The method of purification of domestic wastewater and installation for its implementation
(57) Abstract:The use of Autonomous systems of sewage treatment courts, separate buildings. The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of wastewater treatment while reducing the size of the installation. For this purpose the waste water is subjected to elektrookislenie, electrocautery, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate selection of suspended solids, and ozonation produced in the body of the second filter stage containing sorption material, continuously regenerating liver ozone in the body of the filter. In addition to insoluble electrodes of the electrocoagulator serves a DC voltage U = 6-12 B; for interim allocation of suspended solids after primary electrocoagulation use vibratility; as sorption download using macroporous activated carbon d = 2.8 to 5 mm; the allocation of coagulated particles formed as a result of ozonation, to produce a granular filter third stage; waste ozone-air mixture is used for predatirovaniya. And installation for the treatment of wastewater containing reservoir equalizing tank, grille, pump, coagulator, the filter is mi and graphite electrodes, vibroplita for the initial allocation of suspended solids, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third and fourth stages, and site sludge treatment - compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge. Additionally, the filters of the first and fourth stages have a granular load, and the filters of the second and third stages - loading with activated carbon. As follows from the experimental data using the proposed method and installation for its implementation provides compared to the prototype of the higher reliability of wastewater treatment and reduce the size of the installation for its implementation. 2 C. I. 12 C.p. f-crystals., 1 table, 1 Il. The invention relates to the field of wastewater treatment, similar in composition to household, and can be used in stand-alone wastewater treatment courts, separate buildings.A known method of purification of natural waters and installation for its implementation  , including natural biocenosis, microfiltration, ozonation, coagulation, clarification, filtration and disinfection.However, this method cannot E organic compounds of biological origin, and may also include petroleum products and Spewy that requires a deeper oxidation with subsequent sorption.Known installation comprising a pump station, filter, filter dryer, contact the chamber of the primary ozonation, mixer, camera, flocculation, settling tank, filter, contact the chamber of the secondary ozonation and chlorine dispenser.A disadvantage of the known installation is that it cannot carry out high quality wastewater treatment complex organic compounds of biological origin, petroleum products and Savov.Moreover, in the known method, the coagulation is carried out using reagents that entails a large flow rate, the duration of the separation process and the complexity reagent.The known method of wastewater treatment  by electrocoagulation using asymmetric alternating current with different duration and amplitude of the negative and positive pulses.However, only the use of electrocoagulation method does not allow to achieve a high degree of purification, especially for wastewater with irregular mode of abstraction, content complex orga these objects wastewater is uneven wastewater regulatory capacity not only by the clock, but on the day that leads to their decay.The closest in technical essence of the present invention is a method , which consists in averaging, chemical coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection with chlorine or ozone wastewater.However, the known method has the following disadvantages. First, the lack of reliability of wastewater treatment, which is:
- to use the known method flow model wastewater treatment;
in educational opportunities, residual suspended after ozonation as a result of oxidation with ozone dissolved organic substances;
