The method of purification of domestic wastewater and installation for its implementation

 

(57) Abstract:

The use of Autonomous systems of sewage treatment courts, separate buildings. The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of wastewater treatment while reducing the size of the installation. For this purpose the waste water is subjected to elektrookislenie, electrocautery, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate selection of suspended solids, and ozonation produced in the body of the second filter stage containing sorption material, continuously regenerating liver ozone in the body of the filter. In addition to insoluble electrodes of the electrocoagulator serves a DC voltage U = 6-12 B; for interim allocation of suspended solids after primary electrocoagulation use vibratility; as sorption download using macroporous activated carbon d = 2.8 to 5 mm; the allocation of coagulated particles formed as a result of ozonation, to produce a granular filter third stage; waste ozone-air mixture is used for predatirovaniya. And installation for the treatment of wastewater containing reservoir equalizing tank, grille, pump, coagulator, the filter is mi and graphite electrodes, vibroplita for the initial allocation of suspended solids, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third and fourth stages, and site sludge treatment - compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge. Additionally, the filters of the first and fourth stages have a granular load, and the filters of the second and third stages - loading with activated carbon. As follows from the experimental data using the proposed method and installation for its implementation provides compared to the prototype of the higher reliability of wastewater treatment and reduce the size of the installation for its implementation. 2 C. I. 12 C.p. f-crystals., 1 table, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of wastewater treatment, similar in composition to household, and can be used in stand-alone wastewater treatment courts, separate buildings.

A known method of purification of natural waters and installation for its implementation [1] , including natural biocenosis, microfiltration, ozonation, coagulation, clarification, filtration and disinfection.

However, this method cannot E organic compounds of biological origin, and may also include petroleum products and Spewy that requires a deeper oxidation with subsequent sorption.

Known installation comprising a pump station, filter, filter dryer, contact the chamber of the primary ozonation, mixer, camera, flocculation, settling tank, filter, contact the chamber of the secondary ozonation and chlorine dispenser.

A disadvantage of the known installation is that it cannot carry out high quality wastewater treatment complex organic compounds of biological origin, petroleum products and Savov.

Moreover, in the known method, the coagulation is carried out using reagents that entails a large flow rate, the duration of the separation process and the complexity reagent.

The known method of wastewater treatment [2] by electrocoagulation using asymmetric alternating current with different duration and amplitude of the negative and positive pulses.

However, only the use of electrocoagulation method does not allow to achieve a high degree of purification, especially for wastewater with irregular mode of abstraction, content complex orga these objects wastewater is uneven wastewater regulatory capacity not only by the clock, but on the day that leads to their decay.

The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method [3], which consists in averaging, chemical coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection with chlorine or ozone wastewater.

However, the known method has the following disadvantages. First, the lack of reliability of wastewater treatment, which is:

- to use the known method flow model wastewater treatment;

in educational opportunities, residual suspended after ozonation as a result of oxidation with ozone dissolved organic substances;

- in single-stage filter.

In addition, the use of the reagent coagulation entails a high consumption of expensive reagents, a considerable amount of sediment, the duration of the separation process and the complexity reagent. As well as the ozone dose applied at the last stage of treatment for disinfection of effluent is very high at 50 - 55 mg/l, which leads to high power consumption and large size ozonizer unit.

Well-known [3] , containing a grid with Ristau download, contact camera site sludge treatment, the nodes in the preparation and dispensing of coagulant and flocculant, the ozonizer.

A disadvantage of the known installation is the lack of reliability of wastewater treatment and large dimensions.

The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of wastewater treatment while reducing the size of the installation.

For this purpose the waste water is subjected to elektrookislenie, electrocautery, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate selection of suspended solids, and ozonation produced in the body of the second filter stage containing sorption material, continuously regenerating liver ozone in the body of the filter, in addition:

- insoluble electrodes of the electrocoagulator serves a DC voltage of U = 6 - 12 B;

for interim allocation of suspended solids after primary electrocoagulation use vibratility;

as sorption download using macroporous activated carbon d = 2.8 to 5 mm;

- allocation of coagulated particles formed as a result of ozonation, to produce a granular filter third stage;

- developed ozone is tank-averager, bars, pump, coagulator, a filter with granular filling, ozonator and site sludge treatment with cell first stage with aluminum and graphite electrodes, vibroplita for the initial allocation of suspended solids, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third and fourth stages, and site sludge treatment equipped with a compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge. Additionally, the filters of the first and fourth stages have a granular load, and the filters of the second and third stages - loading with activated charcoal.

