Device for measuring the size of the periodically moving object
(57) Abstract:Usage: devices for measuring the size of the periodically moving object. The inventive object 1 by using the electro-optical measuring device, which contains radiant 8, 8' and adoptive 6, 6' items not less than one measurement plane 7 perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the object 1, and the processing unit 20, and the measuring plane measuring 7 portal 10 is limited by at least two measuring beams 4, 4' arranged at a given angle. On the lateral surfaces of the measuring beams 4, 4' facing the measurement plane 7, installed no less than one a number of receiving elements 6, 6'. Each of these series of receiving elements 6, 6' corresponds to one periodically include a radiating element 8, 8' to create a fan-shaped light beam directed to the receiving elements 6, 6' and located at a specified distance from the measuring beams 4, 4' in the measuring plane 7. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a device for measuring the size of the periodically moving object containing the optoelectronic measuring device, including Stalnoy axis of the object, and the processing unit, and the plane of the measuring portal is limited by at least two measuring beams arranged at an angle relative to each other.From the patent Austria N 351282 known device for determining or monitoring the size of the periodically moving object, in which two planes angled 90oto each other, installed small cameras in which instead of the film has a plane with lines of photodiodes for generating electronic shadow image of the object, distinguished optics on a light background.The disadvantage of this relatively expensive due to the use of lower chambers of the device is that the shadow image can be blurred depending on the position of the measured object, which reduces the measurement accuracy.According to the principle of periodic reading of the measured object, according to which at a certain moment never get a full image of the measured object, there are devices known from published applications Germany N 2019290, N 2127751.Their disadvantage is the necessity of applying mechanical roaming light emitter or mirrors.ISWA small constant distances from each other, and in each of these rows in the plane of measurement in the middle of the beams has an infrared photodiode and infrared light emitting diodes includes a processing unit via a short regular intervals one after another from top to bottom, together with the corresponding infrared photodiodes.This device working on the principle of periodic reading, has the disadvantage that the configuration of an infrared emitting diodes, requires considerable time and can only be done with the help of complicated auxiliary means, such as an oscilloscope. In addition, the signals generated in the infrared photodiodes, relatively weak and for further processing require large amplification that creates a danger of drift, or change the setting depending on time and temperature and distort the measurement result.The proposed design provides a device of the specified type, which eliminated the above mentioned disadvantages and which allows economically feasible to increase the accuracy of periodically moving object simultaneously improving the reliability of the measurements.This is achieved in that the side surfaces izmerimaja of these rows corresponds to one periodically include the radiating element, located at a specified distance from the measuring beams for radiation fan beam directed to the receiving elements.Due to the geometry of the device accurate measurement of the size of the object is achieved purely electro-optical means. At some point, it always creates a full image of the measured object, thus achieving high accuracy and continuous evaluation of the measured value. The setting or adjustment of the device is practically limited by the orientation of both fan-shaped light beams.In a preferred embodiment, the number of receiving elements forming approximately an arc of a circle, the center of which is located a corresponding radiating element. This makes it possible to improve the reliability and resistance to unauthorized exposure in connection with the fact that the receiving elements always produce signals of equal power transmitted to the electronic processing unit.Maximum simplicity of setup and ease of use are achieved when two emitting element made in the form of a block from the laser diode, trelinskogo collimator, bar optics and flexible driving electronics.If the block lazernikov be performed visually without additional measuring instruments.It is most preferable implementation of the receiving elements of the photosensitive and placing them in a waterproof receiving beams with a longitudinal slot, a closed glass in the area of the fan beam.Photointerrupter have a wide receiving angle. So you do not have focus and you can use the native method of manufacturing printed circuit boards. Hidden placement in foster beams prevents the influence of external factors and interference from extraneous light.The most economical and convenient in the operation execution is created when the division number of the receiving elements of the line, and the receiving elements of each segment are placed on an identical printed circuit boards.Modular series of receiving elements allows not only to minimize the cost of wiring during installation, but also to facilitate the replacement of segments of the failed receiving elements.Each radiating element