(57) Abstract:Usage: in aerospace, military equipment, in the communication system, laser systems, information and adaptive optics and other inventive mirror consists of a plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation, and pyrocarbon matrix at a volume ratio of the fiber : pyrocarbon equal(0,6 - 0,4) : (0,4 - 0,6), moreover, the reinforcing frame is formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane of one or more packets of the layers (sheets) of carbon fabric so that the warp threads of any two contiguous layers (sheets) fabric stacking frame form an angle equal to 180o: n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 n < 180 and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1 : (0,05 - 0,2), a separation layer made of polycrystalline silicon, and a reflecting layer formed on the surface of the separation layer. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 4 Il. The invention relates to the field of optical is ke, in the communication system, laser systems, information and adaptive optics, etc. currently the material of the plate-substrate for high-energy laser presented a number of specific requirements. He should have high specific strength and stiffness, low coefficient of thermal expansion in a wide temperature range and high conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the reflective surface, having a low density, to be resistant to the effects of the environment and good adhesion to the material of the reflective surface.Taking into account these requirements for the manufacture of wafer-substrates using various composite materials.It is known, for example, laser mirror, the plate-substrate which is made of a composite material, a reinforcing frame which is presented in the form of stacking alternating layers of carbon and graphite fibers, and monolithic matrix - borosilicate glass when the content of carbon fiber is about 40-70% and orientations of fibers in the composite 0oo/90o; 0o/45o/90oand 0o/60o. In the process of manufacturing the plate-substrate by hot press is Atego glass, on its surface to receive the separating layer of borosilicate glass, which form the reflective coating, the nature of which depends on the type of radiation and the operating conditions of the mirror (US, patent, N 4451118, CL G 02 B 5/08, 1984).Among the disadvantages of such mirrors include the following:
operational characteristics of known mirrors is not high enough due to the low thermal stability of the mirror, because the matrix of borosilicate glass is stable only up to 500-600oC, low resistance to rapid thermal Cycling and low thermal conductivity in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting layer.In addition, the possibility of manufacturing large mirrors is limited because of the relatively high density of the substrate material and difficulties in the hardware design process of hot pressing (currently the maximum achievable dimensions of the mirror - up to 1.5 m in diameter).Closest to the proposed to the technical essence and the achieved result is a mirror for high-energy laser, comprising a plate substrate made of a composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber, Proc. of the layers of silicon carbide and silicon dioxide (to bind the plate-substrate with a reflective mirror surface and the reflective surface of the optical treated layers of metal and/or modified of glass and a layer of a material with high reflectivity (US, patent N 4451119, CL G 02 B 5/08, 1984).The disadvantages of such mirrors should include:
insufficient strength of the plate of the substrate due to the low content of fibers oriented planes a-a and b-b ' parallel to the horizontal plane;
the high strength of the substrate is achieved, when the blanks are cut out of the plate at an angle of 45orelative to the vertical axis, which leads to a large proportion of waste and increases the cost of the substrate.The task of the invention is to improve the operational characteristics of the mirrors and the expansion of technological opportunities oversized mirrors due to the formation of the substrate material with the same high density in all directions and simplifying the technology of forming the substrate.The problem is solved due to the fact that in the mirror, comprising a plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation and the carbon matrix, the separation layer based on silicon compounds and a reflective layer, a reinforcing frame formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane advocacymay layers or sheets of tissue in the laying of the frame form an angle, equal 180o: n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 n < 180, and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1: (0.05 to--0,2), the matrix is made of pyrocarbon at volume ratio of fiber: pyrocarbon equal(0,6-0,4): (0,4-0,6), and separating the layer of polycrystalline silicon.It should be borne in mind that provides several options for stacking layers (sheets) of carbon fabric:
in one package: n sheets of fabric are laid on each other with the displacement of the basics of each subsequent layer at an angle of 180o:n. The thickness of the frame in this case is equal to the thickness of the sheet of fabric, multiplied by the number of sheets n;