The reliability of the proposed method of wastewater treatment is the use of cellular models in the electrocoagulation processes and filtering. It yacheechnye models allow us to divide the process of cleaning stairs with lower load ranges for each of them and reduce the likelihood of longitudinal leakage of contaminants [4], which distinguishes the proposed method from the known purification method, which uses the flow-through model.

In known methods of bubble dissolution of ozone in water apply one or mnogosloinykh installations this method is unacceptable because of the large size of the equipment. Ejection methods of mixing require large pressures in the supply system of the treated fluid and additional mixing devices, which also leads to an increase in size. In the proposed method, bubble dissolution of ozone is carried out in the body of the filter of the second stage loading activated carbon.

When the bubbling liquid ozone-air mixture in countercurrent column 6 meters in height [5] through the filter plate with a dispersion of gas bubbles to d = 2 - 3 mm, the speed of their ascent is 0.7 - 1.0 m/s

Experimental research has shown that with the proposed method of sparging wastewater with ozone-air mixture through the column with filter material with particle size of 3 to 5 mm, the average rate of ascent of gas bubbles d = 2 - 3 mm is 0.3 - 0.4 m/s, which is explained by the increase in the movement path of the bubble ozone, in addition, during the passage of the bubble filter loading deformation of its surface, which provides a more intensive mass transfer. Thus, the use of ozonation in the body of the filter allows to reduce the height of the bubble column 3 times. And use as filter loading macroporous activerow solution, but on the surface and in the pores of the sorption download. However, after saturation of the sorbent needs to be regenerated. Known methods propose to update download without regeneration, regenerating download by heat treatment or recovery of solutions of chemical reagents. The first two regeneration methods require unloading of the sorbent, which is time-consuming and difficult operation. Regeneration of the chemical reagents is carried out in the body of the filter, but requires a large consumption of organic solvent and subsequent thorough washing of the sorbent from him. The use of ozonation in the body of the filter allows you to continuously regenerate the sorbent ozone. Hence, the use of ozonation in the body of the filter of the second stage can increase the reliability of wastewater treatment and significantly reduce the size of the installation.

Thus, the reliability of the method of sewage treatment is provided by:

- primary elektrookislenie, which makes change potential and the formation of hypochlorite ion, which is an oxidizer and disinfectant agent;

- two electrocoagulation;

- a four-stage filtration;

the use of contact-sorption th download for continuous regeneration;

- additional mechanical filtration after ozonation for detention suspended particles - the newly formed Michel;

- use of waste ozone-air mixture in the tank-the averager as predatirovaniya to reduce the risk of rotting sewage.

In the study conducted by the patent and scientific literature revealed no features that distinguish the invention from the prototype, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "significant signs".

The distinctive characteristics in comparison with the prototype, allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed device, the criterion of "novelty".

The drawing shows the setup diagram for a method of wastewater treatment.

Installation for sewage treatment contains a reservoir equalizing tank 1 for collecting, managing and averaging wastewater, coarse grating 2 with mechanized waste disposal, the feed pump 3, the cell-coagulator 4 first stage containing aluminum 5 and graphite electrodes 6, electrocoagulator 7 second stage with soluble anodes, the first filter stage -8 with granular filling, the second filter chetverti stage 11 with granular filling, exhaust fan 12, vibratility 13 with fabric filter surface, the ozone generator 14 and the node sludge treatment, including a compactor 15, a drum dryer-crusher 16, the hopper 17 for unloading and packaging of dry sediment, electric heater 18.

The proposed method is as follows.

Waste water is collected in the tank-the equalizing tank 1, is a coarse grating 2 and the pump 3 is supplied to a clearing in the cell-coagulator 4 first stage containing aluminum 5 and graphite electrodes 6, which is coming to vibratility 13 for primary precipitate, and then passes electrocoagulator 7 second stage with soluble anodes and decimals and decontaminated on the filters 8, 9, 10, 11 of the first, second, third and fourth levels, deep cleaning and disinfection of wastewater is carried out by ozonation in the body of the filter 9 of the second stage, by applying an ozone from the ozone generator 14. Delayed by vibroplita 13 sediment is compacted in a compactor 15 and served in a drum dryer-crusher 16, is dried using an electric heater 18, and delimitations dried precipitate is given on the packaging. Proven ozone-air mixture supplied to the tank-the tank-equalizing tank 1 is carried out by means of the exhaust fan 12. Filter washing 8,11 with granular booting from a network of pressurized water, the washing water discharged into the receiving tank equalizing tank 1.

Example

1. The source water pollution

COD, mg O2/l - 240 - 400

With suspended, mg/l 1200

NH+4mg/l - 12 - 15

NO-2mg/l - 20 - 25

With H. p., mg/l 10 - 20

Total number of bacteria, PCs/ml 1000000

2.Residual contamination of the water after electrobraid and the precipitate was:

COD, mg O2/l - 50 - 70

With TOD. in-in, mg/l - 50 - 60

NH+4(mg/l 8 - 10

NO-2(mg/l 0,1

C. N. p., mg/l 2

3. Next, the water passes the filters of the first, second, third, fourth stage, ozonation (ozone dose is 10 mg/l). At the output of the installation water has the following characteristics:

COD, mg O2/l - 15

With TOD. in-in, mg/l 3 - 5

NH+4(mg/l 0,5

NO-2(mg/l 0,001

NO3(mg/l 4 - 5

With H. p., mg/l < 0,05

Total number of bacteria, PCs/ml < 100

The table shows the comparative characteristics of treated wastewater the proposed cleaning method and a known manner [3].

As follows from experimental data, represented by E. the prototype of the higher reliability of wastewater treatment and reduce the size of the installation for its implementation.

Sources of information

1. A. S. N 1162754, CL 02 F 9/00.

2. A. S. N 981240, CL 02 F 1/46.

Recommendations for design and operation of physical-chemical wastewater treatment in small settlements located in areas with severe climate. - M.: Institute of VODGEO of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1989.

Century Century Kafarov.Methods of Cybernetics in chemistry and chemical technology. - M.-L.: Chemistry, 1971.

The guide designer. Sanitation of settlements and industrial enterprises./ Ed Samokhina Century. N. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1981.

1. The method of purification of domestic wastewater, including averaging, coagulation, ozonation, filtration, sludge separation and processing, removing purified water, wherein the waste water is subjected to electrocoagulation, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate separation of the precipitate, and four-stage filtration, the electrocoagulation in the first stage are simultaneously elektrookislenie in an electrolyzer equipped with blocks of insoluble and soluble electrodes, and a four-stage filtering is performed in case of ozonation in the filters of the second and fourth stages, sorption and demetalization in the filters of the second and fourth stages, moreover, the second activated carbon, continuously regenerated during ozonation in the body of the filter.

2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the electrochemical oxidation is carried out at a feed per unit of insoluble electrodes DC voltage of 6 - 12th Century

3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that depassivation electrodes in the block is carried out by periodic polarity reversal.

4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the intermediate sludge separation after electrocoagulation of the first stage is carried out vibropile.

5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the capacity of a filter of the second stage using macroporous activated carbon with a diameter of 2,8 - 5,0 mm

6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the capacity of a filter third stage using macroporous activated carbon diameter 0,5 - 2,8 mm

7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a neutral granular load filters the first and fourth stages are used, for example, quartz sand, crushed limestone, burnt rock or other material fractions 1 2 mm

8. The method according to PP. 1 and 7, characterized in that the regeneration of the filters of the second and fourth stages produced by the hot mixture after the filters of the second and fourth stages is sent to the averager.

10. The method according to PP. 1 and 4, characterized in that separated vibropile sediment compacted, dried, crushed and stacked.

11. Plant for treatment of wastewater containing reservoir equalizing tank, grille, pump, coagulator, a filter with granular filling, ozonator and site sludge treatment, characterized in that it is provided an electrolyzer, a coagulator with blocks of insoluble and soluble electrodes, vibroplita for primary precipitate, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third, and fourth stages, and the node sludge treatment equipped with a compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge.

12. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that the filters of the first and fourth stages are neutral granular load, and the filters of the second and third stage sorption granular loading of activated carbon.

13. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that as a neutral granular load is used, for example, quartz sand, crushed limestone, burnt rock or other local materials faction 1,0 2,0 mm

14. Installation according to p. 11, atricauda the requirements of the second stage and fractions of 0.5 2.8 mm in the filter third stage.

 

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