Ammonia refrigerating machine
(57) Abstract:Usage: refrigeration and in all areas, applying artificial cold, especially in terms of increased demands for environmental protection. Essence: ammonia refrigerating machine contains the compressor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, the evaporator and the control equipment installed on the frame. The entire unit is placed in a hermetically sealed enclosure with removable cover. The case is included in the communication capacity of the inert gas and is connected with the communication line with the environment, which is connected to a pipeline emergency release of ammonia. The frame is equipped with wheels and mounted on the guides, housed in a sealed casing. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il. The invention relates to refrigeration, namely ammonia refrigerating machines, made in a modular design and is equipped with a compressor with an electric motor, and may find application in all areas of artificial cold, especially in terms of increased demands for environmental protection.Known ammonia refrigerating machine containing successively installed on the frame in a closed refrigerant circuit compressor with electronic and regulation, providing connecting respectively: motor, compressor and control equipment to the power supply system, the condenser and the compressor to the water system, evaporator to the coolant system, while the frame is made stationary (see, for example, the Refrigerating machine. Reference specialists / Ed. by A. C. Bykov. M : Food industry, 1977).The disadvantages of such machines should be attributed to the possible leak of ammonia in the environment, as well as accidental releases of ammonia as a result of damage directly in the area of its service, which eliminates the use of ammonia refrigerating machine further AHM) increased requirements for the protection of the environment (for example, in the installations of air conditioning systems, commercial enterprises, private chemical industries, factories for the production of electronic equipment and so on).Known ammonia refrigerating machine adopted for the prototype (Patent, application Germany 4223497, publ. 20.01.94), contains installed in the perforated casing of the compressor and air cooled condenser, with part of the casing is installed the water pump and a container of water, and the spray nozzle, with the first pump, in the casing through the nozzle sprayed water, which absorbs the leakage of ammonia.The disadvantages of the known AGM should include the following:
dushirovanie water are the compressor, motor, condenser, and other elements of AHM, resulting in damage to the equipment;
dushirovanie water does not eliminate leakage of ammonia from AHM;
when the accidental release of ammonia from AHM through the pressure relief valves and emergency pipeline in the environment resets the mixture of inert gas and ammonia concentrations, precluding the formation of explosion or fire in the immediate vicinity of the exploitation of AHM.Thus, the proposed AHM has a high degree of environmental safety for the environment. 1. Ammonia refrigerating machine containing successively installed on the frame in a closed refrigerant circuit, the compressor motor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, an evaporator, equipped with automatic protection devices and control, characterized in that the frame with the compressor, motor, condenser, throttle valve, the evaporator and the devices placed in a hermetically sealed enclosure with removable cover, and the case is included in the communication capacity of the inert gas, is equipped with safety valves, electric contact pressure gauge and line of communication with the environment, connected to a pipeline emergency release of ammonia from the safety valves.
to the water system and the evaporator to the coolant system.3. Machine under item 1, characterized in that the discharge line after the compressor also includes a differential pressure switch, with one of the sensing elements pressure switch connected to the discharge pipe of the compressor, the other to the gas volume of the sealed casing.4. Machine under item 1, characterized in that the frame is made movable with wheels and mounted on the guides, housed in a sealed casing.
FIELD: refrigerating engineering.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes setting the turbine outlet temperature and continuous measurement of pressure and temperature after air bleed stages of engine compressor. Air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are calculated by means of system modulating unit. Then, degree of reduction of pressure in turbine, present magnitude of corrected rotational speed of rotor and optimal magnitude of corrected rotational of rotor corresponding to maximum efficiency of turbine are determined. Braking torque of rotor is changed by acting on braking unit till optimal and present magnitudes of rotational speed of rotor get equal. In case rated magnitude of air temperature at turbine outlet exceeds preset magnitude, flow rate of purging air is decreased or increased till magnitudes get equal. When these temperatures are equal, consumption of fuel is determined for each bleed stage and is analyzed for obtaining minimum consumption of fuel. Then, air temperature and pressure at turbine inlet, temperature and pressure at turbine outlet and rotational speed of rotor are determined by means of sensors. According to results thus, obtained, above-mentioned parameters are determined and processes are repeated till optimal and present magnitudes of corrected rotational speed of turbine rotor and preset and measured magnitudes of air temperature at turbine outlet get equal after which actual consumption of fuel is determined.
