The wind turbine
(57) Abstract:Usage: in the wind industry, in particular in the construction metroplanner devices, providing the optimum angle of pivot of the blades relative to the direction of wind flow. The inventive wind turbine comprises a device in the form of a wind turbine with rotating blades, equipped with protection devices against overload and installed on the radial rods, mechanism orientation vetropriemnoe device, the mechanism of the reversal of the blade containing the planetary gear elements of the Maltese mechanism of the reversal of the blades, kinematically rigidly associated with satellites planetary gear through the gear pairs and flexible mechanical transmission. 8 C.p. f-crystals, 5 Il. The invention relates to microtechnique, in particular to designs metroplanner devices, providing the optimum angle of pivot of the blades relative to the direction of wind flow.A known design of a wind turbine with a wind turbine that contains installed on the vertical axis and made with the possibility of rotation of the blade, the mechanism of rotation of the vanes, which is a drive unit type lindros, m is esterni of the propeller blades to install them at the optimal angle to the oncoming wind flow .The known device is characterized by a low coefficient of utilization of wind energy, contains a complex and technologically difficult the design of the mechanism of orientation of the wind turbine and the mechanism of the reversal of the blades.A known design of a wind turbine including a wind wheel as mounted on a vertical shaft frame with blades mounted to rotate in a horizontal plane and kinematically associated with the mechanism of the reversal of the blades and the mechanism of orientation of the wind turbine, representing a vane placed in the middle part of the rotary pipe, connected with the rotation axis wind turbine . Compared with the above similar  this design is less complex and more sophisticated, however, does not provide high utilization of wind energy, especially under low wind loads, it is not enough reliable.The closest technical solution to the present and is selected as a prototype, is a wind turbine with vetropriemnoe device made in the form of a propeller mounted for rotation about a fixed vertical axis and sabiendo the axis and placed at the ends of the radial rods, connecting the propeller hub with the bearings of the shafts, the roller mechanism of the reversal of the blades depending on the angle of rotation of the propeller, the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device relative to the direction of wind flow .Roller mechanism of the reversal of the blades includes installed on brackets, blades, rollers, rolling along the guide grooves of the horizontal turntable. The shape and arrangement of the guide grooves provide the necessary reversal of the blades depending on the angle of rotation of the propeller. Orientation vetropriemnoe device relative to the direction of the wind flow is accomplished by rotation of the platform around the axis of the propeller.This design provides a satisfactory value of the utilization of wind energy, allows you to set the blades of any design. However, this solution is not able to resolve a number of negative features inherent in varying degrees to most of the known constructions metroplanner devices. Among them are:
- smooth setting of the angle of attack of the blades on the large arc of rotation of the propeller due to the necessity of allfinance use of wind energy;
swinging platform in the design of the prototype may not have a diameter less than the diameter of the circle described by the brackets of the blades, which makes it impossible for the solution of the problem of compactness of the device of the wind turbine, reducing its mass and the relief work of the mechanism of orientation;
- design of the prototype includes the need to ensure high rigidity of the radial rods in order to avoid possible jamming of the rollers in the guide grooves;
- the application of the roller mechanism of the reversal of the blades reduces the utilization of wind energy due to unavoidable significant friction roller pair is the guide groove, great weight, according to the turning effort from the slightest misalignment of the parts of the mechanism;
- the design of the wind turbine does not provide protection against breakage of the blades in excess of the permissible wind load, protection from the weather, especially in winter (freezing of ice on the guide chutes).The technical problem faced by the inventor, was the design of a wind turbine, providing high value of utilization of wind energy by optimizing the angle achieving maximum compactness mechanisms and reliability of a wind turbine as a whole. When this task was possible to eliminate the adverse influence of meteorological influences on the mechanisms regardless of the climatic zone of operation in combination with the simplicity and manufacturability of a wind turbine.The technical problem is solved by the proposed construction of a wind turbine, containing vetropriemnoe device made in the form of a propeller mounted for rotation about a fixed vertical axis and provided with blades with planes that are installed on the shafts for rotation around its own vertical axis, placed at the ends of the radial rods connecting the propeller hub with the bearings of the shafts, the mechanism of the reversal of the blades depending on the angle of rotation of the propeller, the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device