# The control method of plugging in the construction of cut-off grouting curtains

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the field of mining and can be used for the protection of the quarries from groundwater. The control method of plugging in the construction of cut-off grouting curtains includes the determination of the parameters of the backfill, a comparison of the current parameters of the backfill with the project, selection of the optimal mode in comparison parameters, the calculation of the radii distribution of cement slurry and evaluation of backfill on the comparison of the current radius with the project. It is new that determine the residual pressure on the earth's surface and take it into account to determine the residual pressure at the well bottom. Modeling of stress-strain state of rock massif determine the design pressure at the well bottom. Compare the pressure at the well bottom and its design pressure. The optimal regime consider the mode under the condition of equality or excess residual pressure at the well bottom above its design pressure. Given calculation formula for determining the radius distribution of cement slurry. table 1. The invention relates to the field of mining and can be ispolzovanie in a comprehensive method to plug (1). It lies in the fact that the injection of cement slurry in each permeable interval osushestvlya to achieve the design pressure during injection or stop and volume of cement slurry, which are defined by the following ratios:,

where P

_{C}- pressure fluid at the well bottom,

_{o}dynamic shear stress of cement slurry,

r is the radius of the spreading solution around a single well (for simplicity, the influence of anisotropy filtration properties excluded),

- average disclosure temporarely cracks

P

_{PL}- reservoir pressure,

V is the volume of cement slurry,

h - power permeable interval,

m

_{t}fractured voidness.The disadvantage of this method is low efficiency and insufficient accuracy due to the use of formula (1) as it is only fair to calculate the pressure in a single fracture, and does not apply to fractured environment containing multiple fracture systems, and use the relation (2) to calculate the volume of cement slurry as it is not true at all filtering modes because it does not take into account the deformation of the massif is taken care solution for large cracks.The closest in technical essence and the achieved result is a control method of bridging [2], where an attempt is made to assess the dynamics of formation of the grouting curtain on the nature of changes in discharge pressure. The process is considered to be optimal if the discharge pressure during injection rising steadily. In the calculation of the radius distribution is taken into account only the volume of solution pumped with increasing discharge pressure.The disadvantage of this method is the low efficiency of plugging caused by wrong choice of the criterion for the optimal mode to plug, because it does not consider the possibility of geroestinenny already protonirovannoi zone, which is accompanied by the development of new cracks, partial closure of old and, as a consequence, the change in initial permeability that leads to a nonmonotonic behavior of the discharge pressure.The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency and quality of the backfill due to the use of updated dependencies (formula) to calculate the parameters and a new quantitative criterion of optimality to plug in the exercise of control over him.This objective is achieved in that in the method of controlling camponogara current settings with the design and evaluation of backfill on the comparison of the current radius from the project, additionally determine the residual pressure (P

_{op}on the surface of the earth and the residual pressure (P

_{oz}) on the bottom hole, determine the design pressure (P

_{'or}), modeling the stress-strain state of the rock mass, compare the residual pressure at the well bottom (P

_{oz}) design pressure (P

_{'or}), select the optimal mode of bridging and determine for him the current radius distribution of cement slurry according to the formula:

< / BR>

where V

_{about}- the volume of cement slurry pumped in optimal mode, plug, m

^{3};

h - power companyremoval interval, m;

is the coefficient of appointest fractured rocks, MPa

^{-1};

P

_{oz}residual pressure at the well bottom, MPa;

P

_{PL}- reservoir pressure, MPa.It is known that when plugging watered fractured rocks, located at a great depth in hard-intense-deformed condition, high quality backfill is achieved when the following two conditions:

all cracks inside the zone plugging shall be filled with cement slurry;

after hardening of the mortar between him and the wall temporarely of tridecanal in protonirovannoi zone. As the plug is clinicamente solution that obeys the law filtration with maximum pressure gradient in the watered fractured massif, located in complex stress state, after a full stop solution pressure at the well bottom falls not to the reservoir pressure (P

_{PL}), and to the maximum equilibrium pressure /5/, called the residual (P

_{oz}), which is determined by the formula:

P

_{oz}=Gr+P

_{PL},

where G is the maximum pressure gradient, KPa/m;

r is the current radius, m;

P

_{PL}- reservoir pressure, MPa.If the residual pressure (P

_{oz}) retains a constant value until the hardening solution, then, made the first necessary condition for the achievement of high quality plug - all cracks healed, inside protonirovannoi zone no voids, leading to pressure relief. Thus, additional determination of the residual pressure at the well bottom (P

_{oz}allows you to quickly assess the effectiveness and quality of the backfill.To perform the second exercise good adhesion of mortar with the breed hardening is necessary that during discharge of the solution happens the cracks due to their "reverse" deformations. For this purpose, the pressure of the solution must exceed the normal compressive stress acting from the side of the mountain at the crack. This means that should run the following condition:

P

_{oz}P

_{'or}< / BR>

where P

_{'or}- design pressure.A value of P

_{'or}is determined for each tamponirovanie well and interval of the simulation results of the stress-strain state of rock massif, where a waterproofing veil. This is the optimal mode of bridging. A measure of the optimality of the mode is the value of the residual pressure at the well bottom. Hence, this interval is plugged quality and it can be calculated radius.Because the current radius distribution solution around tamponirovanie well in elastic mode filter can be defined by the formula:

< / BR>

where V

_{about}- the volume of solution that has spread radially around a single hole in the optimal mode plug; is the coefficient of appointest companyremoval mountain massif, which is determined, for example, the results of hydrocldone, and the value of the maximum pressure gradient (G) at a known radius (r) of opredelennosti residual pressure (P

_{op}) by the formula:

P

_{oz}=P

_{op}+P

_{g}-P

_{t},

where is the density of the solution, g is the acceleration of gravity, l and d are length and diameter of the hole, respectively, we can calculate the value of the current radius by the following formula:

< / BR>

where V

_{about}- the volume of cement slurry pumped in optimal mode, plug, m

^{3};

h - power companyremoval interval, m;

is the coefficient of appointest fractured rocks, MPa

^{-1};

P

_{oz}residual pressure at the well bottom, MPa;

P

_{PL}- reservoir pressure, MPa.The method is as follows. Using mathematical modeling, taking into account the geomechanical properties of rocks, geological and hydrological conditions, the calculated stress-strain state of a rock mass in the area created grout. From the simulation results determine the value of P

_{'or}.Determine the residual pressure on the earth's surface (P

_{op}); taking into account pressure losses in the pipeline and in the well (P

_{t}) and the hydrostatic pressure of a column of cement slurry (P

_{g}determine residual Davie - the density of the solution, g is the acceleration of gravity, l and d are length and diameter of the hole, respectively.Compare P

_{oz}with P

_{'or}. If the condition P

_{oz}P

_{'or}then, considering that prior to the stop plugging passed in the optimal mode, determine the radius distribution of the solution by the formula:

.Compare the radius r project r

_{p}. If the condition of r>r

_{p}then backfill cease.Example.Plugging permeable interval power (h) depth (l), diameter injection wells (d), the coefficient of appointest breeds ( ), pressure (P

_{PL}).Promodlive stress-strain state of the rock mass, for example, around the career of "the World" in Yakutia, has determined the estimated value (P

_{'or}).Backfill was carried out, for example, in three stages with three process stops. After each stop was determined by the residual pressure on the earth's surface (P

_{op}and the volume of injected solution (V). Backfill was conducted clinicamente solution with density ( ), dynamic shear stress (

_{o}) .Previously at the design stage was to define what. (line 1).Controlled plug in the first stage. Measured residual pressure on the earth's surface (P

_{op}and the volume of injected solution (V) residual pressure at the well bottom (P

_{oz}) was calculated by the formula (9) were compared P

_{oz}with P

_{'or}. By comparing the results found that the plug was conducted in a non-optimal mode, therefore, the optimal volume V

_{about}and the current radius qualitatively protonirovannoi the field equal to zero. Given the conclusion: continue plugging. The results of the control plug at the first stage are listed in the table. (line 2).Controlled plug in the second stage. Measured P

_{op}and V; calculated P

_{oz}by the formula (9); compared P

_{oz}with P

_{'or}. By comparing the results found that the plug was conducted in the optimal mode, therefore, was calculated optimal volume V

_{about}and the current radius qualitatively protonirovannoi the field by the formula (10). Comparing r and r

_{CR}. By comparing the results issued conclusion: the design radius is not reached, continue plugging. The results of the control plug at the second stage are listed in the table. (line 3).Controlled plug on Tr. By comparing the results found that the plug was conducted in the optimal mode, therefore, was calculated optimal volume V

_{about}and the current radius qualitatively protonirovannoi the field by the formula (10). Comparing r and r

_{CR}. By comparing the results issued conclusion: the design radius is exceeded, backfill to finish. The results of the control plug at the third stage are listed in the table. (line 4). The control method of plugging in the construction of cut-off grouting curtains, including determination of the parameters of the backfill, a comparison of the current parameters of the backfill with the project, selection of the optimal mode of plugging in comparison parameters, the calculation of the radii distribution of cement slurry and evaluation of backfill on the comparison of the current radius from the project, characterized in that to determine the residual pressure on the earth's surface and take it into account to determine the residual pressure at the well bottom, the modeling of the stress-strain state of rock massif determine the design pressure at the well bottom, compare the pressure at the well bottom and its design pressure and optimal mode consider the mode provided

P

_{about}

_{C<}the design pressure of the well,

and the radius distribution of cement slurry are calculated according to the formula

< / BR>

where V

_{about}the volume of cement slurry pumped in optimal mode, plug, m

^{3};

h power companyremoval interval, m;

is the coefficient of appointest fractured rocks, MPa

^{-}

^{1};

P

_{about}

_{C}the residual pressure at the well bottom, MPa;

P

_{p}

_{l}reservoir pressure, MPa.

**Same patents:**

FIELD: oil industry, particularly oil-field construction, namely to built storage pit adapted for oil-drilling waste storage.

SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out ground; erecting banking; forming waterproofing screen of film material with weld seams; connecting polymeric adhesive strips to back film side transversely to weld seams facing outwards so that space between strips is not more than 3 m and strip ends extend over outer screen surface, wherein the waterproofing screen has ample size; securing one end of waterproofing screen on pit edge by shackles and covering thereof with ground along the full pit edge; gradually laying unstrained waterproofing screen on pit bottom and side walls to reach opposite pit edge so that weld seams face outwards; loading screen edges across the full width and forming pleat at pit edge along the full perimeter thereof; securing the pleat with ground; fastening free edges of laid waterproofing screen along the full pit perimeter with shackles and covering thereof with ground; folding free screen edges in two in shackle installation areas and placing cantledge on pit bottom along the full perimeter thereof; placing textile protective screens over rocky ground zones. The waterproofing screen dimensions may be determined from given relation.

EFFECT: increased liquid product storage reliability.

2 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods of production of the waterproofing materials in the sheet shape.

SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the method of production of the waterproofing materials in the sheet shape, which is used for facing of the ponds, lakes and the refuse dumps provides for disposition of the central layer containing the capable to swelling bentonite between appropriate carrying layers, and joining of the carrying layers by the ultrasonic welding in the intervals or along one or more lines by means of making the base plate protrusion to get in contact with one carrying layer and making the sonotrode to get in contact with the other carrying layer in the opposite places and in the intervals or along one or more lines and at such a control over the sonotrode, that to cut through the central layer and to join the carrying layers. The invention presents the characteristic of the second version the method of production. The technical result of the invention is the increased strength of the produced waterproofing material at its shift.

EFFECT: the invention ensures the increased strength of the produced waterproofing material at its shift.

14 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: constructional engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to constructional engineering and can be used for building construction and upkeep. Method for damp-proofing of below-grade building includes levelling blanket laid on basement soil, formation of membrane system, formation of protective concrete layer, installation of reinforcing cage, concreting of footing and below-grade filler members. Membrane system is arranged by continuous laying of extended hoses made of polymeric fabrics and fastening them or, alternatively, overlapping at an angle to each other. Hose outflows are placed outside the footing. The footing and below-grade filler members concreted, damp-proof mixture is grouted through outflows to hose cavity pockets to produce impervious beds.

EFFECT: simplified below-grade construction procedure, improved reliability of groundwater protection of both horizontal and vertical footing elements, decreased work content as well as possibility to repair membrane system during building construction and upkeep.

9 cl, 5 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: safety device for bed against surface water includes preparation of base course, foundation, pockets backing, blind area facility. Between blind area and bed there is formed self-locking waterproofing locker made of wedgelike elements: braced - underlying and overlying, nonrigid - made of viscoplastic material, such as bitumen, located between rigid elements. At that external wall of foundation is implemented leaned big end down the foundation.

EFFECT: reduction of differential settlement of foundation and building deformation.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to construction, namely, to reconstruction and renovation of old buildings and constructions, in particular, to means and methods of intra - wall detaching waterproofing for walls protection from soil water. Composition for intra - the - wall waterproofing contains, wt %: potassium silicate with silica modulus 2.33 - 2.88 99.6-99.9, Trilon B 0.1-0.4. Method of intra - wall detaching waterproofing includes supply of the above said composition into brickwork through preliminary drilled holes periodically drying after supply according to the scheme: supply - drying - supply.

EFFECT: viscosity reduction, increase of filtration coefficient, improved detaching water - proofing characteristics for protection of walls from soil water.

2 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention is related to construction, namely to fighting suffosion processes that occur during flooding of earth foundations in buildings, which are for instance, located in high-water bed. In method for protection of building earth foundations against suffosion processes that occur as a result of building flooding, wells are drilled in building foundations, soil in wells is sampled, specimens obtained are used to determine value of critical head gradient and critical seepage path. Water impermeable wall is erected in building earth foundation around the base, at that distance between the base and water impermeable wall, as well as depth of water impermeable wall location from daylight is selected depending on values of critical gradient and critical seepage path. Space between building base and water impermeable wall is filled with water permeable material consisting of single-size particles, and space between the base in the level of its underside and water impermeable wall is filled with the layer of water impermeable material. Drainage holes with meshes are arranged at internal edge of water impermeable wall in water impermeable layer, and filling with layer of water impermeable material is done with layer separation into sections, in every of which surface is arranged with slope to drainage hole providing water drain into hole.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of building protection against suffosion processes, and also increase of operational reliability of buildings, reduction of material intensity.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method of protecting sunken buildings against ground water underflooding consists in the fact that distribution sand cushion is formed, highly compressed silty-clayed soils are removed from the whole underground part of buildings. When constructing underground parts of erected buildings on natural slopes in silty-clayed soils with high level of ground water, above lower boundary of design compressed mass of ground foundation, there developed is ditch, from the depth of lower boundary of compressed mass corresponding to level of lower edge of distribution sand cushion to day surface, the slopes of which correspond to position of planes of lower side edges of design distribution sand cushion which is formed as filtration one and designed in the outline of diagrams of equal vertical and horizontal stresses corresponding to stress of natural soil in lower part of compressed mass. Height of cushion is taken equal to design depth of compressed soil mass, and width of upper and lower edges of cushion is equal; at that, it exceeds width of foundation base on both sides by the value which is determined by graphical drawing of planes tangential to diagram of equal horizontal stresses at an angle to vertical plane, which is equal to angle of internal friction of cushion material to the crossing with plane of foundation base level. Position of side edges of cushion is determined by the planes being drawn from extreme points of upper and lower edges of cushion, which are tangential to diagrams of equal vertical and horizontal stresses till they cross each other; at that, inclination angle of tangential plane to diagram of equal vertical stresses is taken equal to angle of natural slope of natural soil. Then there formed is lower body of cushion in the volume of ditch slopes and upper body of cushion in the volume of upper side edges of cushion; after that, there performed is backfilling of cavities between upper cushion body and ditch slopes with natural soil as per layer-by-layer technology; then underground part of buildings is erected.

EFFECT: maintaining natural hydrological conditions in order to exclude dangerous ground water underflooding of underground parts of buildings, decreasing the scope of ground works concerning development of ditch, reducing material consumption.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and may be used to arrange drainage system to control water level in basement premises. Method for water depression in basement premises of dwelling houses, administrative-industrial buildings and storehouses includes digging drainage channels, assembly of precast filtering well, laying filtering material or perforated pipes with filtering elements into channels, installation of pump into well, which drains water from well and is equipped with connection and disconnection breaker. Drainage channels and precast filtering well are assembled in ground inside area fenced by house foundation, in order to create depression zone on area limited by house foundation. In case this area is separated by solid walls of foundation, or there are foundation screeds, shafts are drilled, which are also filled with filtering material, or in which perforated pipes are installed with filtering elements. Outlet hole of pump is connected to sewage system of the house. Connection of pump outlet to connection and disconnection breaker to sewage system of the building results in cleaning of pipes and joints in sewage system.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of water level control in basement premises and reinforcement of foundations with various configuration.

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: drain of closed type comprises a deep-laid trench with an incline towards drain water discharge, where perforated pipes are installed in a layer of filtering material, and also inspection wells of the drainage system. Pipes are arranged with perforation in the tray part and are laid into a homogeneous filtering material. The bottom of the trench is arranged with an incline of 0.003-0.004% and is insulated with a water-impermeable film together with the trench wall at the side of a pit or along the outer surface of the underground part of the structure, and also with coverage of the drain trench filtration fill roof or under the foot of the erected structure shoulder.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of drain operation, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness, increased manufacturability of construction processes.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: underground part of a concrete wall with a wall drain comprises a filtering shell made of a polymer material and vertically laid onto the external surface of the wall to form channels draining water from soil fill into the fill of a drain pipe connected to a drain header. The external surface of the wall is coated with a geomembrane, which is arranged from a polymer material and with its anchor ribs fixed to the wall and forms its protective hydraulic insulation. The filtering shell is arranged in the form of a geogrid and a filtering nonwoven material attached to it at the side of the soil fill, at the same time geogrid cells are formed by crossing rods laid one onto the other and fixed in points of crossing with each other.

EFFECT: higher reliability and durability of a building or a structure, higher quality of wall protective hydraulic insulation and improved water-draining capacity of a filtering shell.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, particularly to protect mine workings against underground water ingress.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling injection wells along pit shaft perimeter; widening cracks by supplying high-pressure water and injecting grouting mortar in the cracks; additionally boring vertical preparation well in pit shaft center. Cracks are widened by feeding water and then air or only water in vertical preparation well. Water and air are supplied under pressure lesser than pressure of hydraulic rock fracturing. Grouting mortar is injected in cracks by forcing thereof through injection wells immediately after finishing of feeding water or air in vertical preparation well. Cryogenic gel is used as the grouting mortar. Cryogenic gel is foamed before injecting thereof in wells and foamed cryogenic gel is forced into cracks beyond the pit shaft perimeter by supplying compressed air in vertical preparation well. After leaving pit shaft as it is for grouting mortar setting time wells are sunk for the next grouting step depth and above operations are repeated up to reaching the lower boundary of pit shaft interval, wherein injection is performed under pressure exceeding that on previous step.

EFFECT: reduced labor inputs and material consumption along with increased efficiency of water suppression.

3 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry, particularly elimination of emergency situations.

SUBSTANCE: method involves closing borehole cross-section with extendable means; arranging predetermined volume of non-combustible material above the means, wherein the volume is determined from a given relation; discharging all non-combustible material in the borehole at a time and further distributing portions of non-combustible material having volumes of not less than volume of incoming water. Non-combustible material includes clay and pourable components which are laid in layers above the means, wherein clay volume is equal to pore volume of pourable component.

EFFECT: increased reliability of borehole sealing and water burst liquidation.

3 dwg, 1 ex