The way to determine the aggregate stability of oil-water emulsions
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the field treatment of oil, specifically to dehydration and desalting of oil in the oil fields and refineries. The invention consists in that before and after the introduction of demulsifier measure kinematic viscosity at the same temperature with subsequent determination of aggregate stability by the formula AU=C1-2)/1100, where AU-aggregate stability, %;1- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion before adding the demulsifier, 2- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion after the addition of demulsifier, C - constant. table 2., 8 Il. The invention relates to the preparation of the oil, specifically to dehydration and desalting of oil in the oil fields and refineries, and can be used to assess the efficiency of the dehydration process oil.The known method of determining water content in petroleum and petroleum products determination of the results of the analysis of aggregate stability of oil-water emulsions .The disadvantage of this method is the complexity and duration of the process of separation.Known the negative resistance of oil-water emulsions .However, this method of determining time-consuming and determination of aggregate stability associated with large errors and duration.Spectral method for the determination of water content in crude oil and petroleum products with subsequent determination of aggregate stability of oil-water emulsions .However, this method is time consuming, requires sophisticated equipment, skilled care and is associated with the duration of the assessment of aggregate stability.There is a method of assessing aggregate stability by changing the conductivity of oil-water emulsions .However, this method is not applicable in an industrial environment, and is suitable only for scientific and laboratory research.Known method (prototype) developed Vniisptneft, which is to determine the volume of water released from the emulsion after the addition of demulsifier .According to this method aggregate stability is analyzed as follows: after sampling the latest asserted by 30 minutes the Pooled oil in the amount of 10 cm3centrifuged 30 minutes the amount of water Released B1expressed in percent by volume of the sample (10 cmcentrifugeuse within 15 minutes The newly measured amount of water B2in %, and the value of aggregate stability is expressed in the form
< / BR>where AY - aggregate stability, %;
B1the amount of separated water after the first centrifugation, cm3;
B2the amount of separated water after the second centrifugation, cm3.The analysis results from the laboratory are transferred to Providence.The main disadvantage of this method of analysis is its duration and the inability to assess the validity of the emulsifier in emulgirovanija.The purpose of the invention is the rapid determination of aggregate stability and efficiency of dewatering a water-oil emulsion.The invention consists in that before and after the chemical injection measure kinematic viscosity at the same temperature with subsequent determination of aggregate stability by the formula
< / BR>where AY - aggregate stability, %;
1- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion before adding the demulsifier, mm2;
2- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion after the addition of demulsifier, mm2;
C is a constant.When the dispersion of two immiscible liquids are formed oil-water emulsion. All of the emulsion system is thermodynamically unstable, and they seek to stratification. Stability of oil-water emulsions appreciate the aggregative stability.Aggregate stability of oil-water emulsions is the ability of the globules of the dispersed phase when they collide with each other or with phase boundary to maintain its original size. The mechanism of formation of aggregately stable oil emulsions, the issues of stabilization and destruction vodone the main stability of the emulsion system, made with two clean, immiscible liquids, it is necessary the presence of a third stabilizing component.The essence of the process of preparation of an emulsion for stratification is to minimize its resistance to a specified level. For intensification of the process of destruction of oil-water dispersed systems in emulsion injected demulsifier. Adding reagent - demulsifier in oil emulsion gives an opportunity to break a solid gel-like layers of natural stabilizers oil emulsions (asphaltenes, resins, insoluble organic acids, solids and others) included in the protective shells of globules of water, and promotes the transfer of particles of natural stabilizers with the phase boundaries in the volume of the aqueous phase.Consumption of demolatorul should be sufficient to ensure maximum efficiency of the dehydration process oil. The effectiveness of demulsifiers to reduce aggregate stability of oil-water emulsions is measured in different ways.For implementing the method of the analysis of the aggregate stability of the emulsion was carried out more than 100 laboratory experiments, the result of which was naide the more the viscosity, the less amount of sludge and, on the contrary, when the quantity of sludge water the viscosity of the emulsion is reduced. An indispensable condition of the experiment is determined at the same temperature. On the basis of experimental calculations on a computer was obtained ratio