relative to the direction of wind flow, while each blade is provided with a device for overload protection, the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device contains a weather vane mounted rotatably around the axis of the propeller, and Shoe brake, operated by the vane, and the mechanism of the reversal of the blades are made of Prostranstvennaia equal to the number of blades the number of satellites in the form of a four Maltese Maltese crosses mechanism with external toothing, installed rotatably around a fortified in the hub of the propeller axis and communicating with a Central element made in the form of a crank with two rollers. The crank is installed with the possibility of rotation around the axis of the wind turbine and is connected with the vane through Shoe brake, which locks the position of the Central point in the axis of the propeller. Other nodes that are part of the mechanism of the reversal of the blades are installed on the ends of radial rods gears, each of which is kinematically rigidly connects the shaft of the blade with the corresponding satellite through a pair of gears and a flexible mechanical transmission, which in particular design used cardan transmission.The plane of the blade connected to the shaft via an elastic safety clutch, providing translation plane in a horizontal position in excess of the permissible wind load, which prevents damage to the structural elements of the wind turbine. The use of a flexible coupling allows, moreover, to smoothly change the windage of the blade with increasing wind load over estimated due to the elastic slope of the plane. When otklonenie the slight pressure from the beginning position after the load decreases to a value within a settlement. Critical wind load causes a deflection of the blade at an angle of more than 70oafter which elastic clutch puts the plane in a horizontal position and a fully off state from running.As transmission link mechanism to drive the blade can be used gear or other mechanical transmission, providing the required mutual direction of rotation of the master and the slave link.The proposed construction of the radial stiffness of the rods has no direct effect on the reliability mechanisms vetropriemnoe device that allows you to decrease the cross section of these rods, loosen the requirements for their construction material. Thus, in addition to reliability, improved manufacturability, reduced consumption of materials and cost structure in General. Moreover, reducing the weight of the rotating elements can reduce the inertia vetropriemnoe device, and thus further increase its sensitivity to wind and utilization of wind energy. This is achieved by the proposed design vetropriemnoe device.Total technical result provided izobreteno isolated nodes: planetary gear, located in the hub of the propeller and gear drive mechanisms blades placed at the ends of the radial rods. These sites kinematically rigidly interconnected flexible mechanical transmission. A distinctive feature of the proposed design of the mechanism of the reversal of the blades is used as a Central element of the planetary crank mechanism with two rollers, as well as the presence of a rigid kinematic link each satellite planetary mechanism with a corresponding blade of the propeller, and the satellites are chetyrehskorostnye Maltese crosses mechanism with external toothing. The presence of such features allows you to get the result, expressed in a significant improvement in the health of a wind turbine.In addition, the achievement of total technical result is influenced by the design of the mechanism orientation vetropriemnoe devices, as well as the presence and nature of the relationship of this unit with a Central element of the planetary mechanism and with a fixed axis wind turbine using a managed drum brake: this adjustable connection allows you to easily install vetropriemnoe device in an optimal relative to microporous overload protection allows not only to increase the reliability of the design, but to improve its performance under variable wind load, which in some cases is equivalent to increase the utilization of wind energy.The consequence of applying the above basic techniques is the emergence of opportunities for application of other techniques aimed at achieving additional technical results:
- performance device overload protection in the form of flexible coupling allows you to automatically reduce the windage of the blade when exceeding the calculated wind load by the deflection plane of the blade at an angle of up to 70oself-return plane in a vertical position when the load to the calculated value, thereby increasing the reliability vetropriemnoe device;
- possibility of private enforcement mechanisms propeller allows to increase the reliability, efficiency mechanisms, as well as to expand the scope of the alleged use of a wind turbine in areas with different climatic conditions;
- can compact execution mechanism of the reversal of the blades removes the limit on the number of blades mounted around the circumference of the propeller that allows the Oles to the wind and thereby expand the scope of a wind turbine in areas with constantly low wind load;
