Ammonia refrigerating machine

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: refrigeration and in all areas, applying artificial cold, especially in terms of increased demands for environmental protection. Essence: ammonia refrigerating machine contains the compressor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, the evaporator and the control equipment installed on the frame. The entire unit is placed in a hermetically sealed enclosure with removable cover. The case is included in the communication capacity of the inert gas and is connected with the communication line with the environment, which is connected to a pipeline emergency release of ammonia. The frame is equipped with wheels and mounted on the guides, housed in a sealed casing. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 9 Il.

The invention relates to refrigeration, namely ammonia refrigerating machines, made in a modular design and is equipped with a compressor with an electric motor, and may find application in all areas of artificial cold, especially in terms of increased demands for environmental protection.

Known ammonia refrigerating machine containing successively installed on the frame in a closed refrigerant circuit compressor with electronic and regulation, providing connecting respectively: motor, compressor and control equipment to the power supply system, the condenser and the compressor to the water system, evaporator to the coolant system, while the frame is made stationary (see, for example, the Refrigerating machine. Reference specialists / Ed. by A. C. Bykov. M : Food industry, 1977).

The disadvantages of such machines should be attributed to the possible leak of ammonia in the environment, as well as accidental releases of ammonia as a result of damage directly in the area of its service, which eliminates the use of ammonia refrigerating machine further AHM) increased requirements for the protection of the environment (for example, in the installations of air conditioning systems, commercial enterprises, private chemical industries, factories for the production of electronic equipment and so on).

Known ammonia refrigerating machine adopted for the prototype (Patent, application Germany 4223497, publ. 20.01.94), contains installed in the perforated casing of the compressor and air cooled condenser, with part of the casing is installed the water pump and a container of water, and the spray nozzle, with the first pump, in the casing through the nozzle sprayed water, which absorbs the leakage of ammonia.

The disadvantages of the known AGM should include the following:

dushirovanie water are the compressor, motor, condenser, and other elements of AHM, resulting in damage to the equipment;

dushirovanie water does not eliminate leakage of ammonia from AHM;

with significant emissions of ammonia (emergency) dushirovanie water does not exclude the breakthrough of ammonia vapors through the shower and its distribution in the surrounding of AHM environment that is unsafe in terms of use of AHM in retail facilities, air conditioning, etc.

The aim of the present invention is to increase the degree of security ammonia refrigerating machine by preventing leaks and accidental releases from AHM in the environment directly in its service area.

This objective is achieved in that the claimed AHM contains sequentially mounted on the frame in a closed refrigerant circuit, the compressor motor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, an evaporator, an automatic protection devices and control, while the frame with compressor, motor, condenser, crossarchus included in the communication capacity of the inert gas, equipped with safety valves, electric contact pressure gauge and line of communication with the environment, the removable cover is fitted with end-to-end connections for connecting the communication lines of the compressor motor and control equipment to the power supply system, the condenser and the compressor to the water system, evaporator to the coolant system, and in the discharge line after the compressor also includes a differential pressure switch, with one of the sensing elements pressure switch connected to the discharge pipe of the compressor, the other to the gas volume of the sealed casing, and the frame is made movable with wheels and mounted on the guides, housed in a sealed casing.

The placement of the frame sequentially installed in a closed refrigerant circuit of the compressor motor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, evaporator, automatic protection devices and control in a sealed enclosure with removable cover, and the case is included in the communication capacity of the inert gas, is equipped with safety valves, electric contact pressure gauge and line of communication with the environment, the evaluation of a sealed chamber, the pressure of the inert gas, an equal or greater pressure of ammonia in AHM, thereby eliminating leakage from AHM. In the emergency mode of release of ammonia through the pressure relief valves and emergency pipeline in the environment resets the mixture of inert gas and ammonia, which prevents the achievement of explosive flammable concentrations of ammonia in the vicinity of AHM.

The presence of the removable cover through sealed pipes allows to provide connecting OHM lines: compressor motor and control equipment to the power supply system, the condenser and the compressor to the water system, the evaporator, the coolant system, thereby ensuring that the livelihoods of AHM with maintaining the necessary pressure of inert gas in a sealed cover when attaching a removable cover to the chassis.

