(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the construction, in particular to structural building elements that allows a masonry wall, providing rigid fixation blocks and seismic stability. The purpose of the invention is the improvement of efficiency in the erection and dismantling of walls and seismic stability of constructions. The body of the building block is made of at least one monolithic cubic module, center stretcher bond faces of which are made through a threaded hole aligned with the pin, the length of which corresponds to the height of the block. 12 Il. The invention relates to the construction, in particular to structural building elements that allows a masonry wall, while providing rigid fixation blocks and other structural members in the wall, providing seismic resistance of buildings and their dismantling, creates prerequisites for the development of prefabricated housing.Known invention called "the Wall" on which the wall is built of hollow blocks on the liners without mortar. The blocks contain a vertical through hole is see auth. St. USSR 1472605).The disadvantages of the selected analogue is that the cone liners, first, do not provide rigid fixing units to each other as the blocks are laid one on another through inserted into the holes of the blocks, liners, secondly, the liners are made in the form of truncated cones of different diameters on opposite sides, and the blocks have tapered holes interleaved on bedding surfaces smaller and larger diameters of the cones that require time spent on orientation when laying blocks on different diameters of the inserts, which slows down and complicates the work.Known building block containing the middle element in the shape of a cube and two extreme element having the shape of a parallelepiped with internal hemispherical cavity in the center of each side of the middle element and addressed to him the faces of the elements. Connection connection block elements made from melted in cavities on the adjacent faces of the elements of the balls through the Central channel and an elastic flexible shaft passing through the horizontal channels of all elements and balls and the ends secured to the end faces extreme elements (see ed. St. USSR N 1795027)attachment. At the same time, similar to contains element in the shape of a cube, fulfilling the role of a building block.The disadvantages of analogue should include the fact that the bedding surface of the cubic part of the block have shaped protrusions and recesses, and a hemispherical holes are in the side faces of the block.Closest to the proposed technical solution under the name "the Wall" by ed. St. USSR 1472605, which is the prototype. The disadvantages of the prototype is that bilateral cone liner has cones of different diameters, as tapered holes in the blocks, which requires a voltage of attention at the wall. The liners do not create a rigid wall blocks, it does not provide seismic stability of the erected structure.The purpose of the invention is the improvement of efficiency in the erection and dismantling of bearing structures and ensuring their seismic resistance.This goal is achieved by the fact that the building block is made of at least one solid polyhedron in the shape of a cube forming unit, the dimensions of which are at the basis of the calculations of the dimensions of the building as a whole and its elements separately. The surface of all sides of kubie each cubic unit, role of the lower and upper beds are made through screw holes, coupled with helical hairpin-forming screw pair, when this thread in a through hole can be performed either in the body of the block, and fixtures. From a single cubic modules and entire modules halves obtained diagonal clipping 1/2 module, at least two-module unit, by means of their solid connection blocks can consist of a series of whole and entire blocks with halves, providing strength in compression, tension and bending.Comparative analysis of the prototype allows us to conclude that the claimed technical solution is characterized by the fact that the block contains at least one monolithic cubic module, and the total length of the multimodule unit must always be a multiple of the size of the selected module and the structural strength of the material from which the block is made, taking into account the possible use of reinforcement for long items: console, role poles for Bay Windows, balconies, beams and lintels for Windows, doors and other openings in walls erected, with the fastening elements in the form of rods are made of materials with soulami, jumpers and so on), providing the stability and integrity of the structures under the influence of the fluctuations of any directions.In Fig. 1 shows the view from the facade, a fragment of arched masonry walls of the modular units with screw fasteners, where the numbers denote: 1 - cubic single module unit, 2 - polutoratonny block (cut diagonally), 3 - 2,5 modular unit, 4 - 8 modular jumper 5 is indicated by the dotted line is the centerline of the screw fasteners, 6 - (dotted line) are indicated notional boundary modules.In Fig. 2 is a side view, shows a fragment of the balcony console, where 1 is the wall of two units, 2 - 5,5 - modular console balcony, 3 - axis line of the screw fasteners (dashed), 4 - conventional boundary between the unit modules (dotted line).In Fig. 3 - elevation views, depicts a fragment of masonry window and door openings, where 1 is the wall of the two modular units, 2 - 8 modular jumper, a 3 - axis line of the screw fasteners (dashed), 4-conventional boundary between the unit modules (dotted line).In Fig. 4 is a side view, shows a fragment of cornice, where 1 - 2,5 modular unit, 2 three - module unit, 3 - 3,5 modular unit, 4 - axis Lin is Fig. 5 - plan depicts (a) a wall of two units, where 1 - blocks, 2 - screw pair of the fastening element, 3 - end-to-end thermal holes, (b) wall 2 of 3 modular units, where 1 - blocks, 