- in single-stage filter.In addition, the use of the reagent coagulation entails a high consumption of expensive reagents, a considerable amount of sediment, the duration of the separation process and the complexity reagent. As well as the ozone dose applied at the last stage of treatment for disinfection of effluent is very high at 50 - 55 mg/l, which leads to high power consumption and large size ozonizer unit.Well-known  , containing a grid with Ristau download, contact camera site sludge treatment, the nodes in the preparation and dispensing of coagulant and flocculant, the ozonizer.A disadvantage of the known installation is the lack of reliability of wastewater treatment and large dimensions.The aim of the invention is to improve the reliability of wastewater treatment while reducing the size of the installation.For this purpose the waste water is subjected to elektrookislenie, electrocautery, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate selection of suspended solids, and ozonation produced in the body of the second filter stage containing sorption material, continuously regenerating liver ozone in the body of the filter, in addition:
- insoluble electrodes of the electrocoagulator serves a DC voltage of U = 6 - 12 B;
for interim allocation of suspended solids after primary electrocoagulation use vibratility;
as sorption download using macroporous activated carbon d = 2.8 to 5 mm;
- allocation of coagulated particles formed as a result of ozonation, to produce a granular filter third stage;
- developed ozone is tank-averager, bars, pump, coagulator, a filter with granular filling, ozonator and site sludge treatment with cell first stage with aluminum and graphite electrodes, vibroplita for the initial allocation of suspended solids, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third and fourth stages, and site sludge treatment equipped with a compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge. Additionally, the filters of the first and fourth stages have a granular load, and the filters of the second and third stages - loading with activated charcoal.The reliability of the proposed method of wastewater treatment is the use of cellular models in the electrocoagulation processes and filtering. It yacheechnye models allow us to divide the process of cleaning stairs with lower load ranges for each of them and reduce the likelihood of longitudinal leakage of contaminants , which distinguishes the proposed method from the known purification method, which uses the flow-through model.In known methods of bubble dissolution of ozone in water apply one or mnogosloinykh installations this method is unacceptable because of the large size of the equipment. Ejection methods of mixing require large pressures in the supply system of the treated fluid and additional mixing devices, which also leads to an increase in size. In the proposed method, bubble dissolution of ozone is carried out in the body of the filter of the second stage loading activated carbon.When the bubbling liquid ozone-air mixture in countercurrent column 6 meters in height  through the filter plate with a dispersion of gas bubbles to d = 2 - 3 mm, the speed of their ascent is 0.7 - 1.0 m/sExperimental research has shown that with the proposed method of sparging wastewater with ozone-air mixture through the column with filter material with particle size of 3 to 5 mm, the average rate of ascent of gas bubbles d = 2 - 3 mm is 0.3 - 0.4 m/s, which is explained by the increase in the movement path of the bubble ozone, in addition, during the passage of the bubble filter loading deformation of its surface, which provides a more intensive mass transfer. Thus, the use of ozonation in the body of the filter allows to reduce the height of the bubble column 3 times. And use as filter loading macroporous activerow solution, but on the surface and in the pores of the sorption download. However, after saturation of the sorbent needs to be regenerated. Known methods propose to update download without regeneration, regenerating download by heat treatment or recovery of solutions of chemical reagents. The first two regeneration methods require unloading of the sorbent, which is time-consuming and difficult operation. Regeneration of the chemical reagents is carried out in the body of the filter, but requires a large consumption of organic solvent and subsequent thorough washing of the sorbent from him. The use of ozonation in the body of the filter allows you to continuously regenerate the sorbent ozone. Hence, the use of ozonation in the body of the filter of the second stage can increase the reliability of wastewater treatment and significantly reduce the size of the installation.Thus, the reliability of the method of sewage treatment is provided by:
- primary elektrookislenie, which makes change potential and the formation of hypochlorite ion, which is an oxidizer and disinfectant agent;
- two electrocoagulation;
- a four-stage filtration;
the use of contact-sorption th download for continuous regeneration;
- additional mechanical filtration after ozonation for detention suspended particles - the newly formed Michel;
