The way of energy conversion and power unit for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The invention is intended for use in all industries and celcom economy for the simultaneous production of heat, cold and mechanical (electrical) energy. To drive the heat pump uses a thermal power plant operating on a thermodynamic cycle Rankine, unused heat which all the mechanical energy consumed by the heat pump, and the total production of heat (and cold) and the mechanical energy obtained is greater than 1 due to the fact that the generation of mechanical energy begins after impact summed up heat to the consumer, resulting in a thermodynamic cycle involving a part of the ocean thermal energy of the environment. This became possible due to the fact that when the heat input to a steam boiler exergy produced a pair grows rapidly without the cost of mechanical energy, but if in the traditional system of thermal power plants operating on the Rankine cycle is the transformation of the disposable heat of steam into mechanical energy in a steam turbine due to the presence of this free of exergy, in the proposed scheme, the compressed air in the ejector with vodyankina summarized previously heat and part of the initial exergy of steam. 2 C. and 17 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to energy and may find wide application in all industries and agriculture for the simultaneous production of heat, cold and mechanical (electrical) energy using including the bargain srednespetsialjnogo heat: exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, focused sunlight, home plate, etc. with complete regeneration of heat and cold in ventilation and air conditioning residential premises, the supply of hot water heating systems and household water and compressed air tools, as well as associated implementation without the costs of thermal energy, technology-sharing solutions on their fractions by the method of sublimation, which is equivalent to increasing the initial amount of heat up to three times in comparison with traditional ways of transforming this heat while simplifying and cheapening the production of structural funds for implementation of the proposed technologies.Currently, the available heat mechanical energy is obtained by implementing direct thermodynamic cycles power plants the greater complexity and cost, the more efficient the efficiency of wish the emission of heat. Simultaneously with the generation of mechanical energy practice and the production of heat for district heating purposes in the "so-called" combined heat and power plants (CHP); but the total energy production there may not exceed the available thermal energy used for this fuel.At the same time cold and / or a greater amount of heat gain by implementing a reverse thermodynamic cycles in the so-called refrigeration machines and heat pumps, which can be combined in a single installation, the so - called combined thermotransport that gives a substantial saving of thermal and mechanical energy in comparison with the separate option of increasing the amount of heat ipalette cold (KN. A. I. Andryushchenko "Fundamentals of thermodynamics cycles of thermal power plants", Moscow. High school, 1985 Fig. 7.3, S. 237, and Fig.7.19, S. 261).In the known installation, shown in Fig. 7.3, the mechanical energy is converted into more heat and cold, and in Fig. 7.19 high-grade heat is converted into more, but low-grade heat and cold, and, in the latter case received significant simplification of the installation due to the fact that the processes of transformation of heat into mehanicheskaya simple machine-the steam jet ejector.It is logical to think that when combined heat, cold and mechanical energy can be achieved a positive effect, namely, that you will get the total amount of energy, more than is contained in used for fuel, especially in remote areas without electricity, which can be only brought some fuel will still be the question of the development of mechanical energy, for example, for production of electricity for lighting and industrial needs and have to create a separate, and therefore, imperfect installation for making mechanical (electrical) energy, heat and cold.The method of energy conversion, implemented in known installation with steam jet ejector presented in Fig.7.19 and above is taken as a prototype, as it is more easy to implement, they require little expenditure of mechanical energy and thermodynamically more efficient than, for example, vane turbocharger in the sense that the nozzle of the ejector - turbine thermal power installation has a conversion efficiency of heat into kinetic energy of a jet of steam to 98%, and significant irreversible energy loss (pressure loss) in compimage working bodies can be selected so that in combination with the used (in turn, increases the coefficient of ejection), but not consumed heat during compression of the working fluid, will allow you to spend and less specific amount of energy to compress the working fluid to a predetermined pressure in comparison with the vane compressor, only after which can bring the heat when there is a goal - from heat to get the greatest amount of mechanical energy. In this case, this effect resonates with the ejector effect magnifier thrust, shown in Fig. 9.30, S. 548, kN. Abramovich, N. Applied gas dynamics", Moscow, 1976.The uniqueness of it is steam jet ejector is that loss of pressure in the mixing chamber of the ejector will not be so significant as in the case of pure gas ejector, when the compression portion of the gas used for feeding nozzle of the ejector, it is necessary to spend in addition to heat and mechanical energy in the high-pressure compressor. The fact that the water in the steam boiler is pumped by the pump, i.e., practically without cost mechanical energy, and loss of pressure in the mixing chamber steam jet ejector is always possible to compensate for Uwe the cookies the same steam temperature before the nozzle will need even less (for example, the enthalpy of steam at a temperature of 500oC form 3434 and 3374 kJ/kg, respectively, at pressures of 50 and 100 kgf/cm2).The goal will be executed when the method of energy conversion, which consists in the fact that the liquid, such as water, is evaporated in a steam boiler, have high-grade heat, such as heat of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, concentrated by mirrors sunlight or stoves, feed steam in the steam-jet ejector, where the steam increases the pressure of the refrigerant when it is mixed with steam from a mixture of vapor refrigerant drawing heat of condensation of steam for industrial and household use, steam condensate into the steam boiler, and the pressure of the refrigerant is reduced and served it in the refrigerator where down to it cooled heat working fluids and, in the particular case, is recycled to the input of steam jet ejector, will be supplemented by giving the signs, namely, that as the refrigerant choose non-condensable gas, such as air, whose pressure is reduced in the expansion turbine, the mechanical work which give the consumer of mechanical energy.In the method, taken as a prototype, as the refrigerant of the refrigerator evaporator t is closed and sealed to provide a vacuum in the evaporator,
- condensing all the water for the ejector and part of it just to throttle into the evaporator without obtaining any work,
to refuse to use the installation as a heat pump, so as to enter the ejector-compressor enters the steam at the temperature of the refrigerator, of course, if it is not specifically be warmed in the heat exchanger
- to increase the degree of expansion in the nozzle of the ejector and the size of the ejector and reduce its efficiency due to the large vacuum
- to increase the temperature in the refrigerator.In the proposed method, these shortcomings, no, because:
the air can be taken from the atmosphere and to supply to the ejector to warm up any bargain warmth, turning it into useful high-grade heat, turning this fridge still in the heat pump,
