Mirror

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in aerospace, military equipment, in the communication system, laser systems, information and adaptive optics and other inventive mirror consists of a plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation, and pyrocarbon matrix at a volume ratio of the fiber : pyrocarbon equal(0,6 - 0,4) : (0,4 - 0,6), moreover, the reinforcing frame is formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane of one or more packets of the layers (sheets) of carbon fabric so that the warp threads of any two contiguous layers (sheets) fabric stacking frame form an angle equal to 180o: n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 n < 180 and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1 : (0,05 - 0,2), a separation layer made of polycrystalline silicon, and a reflecting layer formed on the surface of the separation layer. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il.

The invention relates to the field of optical is ke, in the communication system, laser systems, information and adaptive optics, etc. currently the material of the plate-substrate for high-energy laser presented a number of specific requirements. He should have high specific strength and stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion in a wide temperature range and high conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the reflective surface, having a low density, to be resistant to the effects of the environment and good adhesion to the material of the reflective surface.

Taking into account these requirements for the manufacture of wafer-substrates using various composite materials.

It is known, for example, laser mirror, the plate-substrate which is made of a composite material, a reinforcing frame which is presented in the form of stacking alternating layers of carbon and graphite fibers, and monolithic matrix - borosilicate glass when the content of carbon fiber is about 40-70% and orientations of fibers in the composite 0oo/90o; 0o/45o/90oand 0o/60o. In the process of manufacturing the plate-substrate by hot press is Atego glass, on its surface to receive the separating layer of borosilicate glass, which form the reflective coating, the nature of which depends on the type of radiation and the operating conditions of the mirror (US, patent, N 4451118, CL G 02 B 5/08, 1984).

Among the disadvantages of such mirrors include the following:

operational characteristics of known mirrors is not high enough due to the low thermal stability of the mirror, because the matrix of borosilicate glass is stable only up to 500-600oC, low resistance to rapid thermal Cycling and low thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting layer.

In addition, the possibility of manufacturing large mirrors is limited because of the relatively high density of the substrate material and difficulties in the hardware design process of hot pressing (currently the maximum achievable dimensions of the mirror - up to 1.5 m in diameter).

Closest to the proposed to the technical essence and the achieved result is a mirror for high-energy laser, comprising a plate substrate made of a composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber, Proc. of the layers of silicon carbide and silicon dioxide (to bind the plate-substrate with a reflective mirror surface and the reflective surface of the optical treated layers of metal and/or modified of glass and a layer of a material with high reflectivity (US, patent N 4451119, CL G 02 B 5/08, 1984).

The disadvantages of such mirrors should include:

insufficient strength of the plate of the substrate due to the low content of fibers oriented planes a-a and b-b ' parallel to the horizontal plane;

the high strength of the substrate is achieved, when the blanks are cut out of the plate at an angle of 45orelative to the vertical axis, which leads to a large proportion of waste and increases the cost of the substrate.

The task of the invention is to improve the operational characteristics of the mirrors and the expansion of technological opportunities oversized mirrors due to the formation of the substrate material with the same high density in all directions and simplifying the technology of forming the substrate.

The problem is solved due to the fact that in the mirror, comprising a plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation and the carbon matrix, the separation layer based on silicon compounds and a reflective layer, a reinforcing frame formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane advocacymay layers or sheets of tissue in the laying of the frame form an angle, equal 180o: n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 n < 180, and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1: (0.05 to--0,2), the matrix is made of pyrocarbon at volume ratio of fiber: pyrocarbon equal(0,6-0,4): (0,4-0,6), and separating the layer of polycrystalline silicon.

It should be borne in mind that provides several options for stacking layers (sheets) of carbon fabric:

in one package: n sheets of fabric are laid on each other with the displacement of the basics of each subsequent layer at an angle of 180o:n. The thickness of the frame in this case is equal to the thickness of the sheet of fabric, multiplied by the number of sheets n;

in several packages: each package formed from n layers of fabric as described above and placed the same packages at each other with a shift basis contiguous layers at an angle of 180o:n.