is preferably placed in a waterproof housing with a closed glass slot in the direction of the corresponding beam, and a housing mounted between two rigidly connected with the stand measuring portal rectangular plates, the side stand is by the simplicity of its installation, replacement and reliability from damage.To further facilitate configuration of the device both saislachusy element can when installing foster beams supplied to constant light.The processing unit is preferably a microprocessor and memory unit, synchronously feeding emitting and receiving elements with a clock frequency of 300 Hz.Although the processing unit is easily performed on a standard integrated circuits, microprocessors cheaper and easier to install. The selected clock frequency can provide a virtually continuous processing of measurements along the length of the measured object, even if it is moved in the direction of its longitudinal axis at a speed in excess of 180 m/minIn another embodiment, the processing unit for measuring and indicating the diameter and/or volume of the object includes the received signals from both series of receiving elements, the set number is blocked by the object receiving elements and the fixed-length series of receiving elements from the respective emitting elements and the light emitting elements together with the issuance of the position signal, taking into account the distance between the object and radiating elements.In one embodiment, the processing unit may be made so that shading receiving elements caused by parts extending from the object are suppressed. Due to this suppression, created, for example, using the programmed logic in the processing unit can avoid skewing the results of the measurement parts of the wood or bark, lying on a chain conveyor, or parts diverging from a tree trunk. For diameter calculation always uses only the testimony of the adjacent shaded receiving elements of both receiving beams.In Fig. 1 shows the proposed device; Fig. 2 - section a-a in Fig. 1.In Fig. 1 shows a chain conveyor 2, which transported the tree trunk 1 on the arrow In (Fig. 2). In the field plane dimension 7 (Fig. 2) or measuring portal 10 there is a gap chain conveyor 2 to prevent its influence on the measurement process. However, instead of breaking the chain conveyor 2,2' (Fig. 2) you can provide and inversion roller or other gap in the chain conveyor without interfering with the measuring device.For the Def is OK 4, 4', through which moves the barrel 1. Racks 11, 11' and the measuring beams 4, 4' made of metal profiles and are rigidly connected to each other. Symmetrically located measuring beams 4, 4' form with each other an angle of 90o. You can, however, be envisaged in several, for example three measuring beams, forming with each other an angle of 120o. Measuring portal is installed on the base vertically and fixedly mounted thereon. On the lateral surfaces of the measuring beams 4, 4', addressed to the plane of the measuring 7 installed on one reception beam 5, 5'. Reception beams 5, 5' is made in the form of waterproof shells with a longitudinal slot 50, 50', passing in the field plane of dimension 7 and the closed window.Inside the receiving beams 5, 5' of about one arc of a circle on a small equal distances from each other, constituting approximately 3 mm, placed a number of photosensitive 6, 6'. The number of photosensitive 6, 6' is divided into a number of sections 60, 60' of the circuit boards, each of which is placed 64 phototransistor 6, 6'.In the center of the arc of each row of photosensitive 6, 6' is at the right distance from the measuring beams 4, 4' on the same block 8, 8' laser diotaiuti glass and directed toward the respective receiving beams 5, 5' or longitudinal slots 50, 50', and this casing is placed between two rigidly connected with the stand 11, 11' of the measuring portal 10 rectangular plates 18, 19, 18', 19', laterally protruding beyond the edge of the case. These plates 18, 19, 18', 19' painted in black paint on the surfaces facing the housing to prevent reflection of the laser beam.On the brackets 12, 12' measuring portal 10 is an infrared barrier 9, 9'. As soon as the tree trunk 1 gets the target of this barrier, starts the measurement process. In addition, for the duration of the interruption of the infrared barrier 9, 9' and the speed of the chain conveyor 2, 2' similarly, we can determine the length of the barrel 1. The control or measurement of the speed of the chain conveyor can be performed in a known manner by means of the attached sensor pulses.The processing unit 20 is electrically connected to the two rows 6, 6' of the photointerrupter, blocks 8, 8' of laser diodes and infrared barrier 9, 9', as shown schematically in Fig. 1.In addition, the processing unit 23 is connected to the display 21 of the liquid crystal digital display of the measured value. Consistently attached interface 22 is used for further processing and dokumentarfilme plane 7, and the end is just above the rupture of the chain conveyor 2, 2'. After passing the light barrier 9, 9' in the processing unit 20 starts the measurement processes.After this operation and the specified delay time required for the shaft 1 to reach the measuring plane 7, the first operation of the measurement. When the processing unit 20 consisting of a system of microprocessors with the storage device, causes to work the blocks 8, 8' of laser diodes with a clock frequency of not less than Z00 Hz. The photosensitive receiving beams 5, 5' are included already when starting the device in whole or chain conveyor 2, 2'.Synchronously with a clock frequency of both blocks 8, 8' of the laser diodes are generated flash fan-shaped laser beams in the visible red range of wavelengths of about 670 nm or in the infrared range of about 950 nm, located in the measuring plane 7 and falls in the form of a light line on rows 6, 6' of the photosensitive until they are shading the barrel 1. Fan-shaped laser beam is created trexlertown collimation that focuses the light coming from the laser diode and converts it into parallel rays, which are then semi-cylindrical linearizing optics R is ernestu about 3 mW or helium - neon lasers with a rotating prism to create laser pulses. Light line creates a photosensitive receiving beams 5, 5' relatively strong electrical signals capable of further processing without reinforcement in the multivibrators with two stable States. Each phototransistor is connected through a filter circuit consisting of a capacitor and resistor to trigger the cascade to suppress interference from the constant exposure and remember to trigger cascades only laser flashes.The processing unit 20 accumulated signals are calculated and subtracted from the known total number of photosensitive receiving beams 5, 5', and with the help of logic circuits are suppressed shading photosensitive caused by protruding parts of the barrel 1.Due to the given geometry of the electron-optical measuring device, i.e. a rigid distance between rows 6, 6' of the photointerrupter and the corresponding blocks 8, 8' of laser diodes, as well as direct corner between receiving beams 5, 5' can be known when the arc length of the rows 6, 6' of the photointerrupter and the position and the number of darkened photosensitive be calculated as the diameter, and the destruction of the center of the barrel 1 of the tree.If, for example, between the center of the barrel 1 and the blocks 8, 8' of the laser is ralam using theorem of sines.Means that well-known formula calculates the angle formed by the diameters of the barrel 1, or diameter based on the position of the barrel 1, so a more detailed explanation is not needed.In the processing unit 20 is programmed corresponding to the necessary formulas algorithm to accurately calculate the diameter of the barrel 1, and is provided, and temperature compensation.In a clearly visible position measuring portal 10 and/or the processing unit 20 can include red and green light emitting diodes, signaling the loss of the clock frequency or voltage on the transmitting end.Separate measuring operation can be controlled by the processing unit 20, to be able arithmetic calculation of the average diameter of the barrel 1.Through the interface 22, the processing unit 20 can be connected to documenting the unit or to the display printing device that allows the display and recording instantaneous values, diameter, average diameter, length, and identification numbers of the barrel 1.The processing unit 20 may be designed also to issue notices of such interference, as the electron contamination of optical fiber to the Central computer.Using stable measurement of the portal 10, which is rigidly connected to the receiving beams 5, 5' blocks 8, 8' of laser diodes and light barriers 9, 9', provides a strong and reliable design for measuring the diameter and/or volume of the barrel 1 of the tree. The measurement accuracy is determined mainly by the number of photosensitive 6, 6' in foster beams 5, 5'. In the described embodiment, each reception beam 5, 5' contains 512 photointerrupter 6, 6', however shifting them in a checkerboard pattern, you can easily double their number. 1. Device for measuring the size of the periodically moving object containing the optoelectronic measuring device, comprising transmitting elements and receiving the rows of elements located not less than one measurement plane at a given distance between the mounting surface receiving and transmitting elements, each row receiving elements corresponds to the transmitting element, and a signal processing unit with the scheme of the bill receiving elements, shaded measured object, characterized in that the measurement plane is limited by at least two measuring beams measuring portal, not less than one a number of receiving elements set the elements made in the form of source fan light beam, designed for periodic switching on and optically associated with the respective rows of the receiving elements and each of the number of receiving elements is located in an arc relative to the corresponding transmitting element as the center.2. The device under item 1, characterized in that the transmitting elements in the form of blocks containing optically coupled customizable electronic driving circuit of laser diode, trehlitrovy collimator and bar optics.3. The device under item 1 or 2, characterized in that the receiving elements are in the form of photosensitive and placed in fixed on the measuring beams waterproof receiving beams with a longitudinal slot, closed the glass in the area of the fan beam.4. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 3, characterized in that the number of receiving elements is divided into equal segments, and the receiving elements of each segment is placed on introduced identical printed circuit boards.5. Device according to any one of paragraphs.1 to 4, characterized in that each radiating element housed in a waterproof case in a closed glass slits made in the direction of the corresponding beam, and a housing mounted between two of the ill.
FIELD: measurement technology.
SUBSTANCE: according to method of contact-free optical measurement the object is placed between laser radiation source and photoreceiver. Power of laser radiation P is measured and compared with preset level of power P0 . Laser radiation is optically scanned into beam of parallel rays at the area where object finds its place and size of object is found from size of shade of object onto photoreceiver while correcting time of exposure from value of difference (P0-P). Device for realizing the method has laser, beam-splitting plate, short-focused cylindrical lens, output cylindrical lens, collimating lens, CCD, data processing unit, photoreceiving threshold unit.
EFFECT: improved precision of measurement.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: physics; measurement.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to method, and also to device for measurement of component amount coming from surrounding gas atmosphere and received by parts in process of thermochemical treatment of metal parts. Sample, lengthwise size of which considerably exceeds its cross size, is exposed to gas atmosphere impact. Change of sample length in time in lengthwise direction is measured, being the result of component transfer from gas atmosphere, and measured change of length is used for determination of component amount that was transferred from gas atmosphere to sample. Method is performed isothermally or at changing temperature, at that change of length resulted from temperature change is compensated in calculations. In order to realise the method, device is used that incorporates clamp for sample used in method, system of length measurement for registration of sample length change in time in longitudinal direction, and also computing unit. Method provides possibility to obtain much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
EFFECT: obtainment of much more accurate data on amount of component coming from gas atmosphere and received by parts.
14 cl, 11 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for contactless measurement of small objects sizes is realised with the help of device, comprising zoom, which is arranged in the form of single fixed, and also the first and second movable components. Considered object is placed in back focal plane of zoom. In back focal plane of zoom fixed component there are two calibrated frames arranged. Object image is subsequently matched with images of two frames, and position of movable component is fixed in process of this matching. Calculation of object size is carried out by two fixed positions of movable component, by size of frames and structural parametres of zoom.
EFFECT: provision of high accuracy of small objects linear dimensions measurement.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: pulse heat source with action time of where R - piping radius, d - wall thickness, a -temperature conductivity is installed on pulse heat source piping according to the method for determining the thickness of deposits on inner surface of piping, and temperature change is determined at the distance l=(2.5-3.5)d from the heating source. The device for determining the thickness of deposits on inner surface of piping is equipped with generator of current radio pulses, amplifier, analogue-to-digital converter, computing device, indicator of deposit thickness and indicator of deposit heat conductivity; at that, output of current radio pulse generator is connected to induction coil; amplifier input is connected to temperature sensor output; amplifier output is connected to input of analogue-to-digital converter; output of analogue-to-digital converter is connected to input of computing device; outputs of computing device are connected to indicators.
EFFECT: possibility of monitoring the deposits of small thickness and possibility of monitoring the pipes during performance of preventive actions when the process is stopped and pipes are dehydrated.
2 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: silicon monocrystalline microheater is used as a displacement sensor and the value of heat lost from the microheater to a heat receiver serves as the measuring signal. The microheater has the shape of a variable section beam, the wide part of which is a resistor and has a region of opposite conduction type, and the narrow part is form of current leads having low-resistivity silicon regions and a silicide coating, wherein the end of the current leads is in form of a platform for forming metal contacts. Displacements vary from 5 to 800 mcm and measurement accuracy is equal to ±20 nm.
EFFECT: high accuracy and stability of sensor readings.