for ejector return of heat to the consumer without loss condensed water for powering a steam boiler, and the air expands in the turbine, gives mechanical energy and refrigerating effect in the amount of mechanical energy, which if necessary you can always turn in additional heat and cold.What are the advantages of the proposed method of producing heat and mechanical the law of thermodynamics, if, to paraphrase, says that at larger temperature range is realized thermodynamic cycle to get out of the heat and mechanical energy, the more it will receive.At a given temperature heat loss to the consumer 100oC in a steam turbine installation of modern CHP temperature range of the direct implementation of the Rankine cycle can be a maximum of 100 - 600oC. In connection with the fact that in the proposed method, the selection of heat to the customer before receiving the mechanical energy, the temperature range of implementing the combination of forward and reverse cycles may be approximately 100 - 600oC. Moreover, the efficiency of the direct cycle (in which the pump is the compressor, the combustion chamber is a steam boiler, and the nozzle of the ejector is the turbine) is very high, because the pump on the work of the nozzle is very small, the efficiency about 90%, and the nozzle has an efficiency of approximately 98%. As for the reverse cycle, the efficiency of the compressor - mixing chamber of the ejector doesn't have any value, as in the ejector, the sum of the internal energies of the mixed working fluids remains constant after the mixing chamber of the ejector and its heat to the consumer to reduce the amount of consumed heat no steam in parboiled turbine Efficiency up to 92%.Of course, no loss of pressure in the mixing chamber of the ejector would receive a greater amount of mechanical energy in the turbine, but it would take less heat compared to summed up in the cycle.In other words, in our case, mechanical energy and is cold obtained for free, and if to be exact, by reducing the temperature potential of the disposable heat, which is implemented in our case in the form of high pressure vapor pressure of water in the boiler and which is now not cherish, fueling, for example water, mostly less than 100oC primitive boiler.If in the mixing chamber of the ejector would not be a loss of pressure, it was of greater relative proportion of the mechanical energy in total the same number of mechanical and thermal energy on the number of large than the original amount of heat.It may seem that the above is similar to the refutation of the law of conservation of energy. Nothing of the kind. The fact that the temperature of the working fluid is atmospheric air inlet in the power unit that implements the proposed method will be amicucci cycle part of the free ocean heat the environment in a quantity equal to the heated compressed air from -100 to 20oC, and the heat introduced not for the compressor, as in direct cycles, and the compressor, as in reverse cycles, which are used by the heat pumps and refrigerating machines.However, if you got the option of turning the heat environment into mechanical energy and cold (these two types of energy have different signs and sum to 0) with an efficiency of 100%, a 100% conversion of high-grade heat into mechanical energy can be achieved even easier. Indeed, in the absence of a need in the cold after condensation of water for steam boilers and heat transfer to the consumer, it is possible for the air to draw, for example, the heat of combustion of any fuel and get the option natural pressure of the CCD with an efficiency of conversion of heat into work is 100% and there is no need to have the turbine efficiency is 100% and to heat the air to high temperatures, and to compress it to high pressure in the steam jet ejector. Enough so that the temperature of gases behind the turbine was not higher than the temperature of the atmosphere. Given that the ejector is much easier high-pressure compressor and turbine with a low degree of expansion and the temperature at its input, this method of getting the fur is C, including for reasons of fuel economy with the joint production of heat, mechanical energy and cold.It should be noted that in the large capacity using the proposed method, the main difficulties will be associated with the how to sell the produced heat, cold and mechanical energy. The radius of economically viable sales mechanical (electrical) energy is greatest, heat is a lot less, and cold very small, including the reason for the small number of large consumers cold.The application of the proposed method is economically justified if the radius of the sales of all three types of energy will be reduced almost to zero, i.e., when installing, implementing the proposed method will be installed on separate businesses, houses or even apartments in order on the spot to consume all three types of energy, simultaneously transforming and available bargain low-grade heat in high-potential, since the proposed method allows you to do it, the more that the radius of economically valuable marketing of many types of combustible very large (gas Siberia-Western Europe).At the same time the sensible cost of materials is less
is greater than the range of values of the parameters of working fluids used in power plant, is implemented, the greater efficiency and can be obtained,
- the production of heat, cold and mechanical energy refers to the high, high technologies, require expertise and highly qualified specialists in production and service units and therefore justified the higher power units.Therefore, produce different plants products in the form of gas or electric stoves, hot-water boilers (boiler, electric refrigerators, air conditioners, heat pumps, ventilation systems with heat recovery and diesel power plants, and in homes and businesses pulled below ground heating system without end, replacing them due to rapid wear, and plants organized network of repair shops for your product.The functions of all these and other products can be done in one relatively simple, eco-friendly, metamaterialom processor - household energy system that can be installed even in a single flat.In this regard, it is pertinent to recall that one of the regularities of the development of technology, established in the framework of theory of the solution of izobretatel is formulirovke C. M. Gerasimov and S. S. Lytvyn says, the development of technical systems is in the direction of their associations with each other for mutual use of resources for further improvement at the level of the supersystem (article "Why the technique of pluralism". Journal of TRIZ N 1, 1990).The appearance of the proposed method a striking confirmation of the above law. Indeed, in this way joined several systems with different functions, working for both direct and inverse thermodynamic cycles, but the implementation of which requires the same units (combustion chambers, compressors, turbines, heat exchanger) and working fluids (water and air), and the opportunity to use available resources of one system to improve the other, and Vice versa, which radically changes the requirement for systems to achieve maximum efficiency of each of them.Under the use of resources from one system to the other improvements we have in mind such use, when this resource is absolutely not consumed, but leads to another useful already for another system. System heat generation in the harvester from a separate heat, implemented, for example, in the boiler (hot water boiler) orliswtat what we get steam pressure 4 - 5 kgf/cm2(which, if possible can and overheating 600oC, if you need to increase the relative proportion of the mechanical energy and cold), with which, without any expenditure of heat in the simplest ejector received an additional resource is compressed to 2 to 2.5 kgf/cm2the air around in such numbers as used for steam, and, simultaneously, the potential of the available heat is reduced to the same 90oC in the form of a gas, which can directly be submitted to the radiator without reducing their heat capacity, because the heat transfer coefficient during condensation of steam on a wall not less than from the liquid to the wall. In this case we use another resource, the system of heat - big vapor pressure of water at 140 - 150oC, which worked in this case, another resource - heat, which in tandem allowed to obtain the kinetic energy of a jet of steam in the nozzle of the ejector, which in turn allows you to use another available resource is low-grade heat from the surrounding environment, for example, the warmth from the stove or warm stale air, which must be replaced with fresh. Indeed, the internal ejector is th the total number of usable heat compared to the original, for example, the heat of combustion of any fuels, and, after impact, for example, in a heating system of this increased amount of heat, including due to condensation of water needed for powering a steam boiler, we still have free side resource is compressed to 2 to 2.5 kgf/cm2air at ambient temperature, at which thermodynamics of cold generation and(or) mechanical energy radically changed, as there is no need to commit any such energy-intensive process, as the compression of the air with their irreversible loss of energy.The main feature of the proposed method combined heat, cold and mechanical energy is the fact that the relative quantity of generated cold and mechanical energy in relation to the quantity of generated heat is relatively small and is about 4-8%. This feature is determined by the characteristics of the ejector, as such. Indeed, the efficiency of the jet maximum in the case, if the ratio of ejection is the ratio of the weight of compressible costs and compressing gases will be equal to n = 1 with respect to the full pressure of these gaseso= 4 - 6. Given that to increase the steam pressure in the steam boiler bramati attention on the efficiency of the ejector, but sinceo= 6 growth of