in several packages: each package formed from n layers of fabric as described above and placed the same packages at each other with a shift basis contiguous layers at an angle of 180o:n.The first version of the paving should be used in the formation of plate-substrate small thickness, a second substrate with a large number of fabric layers in the stacking frame.When laying the fabric in the frame in multiple packages, the thickness of the reinforcing frame is equal to the thickness of mirowska frame of layers of carbon fabric, stacked offset from subsequent layers as described above, provides greater isotropy of the material, as well as high mechanical strength and rigidity of the material. The content of carbon fiber in the horizontal plane exceeds the fiber content in the vertical plane. This allows to obtain optimal characteristics of the material, since the content of carbon fiber in the vertical plane above increases the coefficient of thermal expansion in the material, but below deteriorate shear characteristics of the material, which negatively affects the operational characteristics of the mirror.Pyrocarbon matrix allows you to create the material of the plate-substrate with high strength and rigidity and high resistance to environmental factors, with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) in a wide temperature range (-200...2500oC), with high resistance to thermal shock.The execution of the separation layer of vysokoteploprovodnyh material - silicon allows for maximum heat emitting surface of the mirror due to the dispersion in a separate layer (in the case of an uncooled grain which is close to carbon-based coefficient of thermal expansion, that allows you to securely connect it with the plate-substrate without causing stresses in the mirror, which can lead to unacceptable deformations of the mirror.The drawing shows:
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal section of the mirror, where 1 - plate substrate made of composite carbon-carbon material, 2 - dividing layer of polycrystalline silicon, 3 - reflecting layer.Fig. 2 is an embodiment of a mirror with channels for the passage of refrigerant in the separation layer (chilled mirror), where 1 - plate-substrate, 2 - separation layer, 3 - reflecting layer, 4 - channels for the passage of refrigerant.Fig. 3 shows a longitudinal section of the plate-substrate composite carbon-carbon material, where 1 - sheets of carbon cloth with the direction of the warp threads along the X-axis; 2 - sheets of carbon cloth with the direction of the warp of the fabric along the Y-axis; 3 - carbon filament used for firmware carbon sheets of the frame plate of the substrate along the Z-axis; 4 - pyrocarbon matrix in magnetewan space.Fig. 4 - plate-substrate mirrors, 1 - sheets of carbon cloth laid with the displacement of the warp angle of 22.5o(laid 8 sheets).
liwali of carbon fabric brand URAL-TM/4 by stacking 45 layers of fabric from shifting bases of each subsequent layer is relatively lower on the 4o. Thus formed package of layers (sheets) of carbon fabric was sewn carbon thread with a uniform pitch so that the ratio of carbon fiber in the horizontal and vertical directions was equal to 1:0,1. The resulting billet piopiotahi the pyrocarbon by thermochemical processing in the environment of hydrocarbon gas such as methane, at 950-1100oC. this is accompanied by the deposition of pyrocarbon in the pore volume of the gas phase with deposition rate 450-1000 . Propathene led to achieve a ratio of fiber:pyrocarbon equal to 45 : 55. Further provided machining of the workpiece in order to give it the desired size, after which the surface of the workpiece caused the separation layer of silicon by melting at a temperature of 1450oC. the thickness of the silicon layer was 10 mm silicon Surface was ground and polished to a mirror state, and then inflicted a reflective layer of silver.The table shows the main characteristics of the carbon plate-substrate known and offer mirrors.As can be seen from the table, the proposed mirror will have less weight, greater rigidity and more vysokokalorijnyh mirrors. 1. Mirror comprising a plate substrate made of a composite material with a reinforcing frame made of carbon fiber three-dimensional spatial orientation and the carbon matrix, the separation layer based on silicon compounds and a reflective layer, wherein the reinforcing frame is formed by laying parallel to the horizontal plane of one or more packets of the layers or sheets of carbon cloth in such a way that the warp threads of any two contiguous layers of fabric in the laying of the frame form an angle equal to 180 : n, where n is the number of fabric layers in the package and 2 < n < 180, and stitching them in the vertical direction with a uniform step to achieve a volume ratio of fibers in the horizontal and vertical directions 1 : (0,05 - 0,2), the matrix is made of pyrocarbon at volume ratio of fiber : pyrocarbon equal(0,6 - 0,4) : (0,4 - 0,6), and the separation layer is made of polycrystalline silicon.2. Mirror under item 1, characterized in that the separating layer is provided with channels for the passage of refrigerant.