- use of waste ozone-air mixture in the tank-the averager as predatirovaniya to reduce the risk of rotting sewage.In the study conducted by the patent and scientific literature revealed no features that distinguish the invention from the prototype, which allows to conclude that the criterion of "significant signs".The distinctive characteristics in comparison with the prototype, allows to make a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed device, the criterion of "novelty".The drawing shows the setup diagram for a method of wastewater treatment.Installation for sewage treatment contains a reservoir equalizing tank 1 for collecting, managing and averaging wastewater, coarse grating 2 with mechanized waste disposal, the feed pump 3, the cell-coagulator 4 first stage containing aluminum 5 and graphite electrodes 6, electrocoagulator 7 second stage with soluble anodes, the first filter stage -8 with granular filling, the second filter chetverti stage 11 with granular filling, exhaust fan 12, vibratility 13 with fabric filter surface, the ozone generator 14 and the node sludge treatment, including a compactor 15, a drum dryer-crusher 16, the hopper 17 for unloading and packaging of dry sediment, electric heater 18.The proposed method is as follows.Waste water is collected in the tank-the equalizing tank 1, is a coarse grating 2 and the pump 3 is supplied to a clearing in the cell-coagulator 4 first stage containing aluminum 5 and graphite electrodes 6, which is coming to vibratility 13 for primary precipitate, and then passes electrocoagulator 7 second stage with soluble anodes and decimals and decontaminated on the filters 8, 9, 10, 11 of the first, second, third and fourth levels, deep cleaning and disinfection of wastewater is carried out by ozonation in the body of the filter 9 of the second stage, by applying an ozone from the ozone generator 14. Delayed by vibroplita 13 sediment is compacted in a compactor 15 and served in a drum dryer-crusher 16, is dried using an electric heater 18, and delimitations dried precipitate is given on the packaging. Proven ozone-air mixture supplied to the tank-the tank-equalizing tank 1 is carried out by means of the exhaust fan 12. Filter washing 8,11 with granular booting from a network of pressurized water, the washing water discharged into the receiving tank equalizing tank 1.Example
1. The source water pollution
COD, mg O2/l - 240 - 400
With suspended, mg/l 1200
NH+4mg/l - 12 - 15
NO-2mg/l - 20 - 25
With H. p., mg/l 10 - 20
Total number of bacteria, PCs/ml 1000000
2.Residual contamination of the water after electrobraid and the precipitate was:
COD, mg O2/l - 50 - 70
With TOD. in-in, mg/l - 50 - 60
NH+4(mg/l 8 - 10
C. N. p., mg/l 2
3. Next, the water passes the filters of the first, second, third, fourth stage, ozonation (ozone dose is 10 mg/l). At the output of the installation water has the following characteristics:
COD, mg O2/l - 15
With TOD. in-in, mg/l 3 - 5
NO3(mg/l 4 - 5
With H. p., mg/l < 0,05
Total number of bacteria, PCs/ml < 100
The table shows the comparative characteristics of treated wastewater the proposed cleaning method and a known manner .As follows from experimental data, represented by E. the prototype of the higher reliability of wastewater treatment and reduce the size of the installation for its implementation.Sources of information
1. A. S. N 1162754, CL 02 F 9/00.2. A. S. N 981240, CL 02 F 1/46.Recommendations for design and operation of physical-chemical wastewater treatment in small settlements located in areas with severe climate. - M.: Institute of VODGEO of Gosstroy of the USSR, 1989.Century Century Kafarov.Methods of Cybernetics in chemistry and chemical technology. - M.-L.: Chemistry, 1971.The guide designer. Sanitation of settlements and industrial enterprises./ Ed Samokhina Century. N. - M.: Stroiizdat, 1981. 1. The method of purification of domestic wastewater, including averaging, coagulation, ozonation, filtration, sludge separation and processing, removing purified water, wherein the waste water is subjected to electrocoagulation, which is carried out in two stages with intermediate separation of the precipitate, and four-stage filtration, the electrocoagulation in the first stage are simultaneously elektrookislenie in an electrolyzer equipped with blocks of insoluble and soluble electrodes, and a four-stage filtering is performed in case of ozonation in the filters of the second and fourth stages, sorption and demetalization in the filters of the second and fourth stages, moreover, the second activated carbon, continuously regenerated during ozonation in the body of the filter.2. The method according to p. 1, wherein the electrochemical oxidation is carried out at a feed per unit of insoluble electrodes DC voltage of 6 - 12th Century3. The method according to p. 2, characterized in that depassivation electrodes in the block is carried out by periodic polarity reversal.4. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the intermediate sludge separation after electrocoagulation of the first stage is carried out vibropile.5. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the capacity of a filter of the second stage using macroporous activated carbon with a diameter of 2,8 - 5,0 mm6. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that in the capacity of a filter third stage using macroporous activated carbon diameter 0,5 - 2,8 mm7. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that as a neutral granular load filters the first and fourth stages are used, for example, quartz sand, crushed limestone, burnt rock or other material fractions 1 2 mm8. The method according to PP. 1 and 7, characterized in that the regeneration of the filters of the second and fourth stages produced by the hot mixture after the filters of the second and fourth stages is sent to the averager.10. The method according to PP. 1 and 4, characterized in that separated vibropile sediment compacted, dried, crushed and stacked.11. Plant for treatment of wastewater containing reservoir equalizing tank, grille, pump, coagulator, a filter with granular filling, ozonator and site sludge treatment, characterized in that it is provided an electrolyzer, a coagulator with blocks of insoluble and soluble electrodes, vibroplita for primary precipitate, electrocoagulator second stage with soluble anodes, the filters of the first, second, third, and fourth stages, and the node sludge treatment equipped with a compactor, drum dryer-crusher, electric heater and a tank for unloading and stacking sludge.12. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that the filters of the first and fourth stages are neutral granular load, and the filters of the second and third stage sorption granular loading of activated carbon.13. Installation according to p. 11, characterized in that as a neutral granular load is used, for example, quartz sand, crushed limestone, burnt rock or other local materials faction 1,0 2,0 mm14. Installation according to p. 11, atricauda the requirements of the second stage and fractions of 0.5 2.8 mm in the filter third stage.
FIELD: training tools and devices for the training process.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of training tools and devices for the training process, in particular, with research of engineering and technology of the automated water supply systems, automatic control of a water supply system in a training process using engineering tools of the new information technologies of training. The multifunctional automated complex training-research laboratory consists of blocks connected in series and-or in parallel through intermediate tanks and devices of water-pump over and a water purification. The laboratory has a pumping plant of the first water rise connected by pressure conduits with chambers of switching with an intermediate tank of influent water, which through a pumping plant of the second water rise is interconnected with the technological apparatuses and blocks of the automated plant of the water purification including a block of clarification of water by settling, consisting of a chamber of a flocculation, a horizontal settler, a block of a reactant system, a block of a clarification of water in a suspension layer, including an air separator connected with a clarifier containing a suspended slurry bed, a block of a water clarification by filtration, that consists of a non-pressure fast and a pressure fast or ultra-speed filter with an intermediate tank of a clarified water, which through the pumping plant of the second water rise is connected to the apparatus of disinfection of water and is connected with an intermediate tank of purified water. The laboratory has an automated system of control over technological processes and a supervisory console with use of a PC and a symbolic circuit. The technical result is creation and implementation in the training-research process of the multifunction automated complex training-research laboratory operating in conditions of model engineering of real water supply systems.
EFFECT: the invention presents a created and introduced multifunction automated complex training-research laboratory operating in the real water supply systems.