the ratio of the pressure of the mixture gas for the ejector to the pressure of the compressed gas is practically ceases and there is no sense in increasingo= 6 for a given n. In other words, the proposed method is doomed to low relative production of mechanical energy and cold against the warmth, the maximum absolute production of all kinds of energy and the implementation of extremely low thermodynamic parameters: the temperature of the water in the steam boiler 140 - 150oC at a pressure of 4 - 6 kgf/cm2the pressure of the gas for the ejector 1.5 to 2.5 kgf/cm2and a temperature of 90 - 100oC, the temperature before the turbine 20 - 150oC, and for turbine - 50 - +20oC when the General temperature range of implementing a thermodynamic cycle -50 - +150oC on the cheapest and most environmentally friendly types of working fluids, water and air, so consumed by the man inside.All the world is relative, said Einstein, and so developers thermal power plants for CHP, of course, large capacity and designed for powering electricity and heat cities, first of all pay attention to this indicator in the proposed method, as small relative to the number produced by the emission of high thermodynamic parameters are in this case unclaimed while the manufacturer and the buyer of the power unit, executed by the proposed method and intended, for example, for an individual apartment, it is not to be worried about this option, as it saves them from the care of some market somewhere, and other complex units to transform into other forms of energy excess mechanical energy, due to the fact that the ratio of consumption of the individual family types of energy around and will correspond to the value which provides the proposed method, especially since all the other characteristics of the proposed method should all be welcomed.The increase of this indicator CHP as specific production of mechanical (electrical) energy is dictated by the need to provide and drive many machines enterprises (which in apartments and such barbaric use of electricity in large quantities, as the production of heat in electric stoves and other electric heating devices that could replace the housing of the power unit that implements the proposed method of converting thermal energy than electrospray when the cost is the same amount of energy.In addition t the t to provide and record the relative amount of mechanical energy in the amount of produced energy, but this subject of another patent application, and we will continue the improvement of the proposed method applied to the power center designed for an individual apartment or farmhouse.In this case, we have the potential energy of compressed air to convert into mechanical energy:
in the adiabatic expansion process without preliminary heat when while receiving mechanical energy, we're both in the same amount and thermal energy in the form of cold,
in isothermal expansion process, when part of the disposable heat ambient directly converted into mechanical energy with an efficiency of 100%,
in the adiabatic expansion process with pre-heat supply (so that at the outlet from the turbine, the air temperature was not higher than the ambient temperature), specially when summed heat of combustion of fuels advanced directly converted into mechanical energy with an efficiency of 100%,
The second of these methods difficult to implement in practice, but the first and third can be easily implemented by extending the possibility of regulating the ratio of the produced species is useful in the proposed way?
Disposable heat in combination with a high vapor pressure of water as resources were used to compress the air, as if without the cost of this heat. Let us ask now the question is, how can be used such resource as new that appeared in the proposed method, transfer method available heat to the consumer? Unlike conventional hot water boiler (boiler) have heat in the proposed method is transferred to the heat consumer is not directly through the wall, as it were, with intermediate heat carrier is water vapor, which is flowing from the nozzle of the ejector. For the nozzle of the ejector no matter how obtained pairs of fresh or sea water, milk or fruit juices, but the mistress of the house may be interested in the offer without any cost of heat from sea water to obtain a brine of salt and water from the milk - cream (better and more useful than those obtained in the usual way) and fresh water, and fruit juice concentrate and fresh water or alcohol and fresh water from the vodka.To ensure this, the proposed method can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that in a steam boiler offers solutions that pre is a function of the solution and removed from the steam boiler fraction, which share the solution without using this heat.Using the proposed method as an additional working fluid-air allows non-traditional use of such internal and external resources, both heat and cold, and implement it in passing as a heat pump, a heat regenerator when replacing the fresh air and conditioning, for which the proposed method can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the air intake for steam jet ejector carried out from the source of substandard for breathing, but Teploenergetika air, for example, on the kitchen stove or simply accommodations, and the discharge of air from the refrigerator to the street, heat a mixture of steam with air after the steam jet ejector is passed sequentially to the system heating and fresh air coming into the ventilated room during the heating season, while in the hot season the air after the refrigerator is served in air-conditioned premises, and at the entrance to the steam jet ejector is already on the street, and the warmth of the gas after the steam jet ejector is used, for example, to heat water for domestic and industrial purposes and heating of air, postupysia way of working bodies, as water and air, allows to improve this characteristic large irreversible loss of energy, the operation, as the heat transfer to the consumer, the working body which, in particular, is under a different pressure, for example, water heating system or air entering the room from the street.In this regard, the proposed method can be supplemented with essential features, namely, water, air or steam gas - private consumers and suppliers of heat transfer heat and mass to each other in massoteploobmen device method current when water moves from top to bottom, and the air or gas from the bottom up.Indeed, by direct contact of steam and gas and air with water first, not only the heat transfer, and mass transfer between them and, secondly, the large contact area between them can be provided arbitrarily large without increasing the weight of the heat exchanger, which allows to achieve the lowest possible temperature difference between the working fluids exchanging heat, and hence the minimum possible irreversible loss of energy, and water, giving or receptive warm, easy to send, for example, a pump (of) in the area of heat transfer is the node implements the proposed method of energy conversion, and has the properties of a heat pump, when you have low-grade heat can be converted into heat, which is acceptable for the needs of the consumer, and this requires the lesser amount of mechanical energy (less the required increase in temperature of the working fluid, and hence the rate of pressure rise in the compressor), the greater the temperature has a working body-the owner of this low-grade heat. One of the sources of low-grade heat can be considered regenerative heat - heat that is returned to the operating body from the output to the input of the compressor, due to already being unsuitable for the needs of the consumer of heat, by lowering the temperature of the working fluid at the compressor when the heat to the consumer. Heat recovery is theoretically conceivable only in heat pump, where heat exchange between the working bodies is carried out at variable temperatures and is recommended for exemplary of such cases regenerative cycle Lorentz (see Fig.7.6, S. 244, kN. A. I. Andryushchenko "Fundamentals of thermodynamics cycles of thermal power plants", Moscow, Vysshaya SHKOLA, 1985).Introduction REM use case of heat exchangers and low irreversible loss of energy can be justified, moreover, it dramatically increases the possibilities for regulating the heat output of radiators and the ratio of produced energy at constant pressure along the path of the heat pump, which is characteristic for the case of application of the steam-jet ejector as a compressor and a source of mechanical energy, his drive, especially when there is no reason to change the pressure in the steam boiler and the air pressure at the inlet to the ejector, and the output from it due to the inevitable increase of irreversible energy losses with the introduction of any species of throttle bodies working in gas or vapor States because of the large irreversible loss of potential energy of pressure.Regenerative