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: at least two dielectric layers are produced with preset thickness. Layers are disposed one onto the other to form pack of layers. Thickness of layer packs is subject to reduction and thicknesses of separate layers are similarly reduced by means of deforming layer packs to keep relation of thicknesses or relation of thicknesses of layers. Layer pack is disposed between two carrying layers before subjecting the layers to deformation. At least one carrying layer is formed from several separate layers, which are supposed to be disposed subsequently at the end of process of partial deformation at any previous layer of carrying layer. Separate layers of carrying layer can be overlayed onto previous separate layers of carrying layer.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; improved reflection factor.
FIELD: mirror systems of observation.
SUBSTANCE: coordinates of point of driver's eye and reference point at object to be observed in the driver mirror are measured by rule as well as reference point at mirror of transportation vehicle. Angles of inclination of mirror to coordinate planes are found from relations mentioned in formula of invention. Inclination of driving mirror to coordinate planes is determined. Random point at object of observation is preset and its coordinates are measured by means of measuring tape. Coordinates of point in mirror are calculated where the light beam reflects from the mirror and enters driver's eye. Procedure repeats many times for many random points at object of observation and coordinates of corresponding points of reflection at plane of mirror are found. Shape and sizes of mirror are determined by end points of reflection.
EFFECT: simplified determining of shape and sizes of mirror; improved precision of orientation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for wide-band light reflecting. Reflecting surface has dielectric layers A, B and C. A layer is made of material having low refractivity, B layer is made of material with average refractivity and C layer is made of material having high reflectivity. Optical thickness of layers equals to λr/4, where λr is wavelength of middle part of interval having high refractivity. Sequence of layer alternation looks like (CDCABA)KCBC, where K>=and has to be integer. Spectrum range with high reflectivity is widened due to shift in adjacent bandwidths at opposite sides along wavelength scale.
EFFECT: widened spectrum range with higher refractivity.
FIELD: optical industry.
SUBSTANCE: mirror can be used when producing optical reflecting systems in lasers and experimental physics. Mirror has transparent dielectric base. Metal coating is applied onto the base. Coating has to nanoparticles, for example, silver nanoparticles, which have plasma resonance at electromagnet radiation frequency. The mirror intends to reflect the radiation. Linear dimensions are far smaller than the radiation wavelength. Nanoparticles are applied uniformly onto surface of the base to cover 15% of its area. Thickness of mirror is reduced to minimal size; size of spot of reflected radiation in focus is reduced.
EFFECT: reduced thickness of mirror; improved precision.
FIELD: electric engineering.
SUBSTANCE: integral micromechanical mirror has substrate to place four electrodes onto it. Four additional electrodes of capacitive movement converters are disposed onto the substrate in such a manner to form flat capacitor with mirror element. One additional fixing plate is disposed under mirror element directly onto substrate. There are torsion beams placed in such a way that they connect mirror element with fixing plate. Mirror element, torsion beams, electrodes of electrostatic drives and capacitive converters as well as fixing plate are made of semiconductor material. Area of substrate used for placing integral mirror is reduced. Position of mirror element is subject to control relatively the substrate.
EFFECT: improved reliability of operation.
FIELD: ultra-violet radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the mirror-monochromator has a multi-layer structure positioned on a supporting structure and including a periodic sequence of two separate layers (A,B) of various materials forming a layer-separator and a layer-absorber with a period having thickness d, Bragg reflection of the second or higher order is used. Mentioned thickness d has a deviation from the nominal value not exceeding 3%. The following relation is satisfied: (nAdA + nBdB)cos(Θ) = m λ/2, where dA and dB - the thicknesses of the respective layers; nA and nB - the actual parts of the complex indices of reflection of materials of layers A and B; m - the integral number equal to the order of Bragg reflection, which is higher than or equal to 2, λ - the wave-length of incident radiation and Θ - the angle of incidence of incident radiation. For relative layer thickness Г=dA/d relation Г<0.8/m is satisfied.
EFFECT: provided production of a multi-layer mirror, which in the range hard ultra-violet radiation has a small width of the reflection curve by the level of a half of the maximum at a high reflection factor in a wide range of the angles of incidence.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical observation devices for use on automobiles and other vehicles. proposed system of mirrors contains rear view mirror 7, outer side mirrors 8, 9 and inner side mirror 5, 6, additional mirrors 10, 11, 12 and front mirror 4. Front mirror 4 and inner side mirrors 5, 6 are arranged in driver's field of vision. Front mirror 4 consists of separate adjustable parts 4а, 4б, 4в and it reflects panorama of spaces behind and at both sides from driver from rear view mirror 7 and outer side mirrors 8, 9. Inner side mirrors 5, 6 reflect directly parts of spaces arranged at both sides from driver which are not seen in outer side mirrors 8, 9.
EFFECT: provision of safety on the road owing to panoramic reflection of rear and side spaces around vehicle.
5 cl, 25 dwg
FIELD: transport engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical devices of automobiles, particularly, to front view mirrors. Front view device for automobiles with steering wheel at right side contains two mirrors installed inside automobile at angle relative to each other with possibility of providing periscopic effect and reflecting front part of road. Like sizes of mirrors and distance between mirrors and between mirrors and driver are in following relationship: B1:B2=(L1+L2):L2 where B1, B2 are like sizes of reflecting surfaces of first and second mirrors, respectively; L1, L2 are distances from first mirror to second mirror and from second mirror to driver, respectively.
EFFECT: improved quality of picture and reliability of front view device.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: the group of inventions refer to laser technique and may be used in mirror elements of laser resonators and in arrangements for transmission of laser radiation.
SUBSTANCE: the laser mirror has two identical, not communicating between themselves, symmetrical priming contours of heat-carrying agents located between the front plate on whose exterior side a reflective surface is fulfilled, and the rear plate on both sides of the diagram located in the symmetry plane of the arrangement. Each of the priming contour of the heat-carrying agents is fulfilled in the shape of in-series located, beginning from the diagram, a driving collector, a draining collector, a heat exchanger whose exterior surface adjoins to the inner surface of the corresponding plate. The cavity of the driving collector is connected via channels passing through the draining collector with the heat-exchanger which is connected with the cavity of the draining collector. In the second variant of the arrangement the reflective surfaces of the laser mirror are fulfilled on the exterior sides of the front and the rear plates. The heat exchangers are fulfilled in the shape of identical infiltration elements of the same sizes and forms correspondingly to the front and the rear plates.
EFFECT: reduces thermal distortions of the reflective surface and also increases the service term of the laser mirror.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: controlled optics.
SUBSTANCE: semi-passive bimorph flexible multiplayer mirror can be used as corrector in adaptive systems for dynamic controlling of radiation wave front. Deformed controlled bimorph semi-passive mirror has passive substrate and at least two layers of control electrodes provided with piezo-ceramic discs, which discs are separated by "ground electrodes". Shape and disposition of electrodes of all layers are specified independently to compensate specific type of aberration.
EFFECT: improved sensitivity; reduced sizes; reduced applied voltages.