The first version of the paving should be used in the formation of plate-substrate small thickness, a second substrate with a large number of fabric layers in the stacking frame.

When laying the fabric in the frame in multiple packages, the thickness of the reinforcing frame is equal to the thickness of mirowska frame of layers of carbon fabric, stacked offset from subsequent layers as described above, provides greater isotropy of the material, as well as high mechanical strength and rigidity of the material. The content of carbon fiber in the horizontal plane exceeds the fiber content in the vertical plane. This allows to obtain optimal characteristics of the material, since the content of carbon fiber in the vertical plane above increases the coefficient of thermal expansion in the material, but below deteriorate shear characteristics of the material, which negatively affects the operational characteristics of the mirror.

Pyrocarbon matrix allows you to create the material of the plate-substrate with high strength and rigidity and high resistance to environmental factors, with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in a wide temperature range (-200...2500oC), with high resistance to thermal shock.

The execution of the separation layer of vysokoteploprovodnyh material - silicon allows for maximum heat emitting surface of the mirror due to the dispersion in a separate layer (in the case of an uncooled grain which is close to carbon-based coefficient of thermal expansion, that allows you to securely connect it with the plate-substrate without causing stresses in the mirror, which can lead to unacceptable deformations of the mirror.

The drawing shows:

Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the mirror, where 1 - plate substrate made of composite carbon-carbon material, 2 - dividing layer of polycrystalline silicon, 3 - reflecting layer.

Fig. 2 is an embodiment of a mirror with channels for the passage of refrigerant in the separation layer (chilled mirror), where 1 - plate-substrate, 2 - separation layer, 3 - reflecting layer, 4 - channels for the passage of refrigerant.

Fig. 3 shows a longitudinal section of the plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material, where 1 - sheets of carbon cloth with the direction of the warp threads along the X-axis; 2 - sheets of carbon cloth with the direction of the warp of the fabric along the Y-axis; 3 - carbon filament used for firmware carbon sheets of the frame plate of the substrate along the Z-axis; 4 - pyrocarbon matrix in magnetewan space.

Fig. 4 - plate-substrate mirrors, 1 - sheets of carbon cloth laid with the displacement of the warp angle of 22.5o(laid 8 sheets).

liwali of carbon fabric brand URAL-TM/4 by stacking 45 layers of fabric from shifting bases of each subsequent layer is relatively lower on the 4o. Thus formed package of layers (sheets) of carbon fabric was sewn carbon thread with a uniform pitch so that the ratio of carbon fiber in the horizontal and vertical directions was equal to 1:0,1. The resulting billet piopiotahi the pyrocarbon by thermochemical processing in the environment of hydrocarbon gas such as methane, at 950-1100oC. this is accompanied by the deposition of pyrocarbon in the pore volume of the gas phase with deposition rate 450-1000 . Propathene led to achieve a ratio of fiber:pyrocarbon equal to 45 : 55. Further provided machining of the workpiece in order to give it the desired size, after which the surface of the workpiece caused the separation layer of silicon by melting at a temperature of 1450oC. the thickness of the silicon layer was 10 mm silicon Surface was ground and polished to a mirror state, and then inflicted a reflective layer of silver.

The table shows the main characteristics of the carbon plate-substrate known and offer mirrors.

As can be seen from the table, the proposed mirror will have less weight, greater rigidity and more vysokokalorijnyh mirrors.

1. Mirror comprising a plate substrate made of a composite material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation and the carbon matrix, the separation layer based on silicon compounds and a reflective layer, wherein the reinforcing frame is formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane of one or more packets of the layers or sheets of carbon cloth in such a way that the warp threads of any two contiguous layers of fabric in the laying of the frame form an angle equal to 180 : n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 < n < 180, and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1 : (0,05 - 0,2), the matrix is made of pyrocarbon at volume ratio of fiber : pyrocarbon equal(0,6 - 0,4) : (0,4 - 0,6), and the separation layer is made of polycrystalline silicon.

2. Mirror under item 1, characterized in that the separating layer is provided with channels for the passage of refrigerant.

 

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