preheating of the inlet air to the ejector and the fresh air supplied to the premises from the street, you can consistently implement from the water leaving the radiator, but in this case we encounter a technical contradiction lies in the fact that the heat transfer from the gas after the ejector to the water in the heat exchanger will be inevitable large irreversible loss of energy (in the form of a large medium-integral temperature difference) when the transmission is warm for the reason that odeling specific heat of the gas, for example, at a temperature of 70oC 10 times more than when the temperature of the 26oC.To overcome this contradiction, the proposed method of energy conversion can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the heat of the gas after the steam jet ejector is passed successively several closed contours intermediate coolant - water heat consumers of different temperature, for example, a water heating system, the heat recovery system at the input to the compressor and the heating system, supplied in a heated or air-conditioned space air, which notice already substandard air supplied to the entrance of the steam jet ejector.On different paths we can set different costs of water, and therefore, exclude irreversible energy losses during teplomassoobmena.Several paths intermediate heat transfer medium is water and determine additional essential features, which may be supplemented by the proposed method of energy conversion, which consists in the fact that thermal capacity of each of the consumers of heat and moisture in the room air regulating switching of the water flow in according to the ate, through other user of hot water, in particular, a shower or bath, when using that power heating systems in particular, and not reduce, which at this time include the stove and, in particular, combine cooking and fill with hot water, for example, of a bath.It is interesting to note that when combining cooking and hot water bath, hot water is obtained for free, and if we on the stove specially heated water bath, then had her turn on the cooking time is about 10 times more than this you will need the energy system that implements the proposed method, since the stove has an efficiency of heat loss to the consumer about 10%, and steam jet ejector may collect all the hot air emanating from the plate and give all this heat in the form of hot water, spending about 10% electricity from the amount that would be required to heat this water kettle (with an efficiency of 100%).The proposed method of energy conversion can be implemented in the domestic energy system with regard to even a single house or apartment, a prototype of which is a steam-jet ejector installation, taken as a prototype and rectora, the diffuser is connected to the cavity by a cooled environment of the capacitor, the output of which through the condensation pump is associated with the consumer condensate, in particular, a steam boiler, and through the pressure reducer with the cavity in the heated environment of the refrigerator.The purpose of the invention is the increase of the coefficient of thermotransformations heat when passing (without the cost of thermal energy) obtaining mechanical energy, in the main, will be performed, if known, the installation can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that as the pressure reducer used turbine, mechanically associated with the consumer of mechanical energy, for example, an electric generator, and the input of the compressible working fluid steam jet ejector in communication with the atmosphere.To ensure passing (without cost of thermal energy) separation of the solutions on their fractions by the method of sublimation in the process of heat transfer from the steam boiler to the consumer, which respectively are the processes of evaporation and condensation of a liquid, household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the entrance of the steam boiler is connected with a source of partial fractions solution is cooled on Wednesdays which one of them its input connected with the cavity in a cooled environment of the capacitor, and the output consumer evaporated fraction of the solution, and the other of its input from discharge from a steam boiler, and the output consumer neizprotamas fraction of a solution in a steam boiler.Application of the proposed residential energy system as the second working fluid air without any additional structural funds, but with the involvement of accommodations as as if one of the units of the power unit with the appropriate seasonal reconfiguration of units that can be used as a heat pump utilization of available waste heat accommodations, regenerator heat by ventilation during the heating season and conditioning in the hot season, when household power unit will be supplemented with essential features, namely, that in the heating season, the entrance compressible working fluid steam jet ejector is connected with the source already substandard for breath, but Teploenergetika air, for example, on the kitchen stove or simply with a ventilated location, and the output from the refrigerator with the street, while in the hot season entrance compressible working fluid steam jet ejector in communication with the street, and the output from the refrigerator with pomeshenoie (when it's hot water supply hot water) or(and), respectively, with street and premises in the heating season and out of the heated environment of the refrigerator and put in the hot season.If the working fluid in the heat consumer water is used, for example, in the systems of water heating or domestic hot water supply, the weight of the heat exchanger-condenser can be significantly reduced with a simultaneous sharp decline in irreversible losses of energy by reducing the temperature difference when teplomassoobmena between steam gas for the ejector and the heated water if the power unit will be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the cavity is cooled by the medium of the condenser-heat exchanger has an additional cavity, the entrance of which is communicated with the collection of condensate water, and exit via the regulating valve, water pump and a water sprayer, mounted in the upper part of the main cavity at its output, while the collection of condensate water, optionally linked through the make-up float valve with a source of water in the lower part at the entrance.If the working fluid in the heat consumer air is used, for example, in systems for air heating or ventilation, reducing the weight of Teploobmennik condenser and irreversible losses of energy in it and can be achieved through the use of water as an intermediate aloepecia what household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the cavity of the heated environment of the heat exchanger is made as a cavity in a cooled environment, and is linked via a common additional cavity with a cavity heated environment of the heat exchanger, and the spray cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger at its exit connected with collection of condensate water cavity in a heated environment, and the water spray device cavity in a cooled environment of the heat exchanger is connected through the pump and regulating valve with a collection of condensate water at the entrance to the cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger.To overcome the technical contradictions, lies in the fact that in a wide temperature range of the heat exchange between the steam gas and water increase the irreversible loss of energy due to the constancy of the specific heat of water and the sharp change in temperature for gas, household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that he has several series set of heat exchangers, including different versions for different heat transfer to consumers, for example, a water heating system, the system regenerating heat and humidification silent room air.In the circuit intermediate heat-carrier of each of the heat consumers separately can be set your water consumption, the corresponding average specific heat of the gas in a more narrow range of heat transfer, which dramatically reduces the irreversible energy losses and increases the ability to regulate power plants under the new weather conditions.To avoid loss of potential energy of air pressure due to the breakthrough of the gas after the ejector in the heat consumers through trunk circuits of the intermediate carrier and stabilize water flow in them household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the collection of condensate water heat exchanger inlet highways without faucet and pump have final float controls the water level in the collection of condensate.For the purpose of submitting to the location of outdoor air specified relative humidity, household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that at the output of the heater air mixing type installed air heater surface type, for example, a hot-water radiator or elektroobogrevatel.