EFFECT: reduced consumption of fuel.
6 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: refrigeration industry; cooling installations components.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with the field of cooling installations equipment and may be used for production of air conditioning systems. The gas compressor contains a body and located in it two driving and two driven pistons. The body is made out of two hemispheres and contains two gaskets made out of an antifriction heat-insulating elastic-flexible material. Each piston is made in the form of ball-type sectors, on a spherical surface of each of which there is an elastic member. An aperture angle of lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driving pistons makes 86° - 90°, and an aperture angle of the lateral surfaces of the sectors of the driven pistons makes 42°-83°. A groove is made radial with trapezoidal cross-section and oriented perpendicularly to axes of the shaft of the compressor. The bases of the cross-section are in ratio of 1:2 - 1:5, and a lateral side is equal to the length of the smaller base. The elastic member is located on the bottom of each groove and its cross-section is an ellipse. The bigger diameter of the ellipse by 3-7 % is more than the length of the centerline of the trapezoidal cross-section of such a groove. On the elastic member there is the second elastic member of a rectangular cross section, the width of which by 2-5 % exceeds the length of the smaller base of the groove, and its length ensures formation of a ledge on the ball-type surface of the piston, the height of which makes 1-3 % of the smaller base of the groove. The invention allows to increase efficiency of the gas compressor.
EFFECT: the invention ensures increased efficiency of the gas compressor.
FIELD: refrigeration equipment, particularly using carbon-dioxide.
SUBSTANCE: compression refrigeration machine preferably using carbon-dioxide as refrigerant comprises compressor, heat exchanger, cooler (condenser), expander, liquid coolant separator linked to inlet compressor pipe by pipeline. Pipeline is provided with automatic butterfly valve maintaining constant pressure upstream butterfly valve. Machine also includes pump, connected to electric motor and linked to expander by its shaft, and evaporator. Separator has opened vapor cavity and is installed in air-tight case together with expander and liquid coolant pump. Liquid coolant pump is connected to electric motor and to expander shaft by microprocessor-operated electromagnetic clutches. Microprocessor is linked to compressor.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.
FIELD: wave expander-compressors, possibly used in compression systems and plants with expansion machines.
SUBSTANCE: expander-compressor includes housing in which rotor is mounted on shaft. Rotor has energy-exchange ducts communicated at rotor rotation with branch pipes for supplying and discharging gas through gas supply nozzles and diffusers for discharging gas in respective gas distributing devices. Housing is in the form of stator having electric winding. Rotor having energy-exchange ducts is provided with short-circuit winding whose rods are arranged between outer surface of rotor and its energy-exchange ducts.
EFFECT: simplified design of wave type expander-compressor.
FIELD: device adapted to reduce pressure in main gas pipeline, particularly for excessive gas energy utilization.
SUBSTANCE: used as electric machine is multipolar induction motor operating in generator mode and performing recovery of energy into supply main. Turbine, electric machine and velocity pickup are arranged in sealed chamber including bushing insulators connected with electric machine and velocity pickup from one side and with supply main through commutator from another side.
EFFECT: increased reliability and energy data.
FIELD: refrigerating and cooling, particularly continuously operating sorption machines, plants or systems.
SUBSTANCE: method involves heating mixture of cooling agent and sorption agent in boiler up to cooling agent evaporation; condensing cooling agent vapor inside condenser to form liquid cooling agent; expanding cooling agent under pressure into evaporator; absorbing the expanded cooling agent by sorption agent in absorber; storing liquid cooling agent in solution between condenser and evaporator. If cold obtaining is required valve located behind receiver in liquid flow direction is opened and liquid under increased pressure is supplied from receiver to evaporator for cold production. Valve located in front of receiver in liquid flow direction is opened only in the case when pressure at condenser outlet exceeds receiver pressure. When boiler does not generate vapor or just before stopping in vapor generation valve located behind the receiver is closed.
EFFECT: possibility to obtain cold just after device actuation.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: refrigerating and cryogenic engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to absorption-diffusion household and industrial refrigerators. Proposed refrigerator contains evaporator, condenser, fractional column, absorber, receiver, liquid heat exchanger, gas heat exchanger, generator with electric heater on weak solution tube with its vapor space connected through fractional column with condenser. Strong solution tube is installed in vapor space with its own sealed vapor space and with hydraulic back-pressure valve in lower part into which lower end of thermal siphon is dipped. Middle part of thermal siphon passes in strong solution tube, and its upper end gets from said tube into vapor space of weak solution tube. Capillary porous insert is made in middle part of weak solution tube vapor space over its passage section.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of refrigerator.
4 cl 2 dwg
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly refrigerators including turbo-expanders operating within wide range of cooling temperatures.
SUBSTANCE: turborefrigeration plant comprises turbo-expander, multi-compartment dynamic heat-exchanger, user of refrigeration, power source and centrifugal turbocompressor. Centrifugal turbocompressor is divided into low-pressure and high-pressure centrifugal stages. Low-pressure stage is mechanically linked with power source. High-pressure stage is mechanically connected to turboexpander. The first heat-exchanger compartment inlet communicates with outlet of user of refrigeration through channel, outlet thereof communicates with atmosphere. The second heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to low-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet and outlet thereof is linked with high-pressure turbocompressor stage inlet. The third heat-exchanger compartment inlet is connected to high-pressure turbocompressor stage outlet, outlet thereof is linked with turbo-expander inlet.
EFFECT: increased refrigeration performance, increased reliability of plant actuation and operation, simplified structure, increased operational economy.
FIELD: cooling equipment, particularly one of absorption-diffusion type used in industrial and domestic refrigerators.
SUBSTANCE: refrigeration unit is filled with inert gas and ammonia-water solution to which corrosion inhibitor is added. Refrigeration unit comprises low-temperature members, namely evaporator, condenser, refluxer, absorber, solution accumulator and high-temperature members, namely generator and liquid heat-exchanger. Generator outlet is connected to refluxer. Heat-exchanger has rich solution pipe with inlet connected to solution accumulator and lean solution pipe with outlet connected to absorber. Welded connections between generator outlet and refluxer and between rich solution pipe inlet and solution accumulator, as well as between lean solution pipe outlet and absorber include bimetallic bushes made of aluminum and steel. Bushes have aluminum ends facing low-temperature members and steel ends facing high-temperature members. Low-temperature members are formed of aluminum, high-temperature ones are made of steel.
EFFECT: increased reliability and efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: cooling and heating equipment; devices used for cooling and heating atmospheric air fed to domestic or industrial rooms.
SUBSTANCE: proposed cooling turbine includes casing, centrifugal multi-stage compressor, multi-stage peripheral-admission turbine whose blades are located between cover shields provided with circular projections over periphery and cover disks. Centrifugal compressor is provided with straightening apparatus at its inlet which has spiral blades with intake holes over periphery of rotor. Multi-stage peripheral-admission turbine is provided with outlet apparatus at its inlet which has spiral blades with outlet holes over periphery of rotor; rotor is mounted on revolving shaft. Working blades are secured on cover shields of rotor. Located in initial row of immovable disks as far as middle one are immovable straightening apparatus with spiral blades of diffuser which are located on fixed axle inside rotor. Located in subsequent row of immovable disks, after middle one, are immovable nozzle sets provided with spiral blades of contraction and secured on fixed axle inside rotor. Middle dividing disk is non-rotating and is rigidly secured on the same axle inside rotor. Rotating blades located on opposite sides of dividing disk are also secured on cover shields of rotor. Fixed axle has hole for passage of additional cooler or heater. On side of drive unit, end tenon of rotor is located between two bearings.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency under any climatic conditions.