- use in a planetary mechanism elements of the Maltese mechanism with external toothing with multi location Maltese crosses (satellites) allows the mechanism to turn the blades more compact, to improve manufacturability of the mechanism of the reversal of the blades, to simplify and reduce the cost of its construction.The invention is illustrated by figures of graphical images that represent: kinematic diagram of the mechanisms of a wind turbine (Fig. 1); the scheme of the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device (Fig. 2); the cross-section of the wind turbine at the location of the drum brake (Fig. 3); a view of the wheel from the top (Fig. 4); the block diagram of the interaction mechanisms of a wind turbine (Fig. 5).The turbine (Fig. 1) contains a fixed vertical hollow shaft 1, which is installed with the possibility of rotation of the hub 2, which is installed in the planetary gear and the gear pairs 3. Planetary gear has a Central element 4 in the form of a crank with two rollers 4 and 6 satellites set to fixed in the hub axis 7. Satellites made in the form of a four Maltese crosses with radial grooves and arranged in two horaires Shoe brake 8 vane 9. In more detail the mechanism of the orientation depicted in Fig. 2 and 3.On the hub 2 fortified eight radial rods 10, the ends of which are gearing 11. The transmission mechanism includes a gear element 12 in the form of a pair of bevel gears and a shaft 13 mounted in a bearing support 14.Blade propeller plane contains 15 desired aerodynamic shape, is connected with the shaft 13 by means of elastic safety clutch 16. Each blade through a gear mechanism 11 kinematically rigidly connected with the corresponding satellite planetary gear through a flexible mechanical (PTO) transmission 17 and a pair of gears 3. As a flexible mechanical transmission instead of drive shafts 17 may be used a flexible shaft, chain, subcategory or other transfer, providing a rigid kinematic relationship. The power is supplied from the shaft 18.A pair of toothed wheels 3 may include a conical or cylindrical (for example, in another implementation of flexible mechanical transmission) gear circular or non-circular shape. A non-circular shape of the toothed wheel allows you to resolve some yaw blades on the areas .The mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device (see Fig. 2) contains the vane 9, mounted on the hub 19 is mounted for rotation about a fixed axis 1 of the wind turbine. The hub 19 is equipped with console 20 with a slot, which includes the finger 21 mounted on the end of lever 22 camshaft Cam 23. The axis 24 camshaft Cam mounted for rotation in the hole flange 25 of the rotary column 26 of the hollow shaft of the Central link (crank 4 with rollers 5) of the planetary mechanism.The mechanism of orientation of the wind turbine also includes a Shoe brake (see Fig. 3) made in the form of terminals 8 with friction pads 27, covering the axis 1 of the wind turbine. Terminal is connected to a flange 25 (see Fig. 2) by means of the finger 28. The side opposite to the finger 28, the flat part of both halves of the terminal cover of the Cam 23. In the position shown in Fig. 3, the distance between the flat portions of the halves of the terminals such that the Cam is not clamped. Force coverage of axis 1 (braking force) is determined by the compression springs 29 and can be adjusted using a screw coupler 30.Shoe brake 8 holds the crank 4 from rotating in the absence of bias, Vetrova is an angle of up to 20o. Setting the desired value of the angle of the free oscillations of the vane is carried out by a constructive variation of the horizontal stroke of the finger 21 in the slot of the console 20 and the camshaft profile of the Cam 23.The turbine works as follows (see Fig. 1 and 4).Sensing the wind load, the plane 15 of the blade being in the position I (Fig. 4) perpendicular to the direction of metropolice begins to rotate through the radial rod 10 of the hub 2 of the wind turbine installed in it with 6 satellites, leading vetropriemnoe device in rotation. Satellite 6 together and raced his groove on the roller 5 is fixed brake Shoe 8 of the crank 4, starts to rotate clockwise. The rotation of a satellite through a couple of gears 3, cardan transmission 17, the transmission link 12 and the shaft 13 is transmitted with the opposite sign to the corresponding blade, which begins discontinuous phase reversal around its own axis in a counterclockwise direction. At the same time this same blade by rotation of the propeller turns clockwise. The addition of these two movements of the blade retains perpendicular to metropolice the plane up to the position II of the arc of rotation of the propeller.Yaw blades (the deviation of the plane from the optimal location, as described above) on the phases of rotation of the propeller I - II and III - IV, due to the peculiarity of the kinematics of the Maltese mechanism eliminated by the use of a non-circular gears comprising a gear pair 3.The design of the mechanism of the reversal of the blades and mechanism orientation vetropriemnoe device provides a rigid kinematic relationship of all of the blades with each other and with the crank 4, managed through Shoe brake 8 yo 9 realizing the optimal orientation of all vetropriemnoe device (wind turbine blades) with respect to the direction of wind flow. This is achieved as follows.In the absence of deflecting the impact is. and 3. Under the action of the spring 29 terminal 8 presses the pads 27 to the fixed axis 1, which ensures the stillness of the terminals. In this position also remain motionless associated with the terminal flange 25, the rotary column 26 and the crank 4.When the change in the wind direction in the case when the resulting deflecting force on the vane is greater than the value