oC in the traditional way, the relative humidity it is reduced to a comfortable level 40 - 70%.So far, we have identified the essential features tried the most simple constructive means to meet the primary goal at minimum cost heat to get the maximum amount of heat mechanical (electrical) energy and cold, along the way finding obvious their application in everyday life, in particular, the kitchen is the most suitable place for the installation of domestic power unit, in particular, farm or country houses, and apartments.TRIZ recommends not to stop after reaching the set goal and appeared to consider in this regard the internal resources of the system to identify those verhaftet, which can be using them obtained without the expenditure of those resources to achieve the main goal of the invention.In the proposed domestic energy system we are dealing with mechanical energy and electricity, heat and cold. What useful information for family members and, in particular, the hostess in the kitchen we can get with these types of energy, at the same time not spending them, i.e., without anything applying to achieve this, only additional PR is Rotogravure device to reduce the relative humidity of the air, supplied into the room. Because you can heat the air not electroperu and volt arc, and to receive additional positive effect, namely, that appears useful for light ozone and bright UV light that kills germs, and therefore the last significant feature (elektroobogrevatel) can be supplemented with words, for example, is based on the use of voltaic arc.Now, take the heat that is generated in the stove and in the proposed domestic auxiliary power unit. Where more energy is spent on heating water for 1oC? Of course, in the oven, about 20 times. So what do you need to put, for example, a kettle of cold water on the stove, when possible from the household power unit to take water at 50 - 70oC and on the stove to heat it to 100oC, significantly saving energy resources. Of course, for cooking need clean water and therefore offer household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that on the logon recharge water sub filter is installed, for example, type "Rosinka" connected, including, and hot water tank equipped with a drain valve and made in the form of ru is Redi family members always like to drink cold water, especially in the hot season. Of course, you can keep a jar of water in the fridge, but where it will be more convenient if we our power center will Supplement the essential features, namely, that the filter is connected to, including, and with a tank for cold water, equipped with a discharge valve and is made in the form of a cooling jacket walls of the cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger of the type intended for heating air supplied to the room from the street or from the turbine.Let's see how can be now used in the proposed energy system is disposable combination of both heat and cold, but at the same time, without using them as they are needed at all for others, the main objectives of the power unit.In particular, for the inhabitants of the Crimea, in which order and created this household power unit, it would be necessary, if he could desalinate, for example, sea water, as in the Crimea there are places where fresh water imported cars, for example, in the area Batiliman, located on the sea shore and in the water supply of the cities of the Crimea pumped water from the North-Crimean channel through which water flows, is so polluted with harmful substances industrial rendova doctors to drink.One method of desalination is that sea water is evaporated, i.e., using heat, and then the water vapor condense, i.e., use cold. But for heat and cold required energy costs. And still go at it, using mainly solar and nuclear energy, creating a costly desalination plant.In accordance with the laws of thermodynamics, how much is spent on evaporation of the fluid, as returned by condensation of the vapor of the liquid, for example water. The whole question lies in the fact that it is useful to return the warmth. In any case summed up to something useful heat is returned? In particular, the heat supplied to one side wall of any heat exchanger, it is useful returns from the other side of the wall is already another working body. The process of heat transfer from one body to another in our household energy system is, and therefore there is a possibility along the way, without any expenditure of energy to desalinate, in particular, sea or polluted water, if we recall the principle of the so-called "heat pipe" used for heat transfer at any distance from one body to another through intermediate is advergame the processes of evaporation and condensation, i.e., the same processes as in the desalination of water, which in addition provide and maximum coefficients of heat transfer from a wall to another wall, providing the heat transfer coefficient is even higher than through the wall, made of copper or silver.To achieve this goal, it is necessary even to simplify the heat pipe. Really, sealed in the heat pipe, the liquid evaporates from the heat of the hot wall, steam itself comes to the cold wall, condenses there at the same temperature and in the liquid returns through the wick to the hot wall. If we throw away the wick, to the hot wall will serve sea water, and from cold - will pump out fresh water, then the goal will be achieved. Besides our domestic energy system there is a constructive means to ensure this. Indeed, the hot water tank is hot wall of the heat pipe, and tank for cold water is cold wall of the heat pipe. Only thing missing is the pipe for the steam movement from one tank to another, but this will not happen if the tanks and the pipe connecting them, will be present in the air.In this case, in accordance with Dalton's law in both tanks set and water vapor in the absence of a pressure differential between the tanks will pass from the tank into the tank only by diffusion between air molecules.To dramatically speed up the process of spontaneous transition of water vapor from the tank into the tank, it is necessary that the water in the hot water tank is boiling, i.e. that the partial pressure of water vapor exceeded the total vapor pressure of water and air in the tank with cold water. To ensure this it is necessary or to heat water to 100oC (what it takes thermal energy) or tanks to make tight, to create a vacuum through the tank for cold water.But to create the vacuum necessary costs of mechanical energy to drive vacuumless. What amount of mechanical energy required to do this? The task of vacuumless is only to pump the air out of the tanks and to create a pressure equal to the vapour pressure of water at the temperature of the water in the hot water tank, and then the vacuum will be maintained automatically due to the fact that much of the water evaporates, the same and is condensed while passing the heat transfer through the walls of the tanks with hot and cold water.In order not to complicate the system vacuumless, choose the last of the jet type, as the most reliable and technologically advanced, especially in our domestic energy system there are several closed paths liquid proos, to mechanical energy costs when it absolutely has not changed. These places - at the entrance to the spray water in the cavity by being heated environment heat exchangers type of heat and mass transfer on the regenerative preheating of the inlet air to the compressor and the air supplied into the room, because these sprinklers is a simple throttling of the water when the available pressure drop equal to the pressure drop of the air compressor.In connection with the foregoing, household power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that the tank with cold water communicated with the output of the filter through the hot water tank and advanced through the valve to the input of a low-pressure jet pump installed in the line connecting the collection of water and spray, located respectively in the cavities in a cooled or heated environments of heat and mass transfer heat exchangers.In the hot water tank can be filled not only sea water, occasionally spilling out of him brine sea water (for sale, for lovers of the sea baths), and from the tank for cold water rinse with fresh water. Thus, it is possible to divide the milk into the cream and water, vodka in water and alcohol, lty and substances. If the evaporating moisture is not desired, one can only use inkjet vakuumatorom (you can install up to three) and any sealed container, in which is laid the vaporizing product.In addition, all of these are needed in agriculture technology may be directed and all thermal power household power unit, if we augment its essential characteristics, namely, that the radiators have drain valves for condensate and connected to the upper part of the hot water tank and its upper part to the input of a low-pressure jet vacuumless.Indeed, in this case water heating system just turns into no less effective known vacuum steam heating system, but periodic operation, when, for example, after evaporation of sea water from the hot water tank must be drained from him a brine of sea salt and radiators already fresh water and about 1 to 2 times per day to repeat this cycle, which can easily be converted to and continuous with little complication of the system.It is obvious that such is necessary for all, but energy-intensive technologies can be similarly carried out wherever there is Sisto yourself regenerative thermal power plants, and all this without any cost of thermal energy on the implementation of these technologies.Given