< / BR>According to the experimental data was performed correlation analysis on the computer. Which was confirmed by a strong correlation between the viscosity and the amount of sludge: the correlation coefficient Kk, , = -0,85 , and the resulting regression equation is the dependence between the two parameters and sludge emulsion.As the source data for this example was used viscosity and sludge emulsion with fixed values of demulsifier (20 g/m3and sludge (60 min). For a known group of oil time sludge is chosen so as to exclude the influence of dynamics on the amount of sludge.According to the results of the calculated and experimental data was constructed system of analysis of aggregate stability of the emulsion is shown in the block diagram (Fig. 1).Structural scheme consists of a tank sedimentation tank (1) with sensor-transmitter (2), two viscosimetrically mechanisms (6) and the device control and information processing (7) piping (8).Analyzing system aggregate stability in dependence on the viscosity of the emulsion is as follows.Oil-water emulsion through the actuator (6) is supplied to fill in the settling tank (1), where the fluid level is limited by the sensor-transmitter (2). To achieve the optimal level of filling of the flow of oil-water emulsion is terminated. After that, the liquid flows through the actuator (6) and a viscometer (3) in a mixing tank (5), where both containers microdonation (2) enters the demulsifier. In the mixer there is a mixture of a water-oil emulsion with a demulsifying agent, and then settling over time, allowing to eliminate the influence of dynamics on the amount of sludge (in the example, 60 min). At the same time, through the actuator (6) in the settling tank (1) is a new stream of oil and water emulsion and at the same time after mixing tank (5) via the actuator (6) and a viscometer (3) leaves dehydrated oil pipeline network (8).Thus, there is an assessment of aggregate stability (AU) oil-water emulsion from a thread on the measurement of the viscosity of the oil before and after adding TE at the table. 1 and 2,
< / BR>where Bsweatpotential water content after adding 100 g of TE per ton of crude oil, %;
Bi- the amount of water separated after the first centrifugation, or the current selection of water after the appropriate (less than 100 g/t) add TE, %;
< / BR>where ewithnormalized static efficiency;
< / BR>where ednormalized differential efficiency;
< / BR>< / BR>where is the relative viscosity.On the basis of the calculation by formulas (4) and (8) the dependences (see Fig. 2-8).Analysis of the obtained dependences shows that between AU and normalized edand the relative change of kinematic viscosity, there is a close correlation, which suggests an indirect indicator of oil quality and effectiveness of edrecommend to use in the fields of the relative change of kinematic viscosity.The results of the studies above show that the relative change of viscosity of crude oil by adding TE characterizes the degree of preparedness of oil and effectiveness of TE. The level of viscosity, ease of measurement and high automation..Thus, the method of determining aggregate stability of oil-water emulsion allows Express to determine aggregate stability and effectively dehydrating water-oil emulsion. This technical solution are not described in literature, which allows to recognize the claimed method meets the criterion of "significant differences".The feasibility of the method in the preparation of the oil meets the criterion of "significant differences".Bibliography
1. GOST 2477-65. Method for the determination of water content in oil and oil products.2. Belyakov C. L. automation field treatment of oil and water. -M.: Nedra, 1988, S. 232.3. Nelson M. P., Kucherov, Y. M., Janowski C. Y. Spectral analysis methods. - Publishing house VNIIEM, 1977.4. Pribus A., Determination of aggregate stability of the emulsions according to the rate of coalescence of the droplets of electrolyte in the organic medium //Tiora. fundamentals of chem. engineer., 1990, 24 so.- N 6.-S. 827-832.5. Verevkin, A. P. and others to evaluate the efficiency and optimize the use of demulsifiers at field treatment of oil. // EI Ser.: Technique and technology of oil and petroleum deposits. -M.: VNIIEM, Vol. 4, ie of demulsifier, sucks emulsion for a certain period of time, characterized in that before and after the introduction of demulsifier measure kinematic viscosity at the same temperature with subsequent determination of aggregate stability by the formula
< / BR>where AU - aggregate stability, %;
1- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion before adding the demulsifier;
2- kinematic viscosity of the emulsion after the addition of demulsifier,
C - constant.
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes measuring in given sequence of appropriate parameters with following calculation of determined characteristics on basis of certain relation. Device for determining characteristics for sublimation of liquid oil products contains sublimation retort with dimensions, allowing to place 5-15 ml of analyzed probe therein, device for heating retort in its lower portion with constant and adjusted heating intensiveness, two inertia-less temperature sensors providing for continuous measurement of true value of temperature of sample in steam couple, device for continuous pressure measurement in stem phase of sample during sublimation, which includes pressure sensor as well as capillary and receiving and signals processing sensors, sent by temperature sensors and pressure sensor.
EFFECT: simplified construction, higher speed of operation.
2 cl, 4 ex, 10 tbl, 5 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas extractive industry.
SUBSTANCE: method for detecting amount of organic acids in oil flows, includes: a) eradiation of sample of said oil flow by infrared radiation; b) determining spectrum of infrared absorption, while given eradiation is performed only in ranges of spectrum with frequencies from 1000 to 1350 sm-1, from 1550 to 2200 sm-1, from 2400 to 2770 sm-1 and from 3420 to 4800 sm-1; and c) finding relation between all said frequencies of said spectrum of infrared absorption, determined at stage b), and content of organic acids in said oil flow with use of linear multidimensional regression analysis. Also provided are method for optimizing mixing of two and more product oil flows, containing organic acids with different total acid value levels and method for optimization of agents admixture, which neutralize organic acids, to product oil flow.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
3 cl, 4 tbl, 14 dwg
FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring density of fuels at a temperature of 20°C or measuring the density of fuels in the temperature range from mines 10°C to plus 30°C in g/cm3 with further determining of the kinematic viscosity from the formulae proposed.
EFFECT: enhanced reliability.