determined by the compression springs 29, Rethimno Cam 23 starts to rotate around its axis, pushing the terminal 8. When this friction pads 27 push-UPS from the axis 3 and the terminal 8 starts to rotate after the vane until the position corresponding to the new direction of metropolice. With the weakening of the deflecting force on the vane Cam returns to its original position, and the terminal is again fixed on the axle. Together with the terminal to a new position, turn the flange 25, the rotary column 26 and the crank 4, which provides optimal orientation vetropriemnoe device relative to the direction of the wind flow.Installed on the blade device overload protection operates as follows.When exceeding the calculated permissible value of wind load (i.e. load, Cote blade starts elastic deflection from the vertical position, provide the friction clutch 16. If the deflection angle of the plane of the blade from the vertical does not exceed 70othen the elastic sleeve 16 after reducing the load to an acceptable value automatically (under the action of the elastic force of the clutch) returns the blade to its original position. Critical wind load, leading to the deviation plane at an angle of more than 70ocauses switching of the coupling in the position that provides the translation in a horizontal plane (off) position. In this case, the installation plane of the blade in operating position manually or by using additional devices.Design vetropriemnoe device does not impose technical restrictions on the installation of any required number of blades, their type and structure (such as a sail, wing, etc), size and configuration that allows to implement various principles of joint aerodynamic interaction of the blades with the wind flow (such as drag force, lift force, the effect of the diffuser and so on). This allows you to get the maximum utilization of wind energy in each particular case of application of a wind turbine and is still on lemnae device, made in the form of a propeller mounted for rotation about a fixed vertical axis and provided with blades with planes that are installed on the shafts for rotation around its own vertical axis and placed at the ends of the radial rods connecting the propeller hub with bearings, shaft bearings, the mechanism of the reversal of the blades depending on the angle of rotation of the propeller, the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device relative to the direction of wind flow, characterized in that each blade is provided with a device for overload protection, the mechanism of orientation vetropriemnoe device contains a vane mounted for rotation around the axis of the propeller, and Shoe brake, operated by the vane, while the mechanism of the reversal of the blades is made of spatially separate sites that are hosted in the hub of the wind turbine planetary gear containing equal to the number of blades the number of satellites in the form of a four Maltese crosses, Maltese mechanism with external toothing, installed rotatably around a fortified in the hub of the propeller axis and communicating with a Central element, made in viagera through Shoe brake fixing the position of the focal point relative to the axis of the propeller, and installed at the ends of the radial rods gears, each of which is kinematically rigidly connects the shaft of the blade with the corresponding satellite through a pair of gears and a flexible mechanical transmission.2. The wind turbine under item 1, characterized in that the device overload protection made in the form of a flexible coupling connecting the plane of the blade with its shaft and providing a translation of the blade in the horizontal position as exceeding the design value of the wind load.3. The turbine according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the blades are fitted with automatic return plane in a vertical position when the deviation from the vertical at an angle of up to 70oafter reduction of the wind load to the calculated value.4. The wind turbine under item 1, characterized in that the vane is installed with the possibility of free oscillations around the axis of the propeller at an angle of up to 20owithout controlling influence on Shoe brake.5. The wind turbine under item 1, characterized in that the satellites are located in one or more horizontal rows.7. The wind turbine under item 1, characterized in that a pair of gears includes a non-circular gears.8. The turbine according to p. 1, wherein the transmission mechanism comprises a pair of bevel gears.9. The wind turbine under item 1, characterized in that all the mechanisms of the wind turbine are closed execution.
FIELD: wind-power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as drive of electric generators, hydraulic pumps and other useful load small-scale self-contained power mechanisms in different industries. Proposed wind-thermal power plant has tower housing consisting f lower contraction part with intake tangentially directed channels inclined to its vertical axis and provided with air gates, middle cylindrical part with monorail, upper diffuser part with deflector, windwheel installed horizontally on vertical shaft and resting additionally on monorail through movable supports, and additional contraction channel arranged coaxially inside lower contraction part of tower housing. Shaft is connected with energy consumer. Heat sources are arranged in lower part of tower.
EFFECT: increased specific power, improved reliability and operating conditions of plant.