that compression of atmospheric air maximum efficiency of the ejector is achieved when the steam pressure in the steam boiler 4 - 6 kgf/cm2it makes no sense to increase the steam pressure in the steam boiler > 6 kgf/cm2(it is better to overheating pairs, if it is necessary to adjust the ratio of generated heat and mechanical energy), the more it will increase the security of a steam boiler when operating in the apartment. However, pressure 4 - 6 kgf/cm2in the steam boiler is achieved at a water temperature of 140 - 150oC, it is sufficient to provide a cooking pan mounted on the external surface of a steam boiler. Recall in this regard at least the pan with double walls, between which is filled with water, not to slightly burnt milk or porridge, brewed in them.To run a steam boiler functions of household cookstoves, the proposed power unit can be supplemented with essential features, namely, that on the upper horizontal surface of a steam boiler in the body of a steam boiler or(and) its teploizolyatsii is with insulation.In Fig. 1 shows a diagram of household energy system, as applied, for example, to a separate apartment.The proposed residential power unit consists of a compressor in the form of steam jet ejector 1, steam boiler-plate 2 and the air turbine 3 which is mechanically associated with the consumer of mechanical energy such as an electric generator 4. The output of the ejector 1 highways 5 and 6 is connected with the turbine inlet 3 through a vertically mounted column 7, consisting of a series of interconnected cavities 8 in a cooled environment, three heat exchangers 9 heat and mass transfer type, consisting of sprinklers per capita type 10 and collection of condensate water 11 with installed flow regulators 12 water level in them. In the first heat exchanger 9, the condensate collector 11 is connected through the valve 13 with shower and through the condensation pump 14 with a steam boiler 2 and with water spray device 10 through the hot-water radiator 15, the valve 16 and the water pump 17, and through the valve 18, a filter 19 and the float valve 12 with the feed control home energy system water.The other two heat exchanger 9 in pairs and cross hydraulically connected with a similar design to the heat exchangers 20, but with the cavities 21 are already heating the nicknames 20 sprinklers with 10 heat exchangers 9, while the collection of condensate 11 heat exchangers 9 are connected with the water sprinklers 10 heat exchangers 20 lines 22 through float valve 12 and, in the particular case, through the inlet high pressure outlet of the jet vacuumless 23.The output cavity heated environment 21 of one of the heat exchangers 20 highway 24 is connected to the input of the ejector 1 and the other with a ventilated location, while in the cold season the input of the first of them is connected ventilated location, and second street, and in the hot season respectively highways 25 street and out of the refrigerator 26, an input line 27 is connected with the outlet of the turbine 3. Water pumps 17 and 14 are assembled in a single unit and mechanically connected, and the electric motor 28.To implement technology-sharing solutions on their components without special cost of this energy household power unit has an evaporator-heater solutions 29 made in the form of a cooling jacket cavity cooled by the medium of the first heat exchanger 9, the condenser-cooler 30 liquid components of the solutions with lower vapor pressure and the radiator 31, equipped with valves 32 for draining separated cadnam pipe low pressure jet ejector 23 through the valve 33. Highway 34 supply conditioned air in the room has air heater 35, and a steam boiler 2 is equipped with a safety valve 36 and insulated lids 37 under the pan. The ejector 1 is equipped with a valve 38.Household power unit operates as follows.When turning on the oven, for example, gas hobs, steam - boiler 2, the water temperature rises to 140 - 150oC, and the steam pressure up to 4 - 6 kgf/cm2. After the opening of the valve 38 of the ejector 1 steam enters the nozzle of the ejector and provides conversion of thermal and potential energy of the steam pressure in the heat and potential energy of pressure is already significantly more gas, so as to enter the ejector 1 through line 24 enters the air from the heated space during the heating season or in hot weather from the street. However, in accordance with the law of conservation of energy, the steam gas for the ejector will have thermal energy of the steam and heat energy to the compressed ejector 1 air, which was acceptable for consumption due to the increase of its temperature potential by becoming part of the potential (mechanical) energy of steam pressure in the heat, i.e. at the expense of decrease is giving the exergy of steam by heating water in a confined space can be considered as a source of free energy, because the specific heat of water even decreases with the increase of pressure in a steam boiler and mechanical energy for pumping the water in a steam boiler spent very little. In other words, steam boiler 2 and the ejector 1 represent the heat pump is producing more heat than is spent heat on his drive. In other words, in this case, a small efficiency of the ejector should not be viewed as a negative quality of the ejector, and otherwise would be a violation of the law of conservation of energy, due to the lack of ejector parts, allowing you to select the mechanical energy, which inevitably is converted into heat.Of the ejector 1 steam gas enters the heat and mass transfer column 7, which consistently gives its heat three heat exchangers 9 heat and mass transfer type three paths of water through direct contact of the gas rising from the bottom up and the streams of water falling down from the sprinklers 10. The cooled air with the moisture content, dozens of times less is fed through line 6 to the turbine 3, which, extending, converts its internal energy into mechanical work, which is used to drive highway 27 in refrigerator 26, where partially prefers cold food stored in it, and the next, or is thrown out on the street during the heating season or hot season, served in air-conditioned premises, pre-podagricus and full of moisture in the heat exchanger 20 and at the same time giving the cold water that is already in the heat exchanger 9 by supplying it to the spray pump 10 17 finally cools the air before supplying it to the turbine 3. Similarly heated in another heat exchanger 20 due to the heat gained by the water in the second heat exchanger 9, the air supplied to the input of the ejector 1, so that at a constant pressure ratio to obtain most of the required temperature of the gas after the ejector 1, and hence the water supplied to the hot-water radiator 15, increasing its thermal capacity.Control of thermal capacity of the power unit and the degree of heat recovery at the entrance to the ejector 1, and cold to the input air-conditioned building is carried out by means of the valves 16, transforming water flow in closed circuits of the intermediate carrier, and handle control valve 38.In the heating season when the deficit of thermal energy when entering e the hot gases from the chimney of the furnace of a steam boiler, increasing this to 1 ratio using the heat of combustion of the fuel, particularly when filled with water bath or using the shower, especially because in this case the quality coming into the room air will not be worsened for the reason that before the gas will begin to heat the water, which will heat the incoming air in a ventilated room, he will be cleansed from impurities 3 streams of water, other heat exchangers, and then nothing will be terrible, if at the time of filling the bath or shower any family member, the ventilation is turned off, all the more so in this case, the power generation will increase, and the production of cold will decrease somewhat on the turbine 3, because of increasing air temperature on the entrance.Due to the fact that much heat is spent for evaporation of water, the same amount you can get back to transfer generated by the auxiliary power unit of heat is a major consumer-air indoors, you can use the principle of "heat pipe" and realize no water, and no less effective vacuum steam heating system, when the inkjet ejector 23 when you open the valve 33 in radiato the f the Gladiator 31, condensed into him, giving heat to the condensation water to the air in the room. Vacuum steam heating system is valuable because as a working body in it (to fill the tank 29 may be selected marine water, milk or vodka, resulting incidentally without any expenditure of energy in it we can charge fresh water and foods such as brine of sea salt, cream and alcohol, merging them through valves 32 after the process of separating these two components of the above solutions, sea water, milk and vodka (Braga).For lovers of pure chilled distilled water provided the tank 30, and from the tank 29 can be heated drain water before you install it on a plate, which contributes to the saving of thermal energy when preparing to write.The calculations show that 1 kW of available heat energy of combustion of any fuels household power unit can provide at the same time:
- production of mechanical or electrical energy in an amount up to 0,04 kW,
- the production of thermal energy for space heating or heating water for domestic purposes in an amount up to 1,12 kW at full utilization of previously unused emitted through the exhaust heat vykhlopnykh air in a well ventilated area,
- cold production for refrigerator and air-conditioning of premises in the hottest time of the year up to 0,04 kW,