2 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods in petroleum industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical checking of crude oil, petroleum derivatives, and gas condensate quality. 2 to 5g sample is thermostatically controlled at 50-70°C, while simultaneously hydrogen sulfide and light mercaptans are for 2-5 min displaced by inert gas or air into in series arranged absorption solutions, namely sodium carbonate solution for determining hydrogen sulfide and sodium hydroxide solution for determining light mercaptans. After complete withdrawal of hydrogen sulfide and light mercaptans, their quantitative content is determined by means of iodometric titration method.
EFFECT: extended range of analyzed products, increased determination accuracy, shortened analytical procedure, and enabled carrying out analyses not only in stationary laboratory without deviation from standardized procedures.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises valving device mounted between the horizontal first pipeline and second pipeline. The second pipeline whose sections are arranged above the first pipeline is provided with measuring section that is used as a measuring chamber. The first radioactive isotope means is used for measuring the mass of a portion of gas-containing liquid supplied to the chamber and has first unit of radiation source and first unit for detecting radiation arranged at the top and the bottom end of the measuring section, respectively. The axis of the measuring section is vertical or is inclined to the longitudinal axis of the first pipeline. The second radioactive isotope means is used for determining the presence of gas-containing liquid in the measuring section and has second unit of the radiation source, second unit of radiation detecting that are arranged in the top part of the measuring section from two diametrically opposite sides.
EFFECT: simplified design and reduced time of measuring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to analytical chemistry, namely, to method of preparing samples for detecting elements and their isotopes in hydrocarbon, mineral and synthetic, in particular, vacuum oils, oil products and fuels and lubricants. Method of preparing samples for detecting content of uranium isotopes in oils by method of weight-spectrometry with inductively-connected plasma includes selection of oil samples and their decomposition with concentrated acid at high temperatures and pressure. Sample decomposition is carried out till full transparency according to multi-step programme in microwave oven by means of nitric acid in amount not less than 5 cm3 per each sample with weight from 0.4 g to 0.6 g. High frequency radiation power is maximum, pressure within autoclave being within the range from 500 to 1200 kPa, with exposure time on sample from 5 to 15 min at each decomposition stage.
EFFECT: ensuring full decomposition of hydrocarbon oils samples to state of transparency, reduction of sample decomposition time and lowering limits of detecting uranium isotopes in hydrocarbon oils samples.
1 dwg, 1 ex, 3 tbl
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring techniques. Control of oil decomposition is done based on varying the test parametre of working oil relative that of clean oil. The test parametre is calculated using fluorescence intensity of oil, simultaneously measured in three spectral ranges and two operating spectral ranges are used, in which intensity values are greater than in the third. The device has a case in which there is an optical window, and a receiving-transmitting unit, in which are fitted an optical emitter and receiver with a measuring photodetector. The measuring photodetector is a colour sensor, which allows for simultaneous measurement of fluorescence intensity of oil in three spectral ranges.
EFFECT: increased sensitivity and reliability of control.
5 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in the method which involves centrifuging a prepared oil solution and subsequent suspension of the obtained residue, deposition takes place in a thin annular layer of the oil solution which rotates together with a rotor. Centrifugation is done once and decantation of the centrifuge effluent is done automatically when the centrifugal rotor stops. In the device which has a housing, an electric motor with a vertical shaft, the rotor is made in form of a reservoir with a removable cover, in which there are two cavities for putting the analysed oil solution, depositing impurities and decantation of the centrifuge effluent. The rotor also has a removable cylindrical insert made from metal foil for collecting residues which undergoes control weighing. The rotor is driven by the shaft of the electric motor through an overrunning centrifugal clutch which automatically connects them in startup and centrifugation mode and also disconnects when the electric drive is switched off, thereby providing smooth free run-out of the rotor with the filtered centrifuge effluent.
EFFECT: increased accuracy, simplification and faster determination.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of determining colloidal stability of grease is realised from the amount of oil squeezed from the grease, where a cup full of grease with a piston and fitted with an oiled filter together with a set of dry filters is subjected to thermal stabilisation and subsequently held under a load, after which the amount of oil squeezed from the grease into the dry filters is determined. Before thermal stabilisation, a medium boundary is created between the analysed grease and the dry filters by separating them from each other in order to prevent penetration of oil into the dry filters before loading. The amount of oil squeezed from the grease is determined from the displacement of the piston during loading. The invention also discloses a device for realising the said method.
EFFECT: more reliable determination.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method involves sampling and preparation of sample with thermostatting at temperature of 50-70°C with simultaneous extrusion of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans with inert gas or air to in-series located absorbing solutions; at that, as absorbing solution for determining sulphurated hydrogen, there used is sodium carbonate solution, and as absorbing solution for determining light mercaptans there used is sodium hydrate solution, quantitative estimation of sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans by method of iodimetric titration. At that, before mixture of vapours of light hydrocarbons with sulphurated hydrogen and light mercaptans, which is extruded from the sample with air or inert gas, enters in-series located absorbing solutions, it is cooled to the temperature of more than 15°C to 20°C.
EFFECT: improving accuracy and reliability, and speeding-up the analysis.
5 ex, 3 tbl, 1 dwg