2 - screw pair of fasteners, 3 - thermal through hole.In Fig. 6 is a side view, shows the hairpin, where 1 is the head of the stud under the Allen wrench, you can replace the slot (groove, the groove for the screwdriver), 3 - thread.The pin can be made from rods and tubes. The length of the studs for the full block is the height of the block for half of part 0.5 of the height.In Fig. 7 - in plan (item a) depicts a fragment of a column of two blocks, where 1 - blocks, 2 - screw pair of the fastening element, 3 - notional boundary between the unit modules (dotted line); (position "b") in the plan fragment cruciform columns of three modular units, where 1 is a three-module blocks, 2 - screw pair of the fastening element; (position "b") in terms of the octagonal column of a three-module and pyramidal blocks, where 1 is a three-module unit, 2 - pyramidal block, 3 screw fasteners, 4 - conditional border between modules and volumouse (dotted line).In Fig. 8 - in square is ordci of the two-module unit, 3 - screw pair of the fastener, 4 - bend the walls of the three-module unit.In Fig. 9, a side view depicts a fragment of masonry porch or stairway, where 1 is the modular units together, 2 - centerline screw fasteners (dashed), 3 - stub screw holes.In Fig. 10 is a side view, shows a fragment of the "small architecture" - benches laid out in the shape of a silhouette of an animal, where 1 - cubic single module unit, 2 - axis line screw fasteners, 3 - estimula jumper, 4 - plug the screw holes.In Fig. 11 is a top view, shows a fragment of masonry spiral stairs of a three-module blocks, where 1 is a three-module unit, 2 - screw pair of the fastening element.In Fig. 12 is a side view, shows the stub of the screw holes for the top and the last rows of blocks.The Assembly of the blocks in the wall, and also bases of the cantilever elements, lintels and beams over openings in walls, other items is as follows: Foundation blocks made according to the modular principle, taking into account the modular grid of blocks (the distance between the axes of the holes are threaded into the prepared trench, fit into spare 5 in them, factory fabricated on precision equipment, ensure the compatibility of the screw holes, as it is based on a modular principle, square face. Hairpin (Fig. 6) is twisted from the top of the block in the lower half of its length. When laying the first row of half the length unscrewed from the holes of the pins will go in the ground, these series provide any type of ligament and spiral coupler upper blocks with the lower studs twist to lock in below) due to the high accuracy of the location of the screw holes on the blocks and the correctness of their form. The unit is delivered to the construction site with the pins in each hole. After laying the next row of modular units in a bunch of their opening match, which allows you to fasten them with pins, voracova them using power tools on half of their length until it stops at below, starting from the first row of Foundation to the last row of the wall. This allows you to build structures in an industrial way and collect the item at the construction site for Assembly drawings.Blocks consisting of one cubic module, used typically for masonry structures small architectecture grip blocks together, the seismic stability of walls when shifts in either direction, due to minimal roughness of all faces shall not apply binder solutions and formulations, which creates prerequisites for reducing the complexity when performing finishing interior and exterior use as decorative surface modular units can be performed in the factory.To denote the cubic module in the block on the side (stretcher bond) faces may be risks or colored linear strips that creates a simulation of the masonry walls of the cube-shaped blocks. Door, window and other openings in the walls are proportionate and are multiples of the size of the selected unit, the range of sizes which can be equal for different climatic zones and destinations structures. In modules over the openings (Fig. 1,3) screw holes are not made.The basis of the proposed solution is the unit consisting of at least one cubic module. The number of modules in the block can be great with regard to feasibility, structural strength of the material used, easy installation and purpose of masonry modular units can be produced, as a minimum, floor 7(C), 10. In the cut on the diagonal parts of the block length stud length is 0.5 normal studs.The description uses the terms "module" and "grid", which is a block dimensions in millimeters and the distance between the centerlines of the screw holes, which are taken when calculating the dimensions of the building, and taking into account the climatic conditions of the area selected for the erection of the building.Technical solution allows to organize the industry collapsible quickly erected the building in all climatic and seismic conditions. Material for the manufacture of modular units can serve as wood blocks, plastic masses, a variety of polymer concertagenda materials, ceramics, wood-shaving-fibrous materials, construction mineral composites and various waste: paper, plant materials such as straw, chaff, crushed and pressed stems of plants, and also on the basis of concrete and other materials. Depending on the purpose of the building and the requirements for supporting structures screw pair - pin and tube with internal thread, if the thread is not in the body of the block may be made of metal/P> Building block in the shape of a polyhedron with a hole, paired with the fastening element, characterized in that it is made with a length that is a multiple of the length of the at least one modular unit having the shape of a cube with a through screw hole located at the center of the bottom and top sides, and the fastening element made in the form of rods with a length equal to the height of the cube, with the possibility of svorachivaniya using the hand tool.