- the use of thermal power up to 1.8 kW with two heat transfer for passing without any expenditure of thermal energy intended for heating), the implementation of such earlier energy-intensive technologies, as drying various grocery division of various solutions on their components by sublimation, for example, desalination of sea water, which is equivalent to receipt in the amount of up to 3.0 kW of various types of energy,
- regulation in a wide range of required thermal capacity depending on changes in weather conditions at the time of the year, preserving the maximum possible coefficient of thermotransformations.The above design characteristics and relative ease of manufacture of the power unit when the lack of scarce and expensive materials, as well as its attractiveness for factory in the sense that it is not necessary to provide a network of repair shops, and to the buyer that he can always fix it despite the fact that this power unit replaces multiple needs of any family of existing power units, expensive and nekogerentnogo on the world market in our time - the high cost of all types of energy that it produces at a record low cost. 1. The method of energy conversion, which consists in the fact that the liquid, such as water, steam boiler evaporated disposable high-grade heat, for example, the heat of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, concentrated by mirrors sunlight or stoves, feed steam in the steam-jet ejector, where the steam increases the pressure of the refrigerant when it is mixed with steam from a mixture of vapor refrigerant drawing heat of condensation of steam for industrial and household use, steam condensate into the steam boiler, and the pressure of the refrigerant is reduced and submit it to the fridge, where down to it cooled heat working fluids and, in the particular case, is recycled to the input of steam jet ejector, wherein a refrigerant choose non-condensable gas, such as air, whose pressure is reduced in the expansion turbine, the mechanical work which give the consumer of mechanical energy.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that a steam boiler offers solutions that are pre-heated in heat exchangers using countercurrent condensed by heat transfer through the study in this heat.3. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the air intake for steam jet ejector carried out from the source of substandard for breathing, but Teploenergetika air, for example, on the kitchen stove or simply from residential areas, the discharge of air from the refrigerator to the street, heat the mixture of steam with air after the steam jet ejector is passed sequentially to the system heating and fresh air coming into the ventilated room during the heating season, while in the hot season the air after the refrigerator is served in air-conditioned premises, and at the entrance to the steam jet ejector is already on the street, and the warmth of the gas after the steam jet ejector is used, for example, to heat water for domestic and industrial purposes and heated air entering the air-conditioned room is already out of the fridge.4. The method according to PP.1 to 3, characterized in that the water, air or steam gas - private consumers and suppliers of heat transfer heat and mass to each other in massoteploobmen device method current when water moves from top to bottom, and the air or gas from the bottom up.5. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that the heat of the gas after the steam jet ejector sequentially PE is the temperature, for example, a water heating system, the heat recovery system at the entrance to the steam jet ejector and the heating system is supplied in a heated or air-conditioned space air, which replaces the already substandard air supplied to the entrance of the steam jet ejector.6. The method according to PP.1 to 5, characterized in that thermal capacity of each of the consumers of heat and moisture in the room air regulating switching of the water flow in the corresponding circuit, including through complete or partial closure of this circuit, for example, regenerative via another consumer of hot water, in particular, shower or bath, when using that power heating systems, in particular, do not reduce, which at this time include the stove and, in particular, combine cooking and fill with hot water, for example, of a bath.7. Household power unit, consisting of a steam boiler, the output of which is connected with the nozzle of the steam jet ejector, a diffuser, which is connected to the cavity by a cooled environment of the capacitor, the output of which through the condensation pump is associated with the consumer condensate, in particular, a steam boiler and through the pressure reducer with the cavity in the mechanically associated with the consumer of mechanical energy, for example, an electric generator, and the input of the compressible working fluid steam jet ejector in communication with the atmosphere.8. Power center under item 7, characterized in that the entrance to a steam boiler connected with a source of partial fractions solution through the condensation pump and cavity heated environments exchangers counterflow type, cavity cooled by Wednesday which one of them its input connected with the cavity in a cooled environment of the capacitor, and the output is with the consumer evaporated fraction of the solution, and the other of its input from discharge from a steam boiler, and the output is with the consumer neizprotamas fraction of a solution in a steam boiler.9. The power unit is on PP.7 and 8, characterized in that in the heating season, the entrance compressible working fluid steam jet ejector is connected with the source already substandard for breathing, but Teploenergetika air, for example, on the kitchen stove or simply with a ventilated location, and the output from the fridge - street, at that time, as in the hot season entrance compressible working fluid steam jet ejector in communication with the street, and the output from the refrigerator - room, and the entrance and exit of the heated environment (Wednesday) a capacitor connected with the input and output water si is pikelny season and out of the heated environment of the refrigerator and put in the hot season.10. The power unit is on PP.7 to 9, characterized in that the cavity is cooled by the medium of the condenser-heat exchanger has an additional cavity, the entrance of which is communicated with the collection of condensate water, and exit via the regulating valve, water pump and a water sprayer mounted in the upper part of the main cavity at its output, at the same time as the collection of condensate water is additionally connected through the make-up float valve with a source of water in the lower part at the entrance.11. The power unit is on PP.7 to 10, characterized in that the cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger is connected through common additional cavity with a cavity in a cooled environment of the heat exchanger, and the spray cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger at its exit connected with collection of condensate water cavity in a cooled environment, and the water spray device cavity in a cooled environment of the heat exchanger is connected through the pump and regulating valve with a collection of condensate water at the entrance to the cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger.12. The power unit is on PP.7 to 11, characterized in that it has several series installed heat exchangers to transfer heat to different consumers, for example, water of adorava and ovladeniya supplied in heated or air-conditioned room air.13. The power unit is on PP.7 to 12, characterized in that the collection of condensate water heat exchanger inlet highways without faucet and pump have final float controls the water level in the collection of condensate.14. The power unit is on PP.7 to 13, characterized in that at the output of the heater outside air mixing type installed air heater surface type, for example, a hot-water radiator or elektroobogrevatel, in particular, based on the application of voltaic arc.15. The power unit is on PP.7 to 14, characterized in that on the logon recharge water sub filter is installed, for example, type "Rosinka" connected, including, and hot water tank equipped with a drain valve and is made in the form of a cooling jacket walls of the cavity in a cooled environment of the heat exchanger type.16. The power unit is on PP.7 to 15, characterized in that the filter is connected to, including, and with a tank for cold water, equipped with a discharge valve and is made in the form of a cooling jacket walls of the cavity in the heated environment of the heat exchanger of the type intended for heating air supplied into the room from the street or from the turbine was the rez hot water tank and advanced through the valve to the input of a low-pressure jet pump, installed in the line connecting the collection of water and spray, located respectively in the cavities in a cooled or heated environments of heat and mass transfer heat exchanger.18. The power unit is on PP.7 to 17, characterized in that the radiators have drain valves for condensate and connected to the upper part of the hot water tank and its upper part to the input of a low-pressure jet pump-vacuumless.19. The power unit is on PP.7 to 18, characterized in that on the upper horizontal surface of a steam boiler in the body of a steam boiler or its insulation made of deepening on the size of the utensils for cooking, after the removal of which they are covered with insulation.
