Radial resonator 106, shown in Fig. 9, generates the oscillation-fashion under the conditions : minimum vibrational mode, the DC electric field, directed along the tangent, and the opposite phase guide elements 108 and 148 in slowing down the system.If the magnetic field is directed along the tangent, then the electric field is oriented accurately axially, and the connection between the antenna 134 and the resonator 106 is carried by the magnetic circuit, as shown in Fig. 8.As described above, the present invention provides a structurally improved microwave Geneva. Since the structure of the resonator according to the invention is a structure "M-type" or "type of direct wave, the magnetic field acts on the electrons in the direction perpendicular to the direction of movement of electrons or the direction of the action of the electric field. In addition, the guiding elements in the cathode of the above-mentioned generator are alternately forming the interdigital structure of the resonator, similar to that which occurs when the clutch hand when interlock the fingers. Thanks "interdigital" resonator structure for slow wave M-type generator according to the invention ensures high operating efficiency of at least 70%, at low operating voltage.Even though the illustrations were best described embodiments of the invention, specialists in the art will understand that various modifications, additions and substitutions without departing from the scope of the volume and nature of the invention disclosed in the claims. . 1. Microwave generator containing a heater cathode made with the possibility of creating a high-temperature heating feeding him through a pair of cathode holders electricity the capacity of generating microwave oscillations and an antenna for outputting the microwave oscillations generated in the anode output of the generator, wherein the anode includes an upper resonant disk, provided with several guide elements, stretched down, and executed with the formation of the upper resonance chamber of the resonator, the lower the resonant disk, provided with several guide elements, drawn up and executed with the formation of the lower resonance chamber resonator, and the average resonant disc placed between the upper and lower resonant disks to separate the upper and lower resonant chambers from each other, and the emitter, placed between the heater of the cathode and the anode and is made with the possibility of emission of thermal electrons in said working volume when heated above mentioned emitter heater cathode.2. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the emitter is made of cold ThO2, which first emits electrons due to the emission of thermal electrons, and then initially emitted electrons excite other electrons, generating almost used secondary electrons initially emitted electrons in"ptx2">3. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the anode has a "interdigital" the structure of the resonator and is provided with several guide elements, which form only one resonator.4. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the anode has a radius of 4 to 5 mm, so that it operates at a low operating voltage.5. Generator under item 3, wherein the number of guide elements enclosed in the range of 22 to 30, providing work at low operating voltage.6. Generator under item 3, characterized in that the guide elements of each of the resonant drive have a height of 20 to 3 mm and the spatial interval between them amounts to 0.6 - 1.0 mm7. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the upper resonant drive is made with a hole for the passage and retention of the antenna.8. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the lower resonant disk has the same configuration as the upper resonance of the disk, when the upper resonant disk is rotated, and guiding elements of the upper and lower resonant disks protrude from the relevant provisions.9. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the average resonant drive has several guide elements, you who claim type "interdigital" clutch, when contacted by the fingers of both hands at the grip of his hands.10. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the average resonant drive has several guide elements aimed down incoming engages with the guide elements, directed upwards, the lower the resonant disk type "interdigital" clutch, when contacted by the fingers of both hands at the grip of his hands.11. Generator under item 1, characterized in that the antenna runs from the middle of the resonant drive and displays the microwave energy out of the generator.12. Generator under item 5, wherein the number of guide elements is set in accordance with the indicator of quality and capacity in the interdigital gap in the interdigital structure of the resonator, similar clasped hands.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: voltage impulse generator contains a power-supply source, a single design-engineering component consisting of several magnetically connected sections; each of them contains the first and the second conducting linings wound into a spiral and separated with a dielectric material, commutators, the commutators control system; the first linings of each section are connected in series; the second linings of each section are connected in parallel; the commutators are linked between the end of the first conducting lining and the beginning of the second conducting lining of each section of the single design-engineering component, the first output of the power-supply source is connected to the beginning of the first conducting lining of the first section, the second output of the power-supply source is connected to the outputs of the second conducting linings of each section.
EFFECT: device integration degree enhancement and functional possibilities extension.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: microwave generator comprises a magnetron, three step-up transformers, three high-voltage capacitors and six high-voltage diodes. The latter are combined into two groups of three diodes, besides, primary windings of all three transformers are connected to a three-phase AC network. At the same time unilaterally arranged leads of secondary windings of all three transformers are connected as start, the common point of which is connected to the ground. In their turn the oppositely arranged leads of all three transformers via high-voltage capacitors are serially connected to anodes of high-voltage diodes of the first group and to cathodes of high-voltage diodes of the second group. Cathodes of the first group of high-voltage diodes are connected with the common point connected to the ground, and anodes of the second group of high-voltage diodes are connected with the magnetron cathode.
EFFECT: increased output capacity of a generator with preservation of continuity of a mode of generation of microwave radiation.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: high-voltage pulse generator has a dc high-voltage source, electrodes lying on both sides of a flat dielectric barrier which is capable of rotating; a flat electrode is tightly placed on the entire surface of one side of the dielectric barrier with possibility of rotating together with the barrier, connected to one terminal of the dc voltage source; a fixed electrode is tightly placed on part of the surface of the opposite side of the dielectric barrier with possibility of sliding on said surface, the fixed electrode being connected to the same terminal of the dc voltage source. Another fixed electrode is placed diametrically opposite on the same side of the barrier with spacing, the fixed electrode being connected the other terminal of the voltage source through a load.
EFFECT: obtaining high-voltage pulses of nanosecond duration and high repetition frequency.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: high-frequency multi-crystal oscillator has an external housing with a main compartment and additional compartments, inner housings of micro-assemblies provided with compartments, main and auxiliary printed-circuit boards, thermostats, a thermistor, an electric heating element, low-pass power supply filters, buffer amplifiers, reference oscillation power adder, high-frequency self-excited crystal oscillators which are mounted in pairs on four printed-circuit boards, each connected to a separate low-pass power supply filter and a buffer amplifier.
EFFECT: design of a multi-crystal high-frequency temperature-controlled oscillator which enables to preserve the value of spectral power density of phase noise, as well as the level of technical noise and frequency stability of the output oscillation, typical of a high-frequency oscillator with one crystal resonator.
5 cl, 5 dwg