SUBSTANCE: decorative lattice comprises two layers of identical rings or sheet metal with identical diameters of holes. The specified layers are laid onto each other with any arbitrary placement of centres of rings or holes and any arbitrary angular displacement.
EFFECT: increased bending strength.
SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.
EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.
13 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building structure consisting of blocks relates to construction industry and can be used for erection of buildings and structures. A building structure is made of rectangular blocks with projections and corresponding grooves on working surfaces; with that, the building structure includes two types of blocks that are different as to manufacturing material, one of which is made from corrosion resistant metal, and the other one from heavy expanded-clay concrete. The building structure is made of blocks laid in rows as per a "projection-groove" principle; with that, the base is made of blocks from corrosion resistant metal and fixed on a foundation; then, rows of blocks are laid, which are made from expanded-clay concrete. Erection of the structure ends with a row of blocks from corrosion resistant metal. Besides, its erection method is described.
EFFECT: improving stability, strength and seismic resistant of a structure.
3 cl, 33 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction materials industry, particularly to making concrete wall panels or blocks. Wall panel comprises interconnected bearing layer on the basis of light concrete and heat-insulating layer of porous material. Connection of layers is made in the form of a plastic plate dowels with cutouts at their ends provided with transverse armature rods of composite material. Each rod is arranged approximately in the middle part of dowel section. Head of each dowel is located on the outer side of heat-insulating layer. Transverse armature rod extends beyond dowel body on both sides at approximately 4÷5 of its diameter perpendicular to dowel axis and is located inside the bearing layer at the distance of 1/4÷2/3 of its thickness from upper surface of heat-insulating layer. Crude mixture for making the base layer of wall panel contains following components, wt%: hemihydrate gypsum 62-72, portland cement 18-25, pulp and paper industry waste (scope) (in terms of dry substance) 0.5-12, technical lignosulfonates (in terms of dry substance) 0.15-1.5, soda ash 0.05-0.2, quartz sand - the rest up to 100 %, with water - cement ratio of 2.7-3.5. Method of wall panel making includes laying and attachment of heat-insulating and bearing layers. First, on the horizontal surface of the shape heat-insulating material is placed stitched with plastic dowels with cutouts at their ends. Dowels are installed in the direction to the upper side with end of dowel output by value equal to approximately 3/4 of thickness of bearing layer, in an amount of no less than 5 PCs per 1.0 m2 of horizontal area of heat-insulating layer. Then approximately in the middle of each dowel section armature rod of composite material is inserted perpendicular to its axis, and raw material mixture is poured upon heat-insulating material.
EFFECT: technical result consists in speeding of process of wall panel production, increasing reliability of its heat-insulating and bearing layers and reducing power consumption during production.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wall panel consists of two elements: a panel-frame consisting of a crossbar and racks, made of heavy concrete, including reinforcing articles and parts, and an element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane. Wherein the element for filling the space in the panel-frame plane is represented by a liner made of light or cellular concrete with retainers on the surfaces connected to the panel-frame. A method for manufacturing the wall panel is also described.
EFFECT: reductiing the weight and material intensity of load-bearing and self-supporting wall panels, reducing the labour intensity of the wall panel manufacturing, increasing the industriality of construction and increasing the strength of the contact seams between the composite elements of the wall panel.
7 cl, 9 dwg