FIELD: combined cooling and refrigeration systems.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises expanding air in the turbine up to a low temperature, heating air in the first heat exchanger with utilized heat, compressing air to the initial pressure in the compressor, withdrawing heat in the second feeding heat exchanger, and supplying compressed dry air to the receiver where the air is heated.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
FIELD: air-conditioning and plenum-exhaust ventilation systems.
SUBSTANCE: proposed air-conditioning unit has three-section housing consisting of two peripheral sections and one central section located between them; it has two opposing suction ports for delivery of air to sections; each peripheral section has one delivery port for connection with respective fan and evacuation of air from peripheral sections where compressor and condenser are located; air-conditioning unit is also provided with evaporator of refrigerating machine and shut-off valve connected with central section and located between pair of ports; valve is made in form of plate and is used for control of air flow; this plate is mounted in central section between opposing suction ports; it is turnable relative to central section for disconnection of opposing suction ports and peripheral sections; each peripheral section is connected with respective opposing suction port, thus admitting the air to peripheral sections.
EFFECT: enhanced energy efficiency and operational reliability; facilitated procedure of assembly.
24 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: pipe-line systems.
SUBSTANCE: heater for fluid has housings of hydrodynamic converters which are made of diverging members at the ends of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the members is concave and is mating to the surface which is defined by the rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. Each face of the vortex pipe is provided with the flow generator which is mounted with a space relation to it. The flow generator is made of a disk whose symmetry axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The space between the face of the vortex pipe and the surface of the flow generator, which faces it, receives at least four flow deflectors. Each flow deflector is made of a plate whose surface is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the adjusting chambers is concave and mating to the surface which is defined by rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency .
3 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: heating and cooling systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heating of buildings and cooling of refrigerating chambers using high-pressure gases, for instance, natural gas. Proposed system contains vortex tube installed on gas main line after preliminary gas preparation plant, heating system and hot-water supply system with heating devices, heat exchanger and pump, and also cold supply system with coil in refrigerating chamber and pump. All components of systems are coupled by straight and back pipelines. Coils interconnected by jumper pipe are arranged from outer of vortex chamber and heated gas outlet pipeline of vortex tube. Segments displaced relative to each other through one turn of coil mounted on said segments are arranged on inner surface of pipeline of heated gas outlet at opposite sides. Coil is connected with outer coils and straight pipeline of heating and hot-water supply systems provided with controller connected electrically by impulse lines with inner and outer air temperature sensors and actuating mechanism rigidly coupled through shaft with control element installed at outlet of heated gas of vortex tube. Coil placed inside cooled gas outlet branch pipe communicates hydraulically with pump and, through straight pipe line, with coil of refrigerating chamber.
EFFECT: improved environment protection.
FIELD: energy conversion into heat by liquid parameter change, particularly to obtain heat used in raw hydrocarbon gathering, preparation and refining, in chemistry and oil chemistry, to heat hydrogen-containing liquid polluted with mechanical injuries, salt and gels.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating vortex flow of cavitating liquid by utilizing liquid pressure and providing following linear liquid flow; providing cavitating liquid flow rotation at speed which provides creation of central and peripheral areas in which positive and negative ions of dissociated liquid molecules are accumulated during cavitation thereof. The negative ions are gathered in peripheral area under the action of centrifugal force. Positive ions having lesser mass are accumulated in central area of liquid flow. This results in obtaining potential difference between central and peripheral areas of liquid flow.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of liquid flow energy conversion into heat along with electric power obtaining.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: engineering of steam compression systems and heat exchangers.
SUBSTANCE: reversible steam compression system has compressor, internal heat exchanger, expanding device and external heat exchanger, connected by pipelines in working connection for forming of a single system. Internal and external heat exchangers are mounted in main contour. Compressor and expanding device are mounted in sub-contours, connected to main contour by means of flow switch devices for making it possible to switch system from cooling mode to heating mode. Reversible heat exchanger for liquid coolant, in particular, for carbon dioxide, in steam compression system contains several mutually interconnected sections, made with possible serial passage of air through them, having coolant contour, and is connected to mutually connected first and second sections. Flow of liquid coolant is witched from heating mode to cooling mode by means of flow switching devices, mounted in appropriate sections.
EFFECT: improved efficiency.
2 cl, 46 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed device is designed for converting kinetic energy of water flow into and thermal energy. Proposed station contains dam, conduit system, hydraulic turbines and electric generators. It includes at least one swirl heat generator whose injection branch pipe is furnished with water pressure transmitter and is connected with conduit system through adapter provided with water pressure regulator made, for instance, in form of shutter whose drive is connected with water pressure transmitter.
EFFECT: possibility of generation heat energy for consumers in addition to electric energy.
FIELD: heat engineering, in particular, used gas heat utilizing equipment.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has heat carrier circulation contour comprising contact economizer with used drying agent inlet branch pipe and cooled used drying agent outlet branch pipe, heat pump comprising compressor, condenser, throttle and evaporator connected to circulation contour upstream of contact economizer. Tubular heat-exchanger is positioned upstream of contact economizer. Influx air is heated in tubular heat-exchanger and is then supplied into convective drier.
EFFECT: increased economy of used drying agent heat utilizing apparatus owing to reduced consumption of power for driving of heat pump compressor and more complete utilization of used drying agent heat owing to preliminary cooling of drying agent to saturation state.
FIELD: methods for exposure to the flow of liquid medium, applicable in hydrodynamics, mainly in heat-exchange and mass-transfer apparatuses.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in formation of the primary flow of fluid working medium, formation is accomplished outside the space region of the heat generator, a translational motion is imparted to the primary flow, an external disturbance is applied to the flow of fluid working medium inside the space of the heat generator, the secondary flows of fluid working medium are formed, and the flow of fluid working medium is removed in the direction of the outflow, the primary flow is formed in a pipe-line, whose diameter equals the diameter of the inlet pipe connection of the heat generator and is within 50 to 120 mm, the flow has characteristics of a laminar rectilinear flow, a rotary-translational motion is imparted to it at a rate provided by the pressure in the pipe-line within 3 to 140 atm. The device for liberation of energy has a vortex tube, hydrodynamic converters of liquid medium motion made in the form of cones at the ends of the vortex tube, a flow shaper whose axis of symmetry is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, and a flow dissector made in the form of a plate whose surface is parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vortex tube, the vortex tube is made with helical ducts on the inner wall of the cylindrical part of an elastic laminated plastic and is provided with a metal casing enveloping with a clearance the outer surface of the vortex tube.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: cooling-heating devices.
SUBSTANCE: the method consists in acceleration of gas to the supersonic speed in a contoured nozzle, delivery of it to a tube and extraction of cold from the tube outer surface. The gas is subjected to overspeeding on spiral guides located inside the tube, then cold is extracted from the tube outer surface and then heat is extracted from the stagnant flow at the tube outlet. The cooling-heating device has a tube made of a heat-conducting material, and a contoured nozzle. A spindle-shaped insert is positioned in the tube axis, spiral guides are located on the insert surface.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg