Non-woven material (options), the device for manufacturing a nonwoven fabric, a device for the manufacture of redistributed non-woven material, a method of manufacturing a non-woven material
(57) Abstract:Usage: the invention relates to tissue having the strength and other characteristics of woven or knitted materials. The inventive material contains a variety of threadlike fiber clots that travel between nodes and intersect with them. These fiber clumps and knots form a pattern of the Windows, and the Windows are mostly square in shape. Each fiber contains clots of fiber segments that are compacted and compressed. In these fiber clots many of the fiber segments are parallel to each other. As you can see in the drawing, essentially in the center of the fiber clumps between adjacent nodes, there is a tangled subsequently area 54 where the fibers tend to wrap circumferentially around the periphery of the parallel compressed fiber segments. As you can see, fiber clumps are from opposite sides of the tangled around the circumference of the zone. This configuration in this solution preferable to the so-called "arc linkage" or "area with arc linkage". 7 C. and 21 C.p. f-crystals, 42 ill. For many years attempts to create a fabric having the strength and other kadimah for making such fabrics.To create a woven or knitted material, must first be made thread. Usually the yarn is treated with caravaneer and combing the fibers and create a web of fibers. The web of fibers collected into a strand, which form the rovings by twisting and pulling of strands. Several runic then twist and pull, forming a thread.To create the final canvas, yarn twist in a woven fabric on a loom or vymazat Jersey on complex knitting machines. Often the thread should be atsikovoti starch or other materials before you submit it to the loom or knitting machine.Over the last twenty or thirty years developed various technological processes and attempts to make the fabric directly from the fiber tape, eliminating most, if not all, of the various steps described above. Some of these methods included the use of pins or needles, arranged in a certain pattern. The needle was inserted in the fiber tape, forming holes in the fabric and simulating the appearance of woven fabric.The resulting product was weak and required additional introduction of hemicellu machinability, of elasticity, drapeness and other desirable physical properties and makes it virtually impossible to play the desired properties of woven and knitted materials.Other technologies include the use of fluid or fluid force, which is directed to the fiber fabric in a predetermined pattern, by manipulating the fibers so that the resulting product acquired some of the characteristics of woven or knitted materials.According to some of these known technologies fiber fabric support element having a predefined surface topography, and process at this time fluid forces to change the configuration of the fibers and formation of non-woven cloth.Examples of methods of making nonwoven materials described and disclosed in U.S. patent N 1978620; 2862251; 3033721; 3081515; 3485706 And 3498874.Although the materials produced some of the previously described methods have commercial success, finally received the materials do not yet have all of the desired characteristics of many non-woven and/or knitted materials. None of these technologies were not able to obtain any desired combination of physical characteristics in okonchatelnyy not have precise control of the position of the fibers and regulatory forces, striking in fiber cloth.From U.S. patent N 4960630 taken as the closest analogue of the known non-woven material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups, consisting of many parallel and tightly compressed segments, and non-woven material that contains many reallocated fibers for education przeobrasenia fiber groups in which the fibers in the form of segments within the group pressed and essentially parallel, non-woven material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups containing many parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments, and non-woven material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups.From U.S. patent N 4960630 a device for manufacturing a nonwoven fabric, which has a predefined pattern of openings formed przeobrazili fiber groups of interconnected nodes, and includes a support element to maintain it fiber layer and means for simultaneously releasing the neighboring liquid flows on the initial layer of fiber fabric, the individual fiber elements which are capable of moving under the effect of the application of the initial layer of fiber fabric, individual fibers which are able to move under the action of applied forces liquid containing a basic element for maintaining therein a fiber cloth.From the same patent is known a method of manufacturing a non-woven material containing a group of fiber segments arranged at intervals with holes and formed from a layer of randomly distributed overlapping fibers in frictional their adhesion to each other, and the fibers are capable of movement under the influence of applied fluid forces while maintaining the layer in place across the area intended for treatment.In General, the fabric should be of uniform design and have good durability. The fabric should have good clarity or sharpness of the picture, even if the fabric is relatively large weight. The fabric should have a low fuzziness, though to be gigroskopicnae. The desired combination of properties should work without additional introduction of chemical binders. The process must be controlled so as to produce a fabric with the desired combination of physical properties.The aim of the present invention is the provision of non-woven cloth having excl who I is to produce a fabric which has a monotonous appearance, uniform and adjustable physical characteristics. Another objective is to produce fabrics that have excellent clarity of the picture and open area.According to certain variants of execution of the present invention, a new non-woven material contains a variety prepodobnykh fiber groups, and groups that in fact how dense, and so small, are a tangled thread. These groups of interconnected nodes fibers that are common to multiple groups.Groups form a predefined pattern of openings in the final fabric. Each group contains several parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments. At least some of the groups include a matted area of the fiber segments, twisted circumferentially around part of the periphery of parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments and also twisted fiber group.In this example, the implementation of the fabrics of the present invention are tangled zone (54), which have a fiber bundle that acts in the opposite pagesno the present invention, parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments have a twist. The twisting takes place or from one zone of interconnection to the adjacent area of mutual connection, or are the opposite of the curl with one turning, passing from the zone of mutual connection and swirled around the twisted part, and the opposite rotation of the passing of this swirling around the twisted part to the adjacent mutually connected area.According to many examples of implementation of the present invention, the interconnected nodes are dense, heavily matted areas that contain multiple fiber segments. Some of the fiber segments in this area are straight, while others have a bend in the 90oin the segment.Another fiber segments in the nodes follow a diagonal path as the segment passes through the node. Some fibres pass in the Z-direction inside the matted areas. The Z-direction is the thickness of the fabric as opposed to the length or width of the fabric.According to certain examples, spun around and twisted parts can be in the center, between nodes, while according to other examples, viget to be the variety spun around and twisted parts between adjacent mutually connected nodes.Purity or openness tissues, according to the present invention, unusual, in addition, the density of the compressed fiber and groups of interconnected nodes is higher than in the known nonwoven materials. In certain cases, the density of groups and/or nodes can reach a density of yarns in woven or knitted materials. Moreover, in many materials, according to the present invention, the density of the fiber groups are extremely homogeneous in comparison with the known non-woven fabrics.New ways, according to the present invention, are in place and confused fibers more thoroughly and predictable, as it will be then shown here, which allows to obtain a fabric with superior properties.Fabrics according to the present invention, is made by sending a regulated fluid forces on one surface of the layer of fibers that lie as a layer keep in opposite to its surface on the element having the predefined profile of the surface in the form of a predetermined pattern of open areas in the surface profile.According to one technological method of production of new non-woven material, a supporting member for supporting the one surface of the support element. The side walls of the pyramids are at an angle of more than 55oto the horizontal surface of the support element. Preferably, the angle was 65oor more, and at an angle of 75oget excellent materials according to the present invention.The support element also includes a number of holes, and these holes are located in areas where the side walls of the pyramids agree with the supporting member. Also provided means for simultaneously throwing adjacent liquid jets at the top and/or sides of the pyramids, while the fiber layer is retained by the pyramids.The invention will be clear from the further description with reference to the drawings, in which:
in Fig. 1 shows a schematic spatial view of a material according to the present invention;
in Fig.2 is a schematic view in cross section of apparatus for manufacturing the material according to the present invention;
in Fig.3 is a fragmented spatial view of the fiber sheet and the supporting element with a profiled surface;
in Fig.4 is a block diagram showing the various stages of the manufacturing process of fabrics, according to the present invention;
in Fig. 6 is a schematic view of another type of device for weaving fabrics according to the present invention;
in Fig.7 is a schematic view of a preferred type of apparatus for manufacturing fabrics, according to the present invention;
in Fig.8 is an enlarged view of the cross section of the supporting elements with profiled surface;
in Fig.9 is a view in plan of the supporting element with profiled surface, shown in Fig.8;
in Fig.10 is an enlarged view of the cross-section of the supporting element with a profiled surface;
in Fig. 11 is a side view of the supporting element with profiled surface, shown in Fig.10;
in Fig.12 is an enlarged view of the cross-section of the supporting element with a profiled surface;
in Fig. 13 is a view in plan of the supporting element with profiled surface, shown in Fig.12;
in Fig.14 is an enlarged view of the cross-section of the supporting element with a profiled surface;
in Fig. 15 is a side view of the supporting element with profiled surface, shown in Fig.14;
in Fig.16 is a partial side view of the supporting element with profilereminder.exe element with profiled surface;
in Fig.19 is a partial side view of another support element with a profiled surface;
in Fig.20 is a micrograph of tissue, schematically shown in Fig.1, enlarged 20 times.
in Fig. 21 is a micrograph of one of the zones with arc linkage" for the fabric of Fig.20, but subsequently increased about 4 times.
in Fig. 22 is a micrograph of one of the interconnected material node in Fig. 20, but increased by approximately 4 times.
in Fig. 23 - micrograph cross-sectional arc of the cords of the fabric of Fig.20, increased by approximately 4 times.
in Fig.24 is a micrograph of tissue, according to the present invention enlarged about 25 times;
in Fig. 25 - micrograph of one of the "arc of bundles" fabric according to Fig.24, enlarged approximately 3 times;
in Fig.26 - micrograph of interconnected node tissue Fig.24, enlarged approximately 3 times;
in Fig.27 is a photomicrograph of the fabric according to the present invention enlarged about 25 times;
in Fig.28 - micrograph zone "arc link fabric according to the present invention, increased about 50 times;
in Fig.29 is a photomicrograph of the fabric according to the present invention, increased approximately 20 times.
in Fig.30 - Mick who tography another example, perform tissue, according to the present invention, increased about 15 times, while the fiber segments include twisting;
in Fig. 32 - micrograph of the fabric of Fig.31, but increased approximately two times;
in Fig. 33 is a micrograph of another exemplary embodiment of the fabric according to the present invention, increased by approximately 5 times;
in Fig.34 is a micrograph of another exemplary embodiment of the fabric according to the present invention, increased by approximately 35 times;
in Fig. 35 - micrograph of a flat cross-section of the interconnected node tissue, according to the present invention, increased approximately 88 times;
in Fig. 36 - micrograph of a flat cross-section of the interconnected node known tissue, increased approximately 88 times;
in Fig. 37-42, respectively micrograph of the test fabric in a series of stages in the analysis of the invention of the test fabric to determine the definition woven eyelets.According to the drawings, Fig.1 shows a spatial view of the fabric 50, according to the present invention.As you can see in this drawing, the fabric contains many przeobrasenia fiber clots 51, which pass between nodes 52 and interconnected in them. E is th. Each fiber contains clots of fiber segments that are sealed and pressed.In these fiber clots many of the fiber segments are parallel to each other. As seen in the drawing, essentially in the center of the fiber clot between adjacent nodes have the additional matted area 54, in which the fibers tend to turn on a circle around the periphery of the parallel compressed fiber segments. As you can see, fiber clots are on opposite sides from tangled around the circumference of the zone. This design is referred hereinafter to the so-called "arc conjunction" or "zone of arc chords."Fig.2 is a schematic cross section of a device for the manufacture of materials, according to the present invention.This unit has a movable conveyor belt 55 and at the top of the tape, moving along with it, is supporting element 56 new design with profiled surface. The supporting element has many pyramids and lots of holes formed in the specified element with a profiled surface that will be more fully described herein below.On top of this is anoe canvas of casannah fibers, fibers with an air laying, fused with the blowing of fibers or etc.Over fiber cloth is a pipe 58 to the fluid 59, preferably water, and the fiber cloth in a while fiber cloth, supported on the element with profiled surface, is moved on a conveyor belt under the pipeline. Water can be fed at different pressure. Under the conveyor belt is a vacuum pipe 60 to divert water from areas where at this time hold the blade and the supporting element with a profiled surface.When working fiber cloth is laid on the supporting element with profiled surface, and the fiber sheet and the element with the profiled surface is performed under liquid pipeline. Water is fed to the fiber canvas, promocija fiber cloth and ensure that the blade is not removed, or is not frustrated with his position on the element with profiled surface for further processing.After that, the supporting element with the profiled surface and the canvas are under the pipeline several times. During these passes, the pressure in the pipeline uvelichivat consists of several holes from 4 to 100 or more units per inch. Preferably, the number of holes in the pipe was from 30 to 70 per inch. The holes are approximately seven thousandths of an inch in diameter.After supporting element with profiled surface and the fabric has held several times under the pipeline, the water turned off, and the vacuum continues to operate, contributing to the diversion of water from a cloth. The cloth is then removed from the element with the profiled surface and dried to create a fabric, as described in connection with Fig.1.Fig.3 is an enlarged spatial view of part of the fiber sheet and the supporting element described in Fig.2. Canvas 57 contains essentially randomly stacked layers of fibers 63. Fiber can be different in length from a quarter of an inch or less prior to an inch and a half or more. Preferably, when using shorter fibers including cellulose fibers), short fibers were mixed with longer fibers.The fibers may be any known fibers: of artificial, natural or synthetic fibers, like cotton, viscose, nylon, polyester, etc., the Fabric can be obtained by any of the known technologies in this field LASS="ptx2">A critical part of the present invention is a supporting element with a profiled surface. One exemplary embodiment of the supporting element on which the canvas is converted into a uniform fabric, according to the present invention, shown in Fig. 3.As shown, the element 56 contains a series of pyramids 61. The top 65 of the pyramids are aligned in two directions, perpendicular to each other. The inclined surface of the pyramids are named here as "wall" 66, and the intervals between the pyramids here named as "gutters" 67.Many of the holes 68, passing through the support element, are arranged in the supporting element to the picture.In this exemplary embodiment has a hole located in each groove at the center of the adjacent sides of the pyramids and in every corner where four of the pyramid. Holes in the walls of the pyramids are at least partially along the walls of the pyramids up.Feature in the supporting element with profiled surface is the angle formed by the walls of the pyramids with the horizontal plane of the supporting element, the location and shape of the holes, and the size and shape of the grooves. If the fiber cloth is placed on the W fabric, which suddenly becomes extraordinary clearness and correctness of the fiber structure.Moreover, when using profiled on the surface of the supporting element, which is described in connection with Fig.3, the resulting fabric includes "arc link, as described previously. The angle that the walls of the pyramid form with the horizontal plane must be at least 55oand preferably 65oor more.The applicant found that if the angle is 65 - 75oit is particularly suitable for obtaining tissue in accordance with the present invention.To form an "arc link, or wrapped around the circumference of the tangled fiber zone, holes in the profiled on the surface of the support element have at the walls of the pyramids. Holes can also be placed in other locations such as the corners of the pyramids. Holes in the corners tend to increase the confusion and the clarity of the final fabric. This is especially true for heavier weight fabrics. The width of the grooves at the base adjusts the width or size przeobrasenia clots between interconnected nodes.In the manufacture of tissue, as described in soo the fiber in the existing gap. Theoretically, the fluid creates a "twist" or a circular motion while she arranges the fibers on the gutters.The combination of holes in the walls of the pyramids and liquid forces allows the fiber segments to feel cozy during circumferentially around other fiber segments. During the process, essentially all of the fibers are held in the walls of the pyramids so that the area of the fabric, corresponding to the base of the pyramid, in fact, devoid of fibers.Fig.4 is a block diagram showing the various stages in the manufacture of new materials, according to the present invention.The first step in the process is to position the webs of fibers on the shaped surface of the supporting element (block 1). Fiber cloth pre-soaked or moistened until it is on the supporting element (block 2) to securely hold the support element until it is treated.Supporting element with a fiber cloth on it are under injection high pressure fluid nozzles (block 3). The preferred liquid is water. Water away from the supporting element preferably podderzhivayuschego element (block 6). Formed fabric is conducted over a series of drying drums, drying the fabric (block 7). The fabric can then be brushed Il otherwise treated, if necessary (block 8).Fig. 5 is a diagram of one type of device for performing the process and processing of fabrics, according to the present invention.In this device Perminova conveyor belt 70 moves continuously around two spaced apart rotatable rollers 71 and 72. The tape is driven in such a way that it can move in a reciprocating, either clockwise or counterclockwise.In the certain position of the tape on the top over 73, above the ribbon placed appropriate injection water pipeline 74. This pipeline has many holes of very small diameter, about 7/1000 of an inch in diameter, about 30 holes per inch. Through these holes, water is pumped under pressure. On top of the tape is supporting element 75 with a profiled surface, and on top of this profiled element stack fiber cloth intended for generating.Directly below the water pipe, but below the upper s excessive submergence fiber cloth. Water from the pipeline hits in fiber cloth passes through the supporting element with profiled surface and with the amount of suction pipe.How this is taken into account, the profiled support element with a fiber cloth it is possible, if desired, to spend some time under the pipeline to get a tissue, in accordance with the present invention.In Fig. 6 shows a device for the continuous manufacture of fabrics, in accordance with the present invention. This is a schematic picture of the device includes a conveyor belt 80, which in fact serves as a supporting element with a profiled surface, in accordance with the present invention.The tape is continuously rotated in a counterclockwise direction around the posted separately with an interval of elements, as is known in the art. On this tape is water supply pipe 79, which connects several lines, or groups, 81 holes. Each group has one or more rows of holes of very small diameter with 30 or more holes per inch. The pipeline is equipped with a pressure gauge 87 and regulating valves uppoi is suction element 82 to drain excess water and to protect the area from excessive water flooding.Fiber cloth 83, intended for conversion into the fabric, according to the present invention, is served on a conveyor belt supporting element with a profiled surface. The water spray through the corresponding nozzle 84 and the fiber cloth for pre-wetting the cloth and to assist in the regulation of the fibers as they pass under pressure pipelines. Suction slit 85 is located under the water nozzle to drain excess water.Fiber cloth passes under the feed pipe water line, preferably with increasing pressure. For example, the first line of holes can supply a fluid at a pressure of 100 lb/d2, while the following lines of holes can supply a fluid at a pressure of 300 lb/d2and the last line of holes serves fluid at a pressure of 700 pounds/d2.Although the drawings shows six lines or rows of holes, however, the number of lines or rows of holes are not normalized, but depends on the weight of the fabric, the speed, the pressure, the number of rows of holes in each line, etc.After passing between the pipelines of power fluid and water with a cloth. Supporting element with profiled surface may be made from a relatively rigid material and may contain multiple edges.These ribs are transverse to the width of the conveyor and have a lip on one side and the shoulder with the opposite hand to the shoulder of one edge engaged with the lip adjacent edges, allowing the movement of these relatively rigid elements intended for use in a pipelined configuration, shown in Fig.6.The preferred device for weaving fabrics, in accordance with the present invention, schematically represented in Fig.7.In this device the profiled support element is a rotating drum 90. The drum rotates in a counterclockwise direction and includes several curved along the curve of the plate 91 having a desired configuration shaped surface and located so as to form the outer surface of the drum.Around part of the periphery of the drum is a manifold 89 connecting several bands 92 with holes for water or other liquid to the fiber cloth 93, laid on the outer surface of the curved is the ETP, approximately 5/1000 inch to 10/1000 of an inch in diameter. Holes should be as large as possible, 50-60 holes per inch, or more if desired. Water or other liquid is directed through the rows of holes. The pressure in each group of holes increases from the first group, under which passes the fiber fabric, the latter group. Pressure regulate by means of the respective control valves 97 and pressure gauge 98.The drum is connected to the sump, to which may be connected a vacuum to assist in the drainage of water and protect the area from flooding. When working fiber cloth 93 laid on the profiled support element 91 before the injected water from the pipe 89. Fiber cloth passes under the strips of holes and converted into a fabric, according to the present invention.Formed tissue is then carried out on the section of the profiled support element and drum 95, where no strips with holes, but there is a vacuum designed for its application. The fabric after it is dehydrated, removed from the drum and carry around a series of drying cans 96 for drying fabrics.Fig. 8-19 are cross-sectional and top different under the feudal invention.In these figures of the drawings shows the different configuration of the pyramids and the order of the holes, which can be used in elements with profiled surface.Fig.8 is a cross section of the supporting element with profiled surface, shown in Fig.3; Fig.9 is a top view. Supporting element shown in Fig. 8 and 9, manufactures fabric, as described in Fig.1.As shown in Fig.9, pyramids 61 square at its base. Pyramid, essentially the same, with each side 66 of the pyramid is an isosceles triangle. Each of the pyramids converges at the point or apex 65, and vertices are aligned in two directions, perpendicular to each other.The base of the pyramids substantially adjacent to each other in such a way that there is a groove 67 a small width between the walls of the pyramids. The angle "a" which forms the wall of the pyramid with the horizontal plane, is approximately 70o. Supporting element with profiled surface includes holes 68 located at the walls of the pyramids and in the corners of the pyramids, as shown. Holes in the walls of the pyramids are unprofesional surface, which can be used in accordance with the present invention.Fig.10 is a transverse cross-section; Fig.11 is a view in the plane. Pyramid 100 essentially the same design and are aligned in rows as described in Fig. 8 and 9. However, the gap between the sides of the pyramids for the formation of the trench 101 is significantly more, so that the holes 102 in the profiled support element does not pass through the walls of the pyramids.The design depicted in Fig. 10 and 11, can be used for more heavy weight fiber cloths, because there is more space for the fibers, which are designed for crushing, between the walls of the pyramids.Fig. 12 and 13 show another example of the execution of the profiled support element according to the present invention.In this example, execution of the walls of the pyramids 104 has a compound angle. Part 105 of the wall of the pyramid, which passes upward from the trough 106 is at an angle of approximately 80oto the horizontal plane. Part 107 of the wall of the pyramid, passing down from the top 108 of the pyramid, is the angle of approximately 55owith the horizontal plane.The advantage of this design feasts of the A.In this example, execution of the holes 109 are located at the walls of the pyramids and the holes 110 are located at the corners of the pyramids, where four of the pyramid. In this exemplary embodiment the holes in the walls of the pyramids is made slightly larger than the holes in the corners.Fig.14 and 15 show another example of execution of the profiled support element according to the present invention.In this exemplary embodiment the walls of the pyramids are made of different forms. The rear edge 113 of each pyramid, essentially vertical, while the front edge 114 of each pyramid forms an angle of approximately 70o.As shown in the drawing, the supporting element includes openings 116. By changing the shape of the pyramids in this form the liquid processing the fiber can be adjusted in such a way that there is a greater swirl effect occurring in the conduit 115 between the pyramids.Fig. 16 is a top view of the profiled support element according to the present invention; Fig.17 is a cross section on the line 17-17 of Fig.16. In this exemplary embodiment pyramid 120 made of the same walls, with each wall forms the basis of the two holes in each wall of the pyramid can be used to form several "arc ligaments between adjacent interconnected nodes in the final fabric.Fig. 18 and 19 is a top view of a preferred example of execution of the profiled support element according to the present invention.In both drawings, the pyramids represent a quadrilateral similar shape design. In Fig.18 has a hole 126, located near each of the walls of the pyramids. In Fig.19 there are openings 128 in the walls of the pyramids. There are also holes 129 in the corners where four of the pyramid. Holes in the walls of the pyramids is slightly larger in diameter than the holes in the corners of the pyramids.Shaped supporting elements according to the present invention, can be manufactured from various materials, such as plastics, metals, etc., the materials Used should not deportirovatsya under the action of shock fluid facing surface. The surface of the supporting element should not have burrs or other defects, but should be relatively smooth.Preferably, the supporting element has not been highly polished, as in the manufacture of fabrics, according to the present invention, the desired surface, with some friction characteristics. It was found that finishyou is.In all examples, the supporting element with the profiled surface has a number of holes arranged in a predetermined pattern, as well as several pyramids either quadrilateral or triangular, optionally, with a pyramid form an angle with the horizontal of at least 55oand preferably from 60 to 75o.Preferably, the holes in the plate held up the walls of the pyramids, although it is not necessary, it is obvious that thanks to this performance is easier to get the desired crushing between the fibers that are twisted.You should note that not all of the openings or Windows in the support element need to completely pass through the supporting element. At least some of the holes may pass through the support element only partially, provided that they have sufficient depth to reduce or prevent unwanted reverse wicking.If a large amount of liquid or liquid with a very large power flows back into the redistributive fiber area, it can disrupt the desired redistribution of the fibers.Fig. 20 to 23 are microphoto is established with representation from viscose fibers fibers are 1.5 denier and staple length 1.1/4 inch. The fabric formed on the plates, similar to those shown in Fig. 3, with holes in the walls of the pyramids somewhat large in diameter than the holes in the corners of the pyramids. The plate was quadrilateral with sides forming an angle with the horizontal of approximately 75o.Fig. 20 is a micrograph of the top view of the tissue during increased 20 times. As you can see the fiber part of the tissue is very dense and compacted at the same time as the open cross-section relatively free from fiber ends and clearly delineated. Fiber contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups 200. These groups interact as nodes 201 fibers common to several groups, and form a regular square pattern of holes. Between interconnected nodes are areas 202 "arc ligaments".Fig. 21 is an enlarged view of the fabric according to Fig.20 with multiplicity 76 times and shows one of the fiber groups, or area with "arc bundle of fabric. As you can see, approximately in the center of this fiber group has fiber segments that are swirling around at least part of the periphery of parallel and tightly compressed fiber redstavlyaet increase one of the nodes in the fabric, is depicted in Fig. 20. The site includes multiple fiber segments, some of which are essentially straight through the site, while other segments form a bend almost 90oinside the structure, while the other segments are diagonally passing through the node.Fig.23 is a cross-section of the "arc of bundles" zone in Fig.20 and 21. Essentially, parallel fiber segments and includes some examples that pass through the zone of arc chords." In the area of the "arc of bundles there are also fiber segments that are wrapped circumferentially around przeobrazeniu fiber group.Below are four specific example of a method of manufacturing fabrics in accordance with the present invention.Example 1.The device shown in Fig.2, used for the manufacture of fabrics. Isocardia canvas 300 Gran specific weight of 1.5 denier with viscose fibers 1.25 inch staple length is treated according to the method described in U.S. patent N 4475271.Canvas have over the forming plate, which is held on the wire carrier tape. The carrier tape is a polyester single strap flat preferecne wire in 0,028 inch diameter and an open cross-section of 44%. The forming plate has such a profile as shown in Fig. 12. The walls of the grooves 105 of the pyramids form an angle of 74oto the horizontal, and apical wall 107 forms an angle 56oto the horizontal. The length of the wall 105, measured vertically, is 0.045 inch (.114 cm) and the vertical height from the bottom 106 of the trench to the top of the pyramid 108 is 0,090 inch (.229 cm). The bottom of the trench is of 0.003 inch (0,0076 cm) in diameter.Pyramids are square pattern 12 x 12 pyramids, as shown in Fig.13. Pyramids are arranged with an interval centered at the 0,0083 inch (0,21 cm). Holes in the walls of the pyramids have a diameter to 0.032 inch (0,08 cm), and the holes in the corners of the pyramids have a diameter of 0.025 inch (0,064 cm). The pipeline contains 30 holes per inch (11.8 in to cm), with each hole has a 0.007 inch (0,018 cm) diameter.Fiber cloth on the plate are under the pipeline and wet with water, to position the blade on the forming element. Subsequent passes is carried out at 100 lbs/d2g, 600 lbs/d2g and, finally, three passes at 1000 lb/d2was All the passages carried out at a speed of 10 yards per minute (9.1 m/min) and under a vacuum of 24 inches of water column (61 cm).Micrograph of the resulting materassi when increased 25 times. The fabric contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups or bunches, 205. Clots are mutually interconnected at nodes 206 fibers common to several clots, forming a pattern essentially square hole 207. In the center of each bunch has a matted area (arc - link), and from this tangled area of the clot goes in opposite directions.As is more clearly seen in enlarged Fig.25, which represents an increase of 70 times one zone arc - link fabric according to Fig.24, an enlarged area contains multiple fiber segments that petlevanny and confused and extend around part of the periphery of the bunch, holding the fiber is very tightly compressed.Fig. 26 represents an increase of 70 times one of the interconnected nodes of the fabric of this example. Some of the fiber segments pass directly through the site, while others pass through the hub at an angle of 90oand other fiber parts inundated loop and densely tangled inside the node.The resulting fabric was tested on the calculated standard density and index definition, as will be described here. The calculated standard density fabric is 0,192 g/cm3and the index definition of texano in example 1. All conditions and parameters were the same except that the initial painting was of specific gravity 1600 Grand per square yard.In the process after one pass at 100 lb/d2g and one pass at 600 lb/d2g, the cloth was subjected to nine passes at 1000 lb/d2he Micrograph in the plane of the resulting fabric shown in Fig. 27.As you can see, although this fabric more by weight five times than the fabric depicted in Fig. 24, the fabric has extreme clarity, and fiber parts are very dense and compact. The fabric consists of groups of fiber segments in which the fiber segments are essentially parallel and tightly pressed.In the center of each such group has a matted area with part of the fiber segments that are wrapped circumferentially around part of the periphery przeobrazeniu fiber group, i.e. the zone with the "arc bundle".These fiber groups of mutually connected nodes by fibers common to several groups to form a predefined pattern of square Windows. It is interesting to note that the clarity of the picture is not reduced to any significant extent as increasing the weight of the fabric. This, of course, the ore weight gain fabric clarity of the picture fabric is deteriorating very quickly.The fabric in this example tested on the calculated standard density and index definition, as it will be described here. The calculated standard density of this fabric is 0,256 g/cm3and the index definition this fabric is 0,426.In Fig. 28 shows the micrograph with a magnification 50 times another example of executing the zone "arc bundle of fabric according to the present invention.In this embodiment, the supporting element with a profiled surface that is used for the manufacture of fabric made in the same way as described in connection with Fig.16. Here there are two matted area in przeobrazeniu fiber group, each of matted areas contains multiple fiber segments that are wrapped circumferentially around part of the periphery of parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments within przeobrazeniu fiber group.In Fig. 29 and 30 shows another exemplary embodiment of the fabric according to the present invention.Fig. 29 is a flat view of the tissue with increasing 20 times, made of fibre sheet 600 Grand on weight, in which fibers are presented viscose from 1.5 denier and 1.25 inch staple length.According Fig.29 tissue contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups in which the fiber segments are relatively parallel and compact. Groups of interconnected nodes fibers that are common to several groups, forming a predefined pattern of beveled square hole.As more clearly seen in the micrograph in Fig.30, which represents an increase of 50 times one of przeobrasenia groups, przeobrasenia fiber band narrows as it passes from one interconnected node to the adjacent interconnected node.Mainly at the mid-point of this przeobrazeniu fiber group has heavily matted area, which includes some of the fiber segments that are wrapped circumferentially around part of the periphery przeobrazeniu fiber group. group, most of the fiber segments that are essentially parallel to one or more adjacent fiber segments, while in the extended part of the narrowed outer periphery of this constricted portion includes parallel fiber segments, while the inner portion of the periphery is a tangled area.A slim (very dense) areas przeobrasenia fiber groups are melkorublennuyu structure with the rapid degree of absorptivity in the tissue. Slim (less dense) part provides a framework of greater capillarity for high absorptive capacity. Thus, it is possible to design the desired absorption characteristics of the tissue.As you can appreciate, one of the factors that provides excellent durability in woven or knitted material is that made of fiber filaments attach torsion. Of course, it compacts the fibers in the yarn, to some extent, and puts them in closer contact, increasing the frictional grip between the fibers. When such a thread is pulled or pushed, this friction clutch increases the strength of the thread. In certain examples, the runtime fabric according to the present invention we can provide is shown a fabric according to the present invention, in which the fiber segments between interconnected nodes have torsion.Fig. 32 is an enlarged part of the fabric of Fig.31. According to both figures, the fabric was photographed while she was still on the forming plate.The following is a specific example of a method of manufacturing a fabric according to the present invention, in which the fiber segments are formed between the interconnected nodes.Example 3.The process parameters, conditions and equipment used in this example are the same as in the previous examples, except that the initial fabric made of fibers of bleached cotton with 300 Grand per square yard weight, which are MicroProse 4,8 staple length 30/32 and strength of 22 g per Tex.Forming element has a pattern of pyramids 12 x 12 in square shape. Each pyramid has a height vertically 0,155 inch (0,39 cm) when measured from the bottom of the trench to the top of the pyramid. The walls of the pyramids are at an angle of 75oto the horizontal. The bottom of the trench has a width of 0.006 (0.015 g cm). The holes are in the corners of the pyramids and the amount of 0.038 inches (.1 cm) in diameter. The technological process includes one pass at>g, then pass at 600 lb/d2g and three passes at 1000 lb/d2g; all of them are sucking water at 25 inches (63.5 cm) of water column.Fig.33 is a flat micrograph with increasing 15 times the resulting tissue showing pregeometry spin between mutual intersections. The fabric in this example tested on the calculated standard density and index definition, as will be described below. The calculated standard density fabric is 0,142 g/cm3and the index definition - 1,080.Although all previous fabrics were made using corrugated plates, which are applied in a square pyramid, Fig.34 presents a micrograph of tissue with a 15-fold increase, manufactured using plates with profiled surface, in which the pyramid is made triangular instead of square.In this case, the fabric has a three-axis instead of the usual two. This allows to obtain a product very different and unusual properties of stretching in three directions. This configuration reduces pliable tissue elasticity.As can be seen in Fig.34, each node has six przeobrasenia fiber groups, outbound the traditional segments wrapped around part of the periphery przeobrazeniu fiber group.It is interesting to note that the nodes in the fabrics of the present invention the fiber is extremely compact and equally dense. Some of the fiber segments pass through the node directly, while the other fiber segments form a right-angle turns, when they pass through the node, although other fiber segments pass through the density Z of the node, which the node and forming a very confused area.Fig. 35 and 36 is a micrograph of the cross section with increase in 88 times.Fig. 35 is a micrograph of the host tissue according to the present invention. This fabric is made from isocandela canvas with a specific gravity 400 Grand per square yard of viscose fibres, which have a 1.5 denier and a staple length of 1.5 inches (3.8 cm).The forming plate contains pyramids arranged in a square pattern 12 x 12 pyramids in the distance 0.083 (0,21 cm) on centers and with the walls at an angle of 75oto the horizontal. The hole at the middle of the sides of the pyramids are to 0.032 inch (0,08 cm) in diameter, and in the corners of the pyramid of 0.025 inch (0,06 cm) in diameter. Holes, supporting straps, etc. performed as described in previous examples.The technology is the od at 1000 lb/d2g; all of them are with the use of vacuum of 25 inches (63.5 cm) of water column.The micrograph shows parallelomania fiber segments passing through the corners, and fiber segments that pass through the nodes at the angle of 90o. It also shows a large number of fiber segments passing through the plane of the node, all of which they form a highly tangled knot.In contrast, Fig.36 shows a node fabric made in accordance with the known solution. This fabric made as described in U.S. patent N 3485706. Forming element is represented here in the form of woven from polyester yarn belt with square pattern 12 x 12.The canvas is sacagawea canvas with 1.5 denier, 1.5 inch (3.8 cm) staple length viscose rayon fibers. The specific weight of the blade 400 Grand per square yard. The first pipeline operates at 100 lb/d2g, the second pipe at 600 lb/d2g, and the third, fourth and fifth pipeline at 1000 lb/d2he Used the vacuum was 25 inches (63.5 cm) water column under each pipeline.As you can see, there is some increase in the site and there are some pairs of the most chaotic in fiber order of this node, than node tissue obtained according to the present invention.As seen in the micrographs of Fig. 20 - 34, fabric, according to the present invention have a uniform structural characteristics. These characteristics are such that the optic zone tissue is very dense and compact, many times more than known non-woven materials. The density or compactness in fiber groups are the same and such, which is characterized to the scientist yarn of similar fibers with similar denier fibers.Another unique feature that is evident in all tissues, obtained according to the present invention, represents the degree of clarity of the living bore tissues. There are several fiber ends, loops or segments that are in the open section of the tissue, reducing the clarity of the fabric. This property gives the resulting tissue appearance, such woven materials.In addition, mutually related areas are not confused, as in the well-known materials. This further contributes to the woven appearance of the material according to the present invention.These structural features allow you to get significantly improved svol. Besides fabric, according to the present invention, may be adjustable and good absorption characteristics, especially the characteristics of the tampon.Example 4.The following is another example of the run of the fabric according to the present invention.The canvas is bleached cotton produced according to the method described in U.S. patent N 4475271. The specific weight of the blade 525 Grand per square yard, has microprobe 5.0 and staple length fibers of bleached cotton 1.0".The initial canvas is held on polyester flat-weave forming a single strap with figure 103 x 88 (nominally 100 cells) by Appleton Wire, Portlend, Tennessee.Forming the belt has a diameter proportional wire 0.15 mm, the diameter of the cross-wire of 0.15 mm and an open section 17.4% of the total area. The pipeline water supply, combined with it, contains ten rows of holes. In each row there are 30 holes per inch (11.8 holes in cm), and each hole is approximately 0.007 inches in diameter (approximately 0,018 cm). The rows of holes separated by a distance of about 2 inches (about 5.1 cm).The fiber cloth is placed on the forming element, wet water. is TVersity in the first row serves water at a pressure of 100 lb/d2g, holes in the next row to supply water under pressure to 400 psi/d2g, and the holes of the last eight rows at a pressure of 800 pounds/d2,In the suction pipe, located under the forming belt and under the pipeline water supply is maintained a vacuum of 25 inches (63.5 cm) of water column. The formed fabric is turned and formed on the second side, i.e. on the second stage of the process is subjected to spray water on the other side of the canvas, which was in contact with the forming belt during the first stage of processing.In the second stage, the formed fabric is placed on the second forming surface. The second forming surface contains a series of pyramids with the tops of the pyramids are aligned in two directions, perpendicular to each other.Each pyramid has an essentially rectangular base. The surface has eight pyramids per inch in the direction of the machine and 20 pyramids per inch in the transverse direction. The base of the pyramid is 0.125 inches in the direction of the machine and 0.05 inch in the transverse direction.The base of the trough between the pyramids rounded radius to 0, is Ergneti on the correct picture, i.e. in the gutters at the center of the longer sides of adjacent pyramids and there where four of the pyramid.Each hole has a diameter of 0.033 inches. Water supply pipeline, combined with a second forming surface, contains nine rows of holes. It has 30 holes per inch (11.8 holes in cm) in each row, each hole has a diameter of approximately 0.007 inches (approximately 0,018 cm).Once already formed a cloth wet with water and are under water pipeline at a speed of 100 yards per minute (91.4 m/min). Holes of the first row to supply water under pressure to 400 psi/d2g holes last eight rows to supply water under pressure of 1600 pounds/d2was In the suction pipe below the second forming surface is maintained a vacuum of 25 inches (63.5 cm) of water column.The resulting material has an average value of the calculated standard density 0,154 g/cm3and the index definition 0,66, if the test is conducted, as described below.The index definition definition.The following describes the image analysis, characteristic to determine the index definition.Index chetkova material is a function of the distribution of fibers in the fabric, moreover, the index definition increases as the great majority of fibers placed in separate venues fiber cover that surround holes in the fabric.To determine the index definition, measure individual share space. Fiber cover (FC) is the proportion of sites representing threads woven gauze, for example, or separate clots perforated nonwoven materials. Fiber holes (HA) is the proportion of sites representing the fiber, which is not in optical clots and acts to open the throttle cross section between the threads woven gauze, for example, or in the holes of nonwoven materials.Share platforms with holes (CA) represents the ratio of the areas of Windows, or holes in the fabric (the amount of share platforms of the living flow area (AO) and the fraction of sites FA).The index definition (CI) perforated fabric is calculated as the ratio of the share of the sites with the holes (CA) to the amount of fiber in the holes (FA) and fiber cover (FC) according to the following formula:
CI = CA/(FA + FC)
The resulting index definition increases with the definition of education perforated fabric.The index definition perforated tissue can be measured by image analysis. Essentially, the image analysis vkluchaet through a set of microscope with such increase, that appear separate duplicate drawings, while at the same time you can see the individual fibers in the fabric.The optical image of the tissue is formed by the lens on the tube of the video camera and converted into an electronic signal that is convenient for analysis. The stabilized source of the missed light used in the microscope in order to reproduce the image on the monitor with such a visual contrast to coated fibers of the site in different ways was emphasised from gray to black, and open the flow area or free from fibers sites remained white. Each line image is divided into a reference point or pixely to measure.The average size of the holes can also be determined by image analysis as average, in square millimeters, the value of individual sites, which are holes, surrounded by areas covered with fibers, intensificirovannaya as Playground fiber cover (FC).Such analysis is carried out using an image Analyzer Lei ca Quantimet 0,520, with the ability to work in grey with software Version 4.2, and all this is available to firms Lei ca Copa Olympus SZH 10-fold magnification using a 0.5-fold lens and dual 20-fold configuration. The microscope is equipped with a stabilized source of the missed light. Camcorder Co and Model 4812 provides communication microscope with image analyzer.Commercially available fabric woven gauze USP Type VII is suitable as a sample in order to configure the analyzer's image. Packaging woven gauze open, remove only the sponge and deploy to the thickness of one layer. One layer of woven gauze laid between two frequent glass slides on the object table of the microscope and accurately translate the image on the screen. The fabric pattern oriented so that on the screen you could see the individual repetitions of the whole picture (see Fig.37).Using the image Analyzer Lei ca Quantimet 0,520, combined with a Microscope (Olympus SZH with magnifying configuration as described above, receive the results in the calibration of the analyzer 0,021 mm/pixel, and you can analyze sites containing from 14 to 24 repetitions of entire drawings gauze type U. S. P. Type VII on a single field. The brightness and contrast of image adjust, introducing a full set of gray levels in the displayed image (playback histogram of the grey levels on the scale contains all positive levels schodami from threads in the pad holes.Next, the sample is removed from the specimen to the microscope table and use two clean glass slide for carrying out shading correction to eliminate any uneven adviceline across the field observations. Then on the specimen table of the microscope replace the sample.To measure the index definition, conduct separate depicting operations in the following order:
1. First set the detection level of the black image areas equal to the condensed fiber strands and interconnected nodes, but without identification of individual fibers coming out of the threads in the holes (see Fig.38). The level of gray for black discovery place for future reference.2. Using cross function, the detected image of the threads found in plane 1 remember in the plane 3 images for further measurements. This image is in the plane 3 of the image represents the area of fiber cover (FC). Cm. Fig.39.Note: if necessary, in order to fully identify the area of fiber cover, the image in the plane of 1 spread to a number of cycles, until, until you have counted the holes in the square fiber cover; the image is then destroy Leno in the order of detection.3. Next, set the white level detection equal to areas that are free of fibers within each of the holes on the field observations. The white level detection also mark it for future reference. It revealed the image plane 1 image is open the flow area (OA) tissue. Cm. Fig. 40.4. Using the logical function of the image in plane 1 and plane 3 are combined, in accordance with the formula:
To pay (Plane 1 XOR Plane 3),
i.e. create an image of all pikselov, which is not in plane 1 or plane 3. This operation generates the image plane 4 of the image fibers extending from the filaments in the fiber holes, or "fiber holes" (FA). Cm. Fig.41.5. Conduct field measurement of the next image, and the values of Equity courts write for calculation of indices definition:
Plane 1 (OA) - (Fig.40)
Plane 3 (FC) - (Fig.39)
Plane 4 (FA) - (Fig.41)
The proportion of sites with clear holes (CA) is calculated as the sum of the open cross-sectional area (CA) and fibers in the holes (FA). The index definition is also calculated as the ratio of the share platforms with holes (CA) to the sum of the two fractions of sites, fiber holes (F) and fiber is of Duy Black level detection and the White level detection, selected in steps 1 and 3. Results from some of the sites of fabric (at least, are analyzed ten fields for each tissue) are averaged to obtain an averaged index definition.Image analysis is also used to determine the size of the holes in the form of the averaged square holes in square millimeters. For each field, considered at stages 1-5, perform the following steps: after recording the measurements of the field and before moving the fabric to the next field.6. Again, using the logical function, combine the image plane 1 (CA) and plane 4 (FA) (Fig.41) through the function of the additional image (OR), forming the image share sites with holes (CA) in the plane 5. Cm. in Fig. 42. The equation of the image is expressed:
Plane 5 (CA) = Plane 1 (OA) OR Plane 4 (FA)
7. In the Measurement menu signs set parameters for measuring plane 5 (CA).8. Menu Histogram select the site and highlight it. Then select the criteria for the analysis of the image plane 5, CA, for a single characteristic sites.9. Repeat steps 6-8 for each field after the analysis of the accuracy of the index (see above stages 1-5) obratsova between different fields of the same tissue sample).10. At the end of the series of fields for woven gauze fabrics write the mean value and the standard deviation is the square holes in square millimeters.The index definition and the average area of the holes for fabrics obtained according to the present invention, and tissue by known solutions analyzed in a similar way, using the levels of detection, defined during the analysis of the woven gauze.For an index definition measurement fields are remembered, and the results are calculated, for example, Lotos 1-2-3. The index definition is displayed as the average index definition. After accumulation characteristic data for each tissue are recorded the mean and standard deviation, which is called the average area of the holes.Fabrics according to the present invention, have an index definition, measured by the method described above, 0.5 or more. The most used fabric according to the present invention, have an index definition of 0.6 or more, although the preferred fabric of the present invention have the index definition is 0.75 or more.Determination of standard density.The calculated standard density is the density of the fiber bundles in perforated fabric with which the beak of the picture, and fabric density, calculated using specific fabric weight in grams per square centimeter divided by the average thickness (in centimeters) of the fiber bundles. Measurements for determining the estimated standard density spend on non-woven material without binder.The method of determining the estimated standard density, which is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter, perforated non-woven materials is given below.The analysis requires the determination of the specific fabric weight in grams per square centimeter (g/cm2)-(WT), measure the thickness (Z) of the fiber bundles in centimeters (cm) and analysis on the index definition to obtain the fraction of the area (FC), which is covered with a fiber pad pattern.The standard test procedure, such A S TM 0/3776, used for determining the specific weight of the fabric. The thickness of the fiber clots can be determined using image Analyzer Leica Quantimet 0,520 for measuring cross-section through the fiber clots.To prepare the fabric for image analysis the thickness of the fiber clumps, revealing the tissue sample is immersed in a transparent resin (for example, the resin "Araldite TM"), and Poperechnaya blade.Serial cross-sectional thickness 0,027 cm, cut in machine and in transverse him directions fabric and fixed on glass microscope slides using an optical adhesive 60 Norland as mounting medium.On microscopic examination of a series of sections in comparison with the original piece of fabric which is subjected to analysis, cross-sections, representing the fiber clumps are marked for measurement. Cross-section of the fiber bundles in the non-woven material is chosen from a cut made in the area, about halfway between design arching ligaments and mutually linked site, or if the construction of the "arc connection is missing between two interconnected nodes. Cross-section of the fiber bundles in non-woven materials by known solutions are selected with a cut made approximately in the middle between interconnected nodes.The thickness of each of the selected fiber clot is identified as the length of a line drawn through the cross-section from the border, representing one surface of the cloth to the border, representing the opposite surface. The length of the lines representing the thickness of each thread of a bunch Sebastopol area covered by fiber drawing, obtained from the analysis of the index definition.Next, calculate the estimated standard density, expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm3), according to the following formula:
The calculated Standard Density = WT/(Z + FC)
The determination of the density of the fabric.Below is the method of determining the density of tissue perforated nonwoven material. Tissue density is a value calculated on the weight of fabric per unit area in grams per square centimeter, the thickness of the fabric in inches and fractions of square representing the coated fiber square pattern in the fabric.Units of measure tissue density is grams per cubic centimeter.Standard testing methods (for example, AS TMD-1777 and D-3776) used to measure the weight per unit area and thickness. Expect then bulk tissue by dividing the weight per unit area thickness, it is expressed in grams per cubic centimeter. The fraction of the area representing the coated fiber square pattern in the tissue, is the value of the fiber cover, obtained from the analysis of the index definition (see above). Further, the density of the fabric is calculated dividing the bulk tissue at the fraction of the area (FC).
the method at least, 0.14 g/cm3and above, although the preferred fabric according to the present invention have a calculated standard density of at least 0.17 g/cm3.After the invention is described with its characteristic features and examples in the form in which it can be implemented in practice, to a person skilled in the art it is obvious that you can spend numerous measurements, options, and expansion of key entered here principles, without disturbing creatures and scope of the invention. 1. Non-woven material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups, consisting of many parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments, wherein Preobrazhenie fiber groups of interconnected nodes by fibers common to a variety of groups, to form a predetermined pattern of holes in the material, while at least some of przeobrasenia fiber groups include fiber segments wrapped circumferentially around at least part of the periphery of parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments.2. The material under item 1, characterized in that twisted around the circumference cha is a rule through them.3. The material under item 1, characterized in that twisted around the circumference of the part is located essentially in the center of the fiber groups, between interconnected nodes.4. The material under item 1, characterized in that the many parallel and compressed fiber segments in some of the fiber groups have a helical course.5. The material under item 1, characterized in that a lot swirling around the circumference of the parts located between the interconnected nodes.6. The material under item 1, characterized in that the nodes contain a lot of fiber segments, some of the fiber segments are straight, and the other fiber segments have a bend on the 90oor are diagonally inside the node.7. The material on p. 6, wherein the nodes include fiber elements, passing in the direction of the thickness of the material.8. Material that contains many reallocated fibers for education przeobrasenia fiber groups in which the fibers in the form of segments within the group pressed and essentially parallel, characterized in that it contains several badly matted areas, some of which link Preobrazhenie fiber groups, and other times what about the tangled area, located in przeobrazeniu fiber group, is located essentially in the center between adjacent matted areas, which are mutually connected Preobrazhenie fiber group.10. Material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups containing many parallel and tightly compressed fiber segments, wherein Preobrazhenie fiber groups of interconnected nodes by fibers common to several groups for the formation of a predetermined pattern of holes, while the fiber segments, at least some of przeobrasenia groups, twisted for the passage of fiber segments in a spiral when passing along przeobrazeniu fiber group.11. Material that contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups, characterized in that it contains many przeobrasenia fiber groups of interconnected nodes by fibers common to a variety of groups, to form a material with predetermined pattern of holes, and the material has an index of sharpness of at least 0.5 and the calculated density of przeobrasenia area of at least 0.14 g/m3.12. The material on p. 11, characterized in that the index definition is 0.6.14. The material on p. 11, characterized in that the index definition is 0.75.15. The material on p. 14, characterized in that the current density przeobrasenia area is 0.17 g/cm3.16. Device for the manufacture of nonwoven material having a predefined pattern of openings formed przeobrazili fiber groups of interconnected nodes, containing supporting element for supporting thereon a fiber layer, and means for simultaneously releasing the neighboring liquid flows on the initial layer of fiber fabric, the individual fiber elements which are able to move under the applied liquid forces, characterized in that the supporting element is made three-dimensional and has a profiled surface to maintain it fiber cloth, while supporting element has lots located on one of its surface on the image pyramids, each of which consists of vertices, Foundation and several parties, running from top to bottom, and sides of the pyramids are at an angle to the horizontal surface of the support element, more than 55o, the support element includes a lot done in the Chania neighboring liquid flows made with the possibility of release thread at the top of the pyramid.17. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the holes are located in areas where the sides of the pyramids agree with the supporting element.18. The device under item 17, characterized in that the holes pass up the sides of the pyramids.19. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that each pyramid has four sides.20. The device according to p. 19, characterized in that the tops of the pyramids are aligned along and across the support element.21. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that it includes holes on the sides of the pyramids and the holes in the corners of the pyramids.22. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the holes have an oval shape.23. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the holes are oval and pass along part of the sides of adjacent pyramids and through the corners, where four of the pyramid.24. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the sides of the pyramids are at an angle of at least 70oto the horizontal surface of the support element for a part of the side of the pyramid and the parties then have an angle less than 70oto the horizontal surface from this part to the top of the pyramid.25. The device according to p. 16, characterized in that the sides of the pyramids are on audiusa fact, what holes are made round and have a diameter essentially equal to the distance between the bases of adjacent pyramids.27. Device for the manufacture of redistributed non-woven fabric layer of the initial fiber cloth, the individual fibers of which are able to move under the action of applied forces liquid containing the reference element to maintain it fiber fabric, characterized in that the supporting element is designed in the form of a rotatable hollow drum having a few pyramids extending from the outer surface of the drum, while the pyramids are located along the axis and around the circumference of the drum, each pyramid has a top, a base and a few parties, running from top to bottom, and the sides of the pyramids are at an angle of more than 55oto the surface of the drum, the latter is made with holes arranged in a given pattern, the device has means for placing fiber layer on the tops of the pyramids on top of the periphery of the drum, means for simultaneously throwing adjacent liquid streams on the fiber layer, and then the pyramids, then through the window at the drum, concentrated outside of the drum, means for rotating the drum upon release of the displacement of the drum and means for removing the redistributed material from the drum surface.28. A method of manufacturing a non-woven material containing groups of fiber segments that are located at intervals with holes and formed from a layer of randomly distributed overlapping fibers in frictional their adhesion to each other, consisting in moving the fibers under the influence of applied fluid forces, and the supporting layer in place across the area intended for treatment, while maintaining its integrity, characterized in that, thus supporting the layer, moving segments of fibers in the layer sideways from areas of the layer are placed with a gap on the sides and longitudinally from one another, in closer proximity to the segments and increased parallelism with segments of adjacent fibers lying between placed at intervals of areas, simultaneously moving segments of fibers in the district go around segments of fibers that have moved into closer proximity with increased parallelism, with the application of forces to the approximate centers of each directly adjacent pair of spaced intervals zones, while forces are oppositely directed lateral carrying components of force acting parallel to the plane of the layer and to assist with Ged layer and parallel to this plane and other torque forces in the plane of the fiber layer and perpendicular to this plane.
FIELD: fire-resistant materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabricating fire-resistant material suitable to make filter-type individual respiratory defense systems. Material contains base in the form of cloth with, applied on one of its sides, discrete fire-retardant emulsion polyvinylchloride-based coating. Material additionally contains similar coating applied on its other side and, situated on its opposite sides, facing cotton/ester textile layer and reverse cotton textile layer. Base cloth consists of carbon-containing material.
EFFECT: enhanced fire-resistant and heat-resistant properties with high air permeability and thereby defense against poisons preserved.
1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: fire-resistant materials.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to fabricating fire-resistant material suitable to make filter-type individual respiratory defense systems. Material contains textile sheet with, applied thereon, emulsion polyvinylchloride-based fire-retardant composition in the form of discrete layer. Material additionally has, on its reverse side, (i) a sorption layer constituted mainly by carbon-containing material with, applied on its both sides or on the side being in front of facing layer, discrete coating based on polyvinylchloride containing fire retardants, and (ii) reverse layer containing woven or unwoven material made from cotton, viscose, synthetic fibers or mixtures thereof.
EFFECT: acquired high fire-resistant and heat-resistant properties with high air permeability and thereby defense against poisons preserved.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: laminated fire-proof materials.
SUBSTANCE: method involves applying fire-retarding material on tissue web to create the first discrete layer, wherein the fire-retarding material is based on emulsified polyvinylchloride; placing the second tissue web on the first one; covering the second tissue web with the same fire-retarding material to form the second discrete layer; arranging the third tissue web on the second one and simultaneously hardening the first and the second discrete layers.
EFFECT: increased thermal protection, fire-resistance, improved protection against poisonous agents and increased labor productivity.
FIELD: chemical industry; other industries; methods and the heads for production of the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers made out of the oriented films.
SUBSTANCE: the invention presents the laminate with the lengthwise-transversal orientation of the layers formed out of the films, from which at least two of them have mono-axial or unbalanced two-axial orientation, in which the main direction of the orientation in one of these films intersects the main direction of the orientation in other film and have the modifications of the surface properties executed in the certain tracery of these two films on those their surfaces, which are disposed inside the laminate and are connected with each other. The surface layers of the films located inside contain the set of filaments made out of the material produced by the joint extrusion, and are located so, that these two sets on two films intersect each other. The filaments may by used for control over the adhesion between the films and for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending. It allows to use the laminate in the capacity of the canvas cloth. In the combination with creation of the relief at least on one film, the main layer of which is made transparent for formation of the strips. At that the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate. The visual effect makes the laminate to look more heavy-gage.
EFFECT: the invention ensures, that the filaments used in the laminate may by used for control over the adhesion between the films, for reduction of the trend to delamination at the multiple bending allowing to use the laminate as the canvas cloth and the colored filaments attach the attractive visual effects to the laminate.
58 cl, 7 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: aircraft industry.
SUBSTANCE: layered panel comprises at least two interconnected stacks of metallic layers and plastic layers reinforced with fibers. The stacks have intermediate section `at which at least one of the internal layers is discontinuous. All other layers including outer metallic layers are continuous. Within the material, one stack of layered composition is smoothly goes into the other without onset of stress concentration.
EFFECT: enhanced strength.
14 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: there is disclosed three-dimensional apertured film containing the first plane surface in the first default plane, the second plane surface in the second default plane and a set of apertures passing between the first and second surfaces. The three-dimensional apertured film also comprises at least one element that overlaps each set of apertures to form thereby a set of smaller apertures. The element overlapping each aperture has an upper face arranged below the first default plane.
EFFECT: three-dimensional apertured film has improved properties in processing the fluid when used in disposable absorbing products.
57 cl, 11 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of forming a multilayer elastomeric laminate for clothes and a hygienic product, to a multilayer elastomeric laminate and an article made therefrom. The method involves the following: a) laminating an elastomeric film onto a first substrate to form a laminate web having an elastomeric film surface, where the elastomeric film contains an elastomeric polymer selected from a group consisting of block copolymers of vinyl arylene and conjugated diene monomers, natural rubber, polyurethane rubber, polyester rubber, elastomeric polyolefins, elastomeric polyamides and mixtures thereof, and the first substrate is made from a polymer film, non-woven fabric, a paper article, woven fabric, knitted fabric, scrim, netting or a combination thereof; b) slitting the laminate web to form laminate strips; and c) bonding the surface of the elastomeric film of at least one laminate strip with a second substrate having a width greater than the width of the laminate strip to form a multilayer elastomeric laminate, where the second substrate is made from a polymer film, non-woven fabric, a paper article, woven fabric, knitted fabric, scrim, netting or a combination thereof.
EFFECT: efficient manufacturing of an elastomeric film having good elastomeric properties and good-looking surface structure after activation, which can be rolled and stored without monitoring.
20 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a perforated film, a method of producing a perforated film for packaging, storage container made from said film and method of filling the storage container with powdered material. The perforated film has at least one layer made from a composition which contains at least one thermoplastic polymer, where at least one layer has perforations whose dimensions are less than or equal to 90 micrometres (mcm), and the ratio of the total perforated area to the total area of the surface of the film is between 400000 and 2000000 square micrometres per square inch of the film ((mcm)2/(inch)2) (62000 - 310000 ((mcm)2/(cm)2).
EFFECT: obtaining storage container made from said perforated film, having a combination of perforation dimensions and density of perforations, which enables efficient removal of air when filling the container with fine powder substances under pressure.
51 cl, 3 tbl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the technology of obtaining elastomeric materials and particularly to processing surfaces of elastomer films in order to prevent creating in a roll. The method involves forming a film layer from an elastomeric polymer from a block-copolymer of vinyl arylene and conjugated diene monomers, which can be stretched by at least 150% of the initial size and then shrink to not more than 120% of the initial size. An anti-crease coating layer is applied on the first surface of the film. The coating consists of a solvent and an anti-crease coating component selected from lacquer and a surfactant. The film is rolled into a roll, the anti-crease coating component being in contact with the second surface of the film.
EFFECT: efficient method of processing surfaces of elastomer films to prevent creasing in a roll.
18 cl, 5 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: this invention relates to non-sticking multilayer elastomer film and to method of its production. Proposed film comprises first fragile polymer film layer that may not expand to over 110% of its initial size without breakage or cracking, and second elastomer layer. Said first layer is bonded with first surface of said second elastomer layer. First layer represents polystyrene while second layer is selected from the group comprising block-copolymer of styrene and elastomer of polyolefin. Multilayer may be activated by breaking first fragile polymer layer and imparting elastoplasticity to multilayer film. Film layer that may expand to approx. 150% of its initial size and recover after expansion to not over 120% of its initial size. Proposed method comprises producing non-sticking multilayer film layer and activating non-sticking multilayer film with destruction of fragile polymer film layer along with imparting elastoplasticity to multilayer film.
EFFECT: possibility to roll elastomer film and store without its sticking.
19 cl, 8 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: textiles, paper.
SUBSTANCE: non-woven conductive fabric contains cellulose fibers combined with conductive fibers in the form of carbon fibers. In one version of the invention these fabrics are made with method of wet packing of tissue.
EFFECT: improved reliability and performance of indicators of fabric moisture taking into account absorption rate of moisture by the fabric, preventing false alarms of metal detector due to eliminating of metal conductive elements.
20 cl, 14 dwg, 3 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention relates to polyvinyl alcohol nonwoven films and fabrics and method of obtaining them. Nonwoven air-permeable fabric or film contains polyvinyl alcohol and has at least one coalesced surface layer, containing low porous polyvinyl alcohol, and layer, consisting in fact from fibrous polyvinyl alcohol. Said coalesced layer is more susceptible to heat transmission that said fibrous layer. Method of selective modification of surface of polyvinyl alcohol film or fabric is realised by selective coalescing of at least one surface of polyvinyl alcohol by means of heat and water with formation of low porous surface layer, attached to layer of non-modified polyvinyl alcohol. Film or fabric are soluble at higher temperatures.
EFFECT: provided is obtaining outer surface of polyvinyl alcohol air-permeable fabric with unlimitedly regulated porosity and susceptibility to heat transmission, instant dissolution in water with temperature 80-90°C.
19 cl, 8 dwg, 3 ex
FIELD: manufacture of circular fibrous articles, in particular fibrous carcasses for producing of reinforcing base for circular articles made from composite material and produced by die compaction of carcasses.
SUBSTANCE: method involves laying non-bound fibers onto rotating table using hollow laying conical roll comprising outer conical shell defining cavity and equipped with plurality of through openings. Conical roll is positioned above table in such a manner that its generatrix is in the vicinity of table upper surface, substantially in parallel with it, in zone of laying of fibers onto table.
EFFECT: simplified and economic process for manufacture of circular fibrous carcasses.
16 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises at least one device to realise process of spunbond material production. To form the first web of nonwoven material on the first tape, and at least one device to realise process of meltblown material production, to form the second web of nonwoven material on the second web. At the same time the second tape places the second web on the first web to form combined spunbond-meltblown web.
EFFECT: production of method and device, which make it possible to apply pattern during spunbond process, and production of combined nonwoven spunbond and meltblown materials, onto which the pattern is applied.
14 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: textile, paper.
SUBSTANCE: moulding cloth to be used contains multiple bulges of specified size and shape arranged in the form of pattern or net determining dimensions and shape of produced sheets of non-woven material, besides, specified bulges are air-permeable.
EFFECT: moulding cloth makes it possible to reduce subsequent treatment of non-woven material, excluding operation of cutting or separation of non-woven material into smaller separate sheets.
23 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: printing industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of non-woven material, having on its surface, distributed elements with physical dimensions, which can be used for cleaning in various applications. Described is a continuous production method of printing non-woven material, including screen printing wet material required shape using thixotropic water-based paste. Paste contains a thermoplastic polymer, a leavening agent, a rheology modifier additive for surface tension and a cross-linking agent. Concentration of solid material in paste is 15-45 wt%.
EFFECT: invention provides non-woven material, having on its surface distributed elements with physical dimensions with abrasive, decorative and/or anti-sliding properties without need for expensive and labour-consuming operations of post-processing.
9 cl, 7 dwg, 13 tbl, 12 ex