18 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: swimming pools water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of water treatment, in particular, to purification and disinfection means of the recirculating water in the closed contours of swimming pools, which use the principle of operation based on a joint application of the ozone-sorption and vacuum-ejection equipment at utilization of chemical compounds of the metals possessing of oligodynamic properties. The water purification installation in a swimming pool contains located on a pipeline a circulation pump, a bypass trunk line, a sand filter, an ozonizer and an adjusting gate. Besides the installation is supplied with a unit of reception of solutions of disinfectants, the first ejection mixer, a unit of the sand filter disinfection, consisting of the second ejection mixer and the first function switch of the operation modes, a multi-nozzle ejection mixer; a sorption unit; a heat exchanger; a controller of ozone concentration in the recirculating water; a sensor of a reduction-oxidation potential; a transducer of the reduction-oxidation potential; a unit of primary water preparation, the second function switch of operation modes; a filter screen and the perforated pipeline. The technical result: increased sanitary-and-epidemiologic reliability of the waters purification processes and disinfection and also prevention of secondary bacterial pollution of a swimming pool.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased sanitary-and-epidemiologic reliability of the waters purification processes and disinfection prevention of a swimming pool secondary bacterial pollution.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: initial waste water is mixed with chloroform to extract dimethylacetamide and isobutyl alcohol and, after settling-assisted separation from chloroform, resulting mixture is passed through activated carbon. Thus purified water is then reused in process. Activated carbon is regenerated by chloroform. Chloroform loaded with desorbed substance and chloroform extract are combined and distilled to give dimethylacetamide, isobutyl alcohol, and chloroform. Distilled-off chloroform is divided into two streams, the first one being returned to regenerate activated carbon and the other is mixed with initial waste water.
EFFECT: reduced expenses due to reduced compound of costly adsorbent without loss in waste water treatment efficiency and enabled low-waste technology.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: alternate fuels.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a plant for reusing oil-containing wastes obtained from washing of oil storage tanks to produce secondary fuel. Plant has caisson for stratification of pollutants, waste-supply pumps, conduits with shutoff gate valves to discharge finished product, cleaning solution, and sludge. Plant is further provided with second caisson for purifying spent oil and heated third caisson to prepare stratifying solution, which caisson has bubbling pump, and, connected to both caissons, ejector mixer for mixing stratification agent with water and valve gate positioned between caissons. Bubbling pump is connected to first and second caissons through conduits with shutoff gate valves and first and second caissons are connected through shutoff gate valves to third caisson and to mixer for mixing purified mazut with purified motor oil, which mixer is provided with outlet tube for finished product.
EFFECT: achieved high quality of cleaning tanks by repetitive use of cleaning solution and leading to production of secondary fuel.
FIELD: plants for cleaning natural water and sewage from suspended particles; agriculture; public facilities; purification of natural water and sewage.
SUBSTANCE: proposed filtering plant is provided with superfast pressure filters located axisymmetrically, pressure pipe lines for delivery of starting water and discharge of filtrate, delivery of flushing water and discharge of dirty flushing water; these pipe lines are equipped with electrical gate valves which are fitted axisymmetrically on filter pipe lines. The following components are mounted at one axis vertically: cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among filters, cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among hydraulic cyclones, cylindrical pressure chamber for dirty flushing water and sludge water and cylindrical pressure chamber for filtrate. Plant is also provided with pressure hydraulic cyclones located axisymmetrically between cylindrical pressure chamber for distribution of starting water among filters and cylindrical pressure chamber for dirty flushing water and sludge water.
EFFECT: increased productivity; enhanced clarification of water.
2 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; bio-engineering; methods of purification of the concentrated waste waters.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to bio-engineering, in particular, to purification of the concentrated waste waters and may be used in chemical and petrochemical industries. The method of purification of the concentrated waste water containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes, includes an aerobic treatment with strains of bacteria Pseudomonas sp. VCPV-3893 and Rhodococcus sp. VCLMV-3892. At that before the stage of the aerobic treatment carry out a preliminary purification of the waste waters by a consecutive stages of treatment of the waste waters with an alkaline solution up to the pH value of no less than 9.5. Then conduct the further distillation of the treated flow at the temperature of the bottom distillation residue of the column of no less than 98°C and the duration of presence of no less than 0.2 hour. At that the bottom distillation residue of the column is directed to the stage of the aerobic treatment and the upper product of the column is directed to utilization. The method allows to purify effectively the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, and also peroxides and aldehydes.
EFFECT: the invention ensures effective purification of the concentrated waste waters containing aromatic hydrocarbons, their derivatives, peroxides and aldehydes.
FIELD: liquid purification by filtering.
SUBSTANCE: filter for multiple-stage filtering of liquid has chamber equipped with liquid flow inlet and liquid flow outlet; first filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said inlet, said first filter stage comprising material for removal of microorganisms; second filter stage provided within said chamber and fluidly communicating with said outlet, said second filter stage comprising activated carbon. Second filter stage is positioned in said chamber so as to allow liquid to flow through first filter stage before it flows through second filter stage. Filter has third filter stage provided within said chamber and positioned so as to allow liquid to flow through third filter stage before it flows through first filter stage. Third filter stage is made in the form of micro fiber glass web with pores having sizes reducing in the course of flow of the liquid.
EFFECT: increased efficiency in removal of various microorganisms from liquid.
33 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to apparatuses for treating household and compositionally related industrial waste waters as well as landscape waste waters and can be used in communal services of villages, urban settlements, tourist complexes, large recreation centers, when treating landscape sewages, e.g. from fur farming areas, aperies, food industry enterprises. Plant comprises filtering self-cleaning apparatus, consumption equalizer, reagent system, clarifier, post-treatment bioreactor, and cleaned water disinfection apparatus. Clarifier is constructed in the form of adhesion apparatus with ascending waste water flow and it is filled with brushing packing. Post-treatment bioreactor is provided with brushing packing and air lift recesses. Disinfection apparatus is constructed in the form of three filter steps filled with each step-specific grainy catalyst. First filter step has descending waste water flow and the second and third ones have ascending waste water flow and bubbler system.
EFFECT: increased impurities removal efficiency, simplified operation, reduced dimensions of equipment, and reduced operation expenses.
FIELD: purification of the surface water runoff; production of installations for purification of the surface water runoff in settlements and industrial enterprises.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the field of the equipment for purification of the surface water runoff, in particular, to the installations for the surface water runoff purification from mechanical impurities and petroleum in settlements and industrial enterprises - especially those allocated in conditions of shortage of free areas, and also drainage waters. The installation for purification of the surface water runoff contains: the lifting-adjusting reservoir with the headrace collector and the overflow pipeline; the body divided by the longitudinal partitions into the storing chambers; the pure water chamber and the settling chamber supplied with the means for removal of settling and the pop-up pollutions; the siphons mounted in one section of the chambers, the water-raising pumps, the screens with the grainy loading, the pipelines for feeding and withdrawal of the waters, the sediment and floating matters, the unit of sediment dehydration, the vertical netted shaft. The storing up chamber adjacent to the settling chamber is divided for two intercommunicating sections. The settling chamber is supplied with the stream-guiding partition and the rigidly fixed chutes. The settling chamber and the first section of the adjacent storing up chamber have the common fittings for withdrawal of the floating matters. In the last storing up chamber there is the overflowing pipeline. In the chamber of the pure water there are the gravitational grainy screens of the first stage with the pipelines and the collecting tank of the purified water. The pressure grainy screens of the second stage are arranged above the lifting-adjusting reservoir and the storing up chambers. The technical result of the invention is the improved quality of the purified water and decreased power input.
EFFECT: the invention ensures improved quality of the purified water and decreased power input.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: waste water treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention is meant to be applied for removing petroleum products from industrial waste waters and can be used at enterprises of petroleum, petroleum processing, petrochemical, and has processing industries. Process comprises flotation, biological intensive aeration, biological aftertreatment, and fine aftertreatment. In biological intensive aeration and biological aftertreatment, biocenosis packing utilized is nonwoven polypropylene material with pore size 80-230 μm, cloth thickness 0.30-0.55 mm, and in amount 0.45 to 1.43 g per 1 L water to be treated. Excess biomass is subjected to anaerobic fermentation and 1/3 thereof is used in flotation stage, while the rest is sent to biological treatment of oil slime.
EFFECT: reduced number of treatment stages, investment and operation expenses, and speeded up treatment process.
2 cl, 3 tbl, 9 ex