Additional equipment OHM differential pressure switch connected in the discharge line after the compressor, with one of the sensing elements pressure switch connected to the discharge pipe of the compressor, the other to the gas volume of the pressure-tight casing, allows you to maintain inside the housing of the pressure of the inert gas is equal to or greater than the pressure nakaguchi with removable lid and execution frame AHM movable by equipping its wheels and on rails, installed in a sealed enclosure, allows the Assembly and repair of AHM outside of the housing, which simplifies the manufacture and maintenance of AHM and ensures its competitiveness on the open AHM with the stationary frame.

In Fig. 1 shows a schematic layout of AHM a hermetic casing; Fig. 2 is a view In nozzle cap of the sealed enclosure; Fig. 3 - section a-a in Fig. 1 when linking AHM condenser water cooling, and Fig. 4 - section C-C in Fig. 1; Fig. 5 - section E-E in Fig. 4; Fig. 6 - node F in Fig. 1 (rotated), and Fig. 7 - section L-L of Fig. 6; Fig. 8 - node N in Fig. 1; Fig. 9 - section R-R in Fig. 8.

Ammonia refrigerating machine (AHM)(Fig. 1 - 9) contains the compressor 1 with a drive motor 2, an evaporator 3 and the throttle valve 4 mounted on the frame 5 and connected respectively steam 6 suction, discharge 7 and the liquid 8 pipelines. AHM equipped with the standard complex regulatory and protective automation (Fig. 1 - 3 conventionally not shown). Frame 5 provided with a base plate 9, which is fixed to the wheel 10. All of the above is placed in a hermetic case 11 on the rails 12 mounted on supports 13.

The housing 11 has a flan is Linyi valves 18, electric contact pressure gauge 19 and piping inlet 20 of the inert gas from the tank 21 and the discharge 22 of the gas in the environment, connected to a pipeline emergency release of ammonia from the safety valve 18; the pipes 20 and 22 respectively installed valves 23 and 24.

On the cover 17 (Fig. 2) fixed connections for power supply 25 to the motor 2, for power supply 26 to the control equipment; inlet 27 of the coolant to the evaporator 3 and its outlet 28; for the supply of cooling water 29 and drain 30; from the compressor 1.

The capacitor 33, (Fig. C) is placed on the frame 5 and connected to the pipes 7 and 8, and the branch pipes 31 and 32 to the cooling system.

In the plane of the flange 14 within the housing 11 on the guides 12 on the framework 10 is installed on the base plate 37 of the centering plate (Fig. 4) 38, which is made of holes, the number and location of which is identical to the number and location of nozzles 25 - 32 on the cover 17 (Fig. 2, 4). For the alignment of the holes in the panel 38 and the nozzle cap 17 in the flanges 14 has a pin 39. Through pipes 25 and 26, as described above, in the housing 11 enters the electric power to the electric motor 2 of the compressor 1 and the device of time elements: seal 41, grandluxe 42 and a packing nut 43.

Through the nozzles 27 - 32 (Fig. 2) provide input and output from it into the body 11 of the respective working phone Nozzles 27 - 32 is hermetically secured to the cover 17 of the sleeve 44 (Fig. 10 and 11) and pass through the cover 17 into the internal cavity formed by the cover 17, and are connected with the corresponding nozzles OHM flexible connections 33 - 36 and 45, for example, a telescopic pipe or reinforced hose. The necessary external connections AHM provide threaded or flange 46 47 connections.

Inside the sealed enclosure 11 is installed differential pressure switch 48 connected at one end 49 to the discharge pipe 7 from the compressor 1 and the other 50 to the volume of the body 11.

Ammonia refrigerating machine (Fig. 1 - 9) works as follows: on the frame 5 install the compressor 1, motor 2, an evaporator 3, a throttle valve 4 and the condenser water cooling 36, connect their pipelines 6 - 8. System AHM filled with the required amount of ammonia. The pipe 7 pipe 49 connects the differential pressure switch 48; to the electric motor 2 is connected to cable power supply (not shown conventionally), to devices and the and and exhaust fluid (conventionally not shown) to the evaporator 3 are connected flexible hoses 34 and 35, the pipes for supplying and discharging cooling water for the condenser 33 and the compressor 1 are connected flexible hoses 36 and 45 (conventionally not shown). On wheels 10 frame with mounted (see above) equipment on rails 12 mounted on the supports 13, rolls into the housing 11.

Along the guides 12 in the housing 11 on the wheel 10 is entered, the base plate 37 with centering panel 38. Through the corresponding holes of the panel 38 (Fig. 4) put the cable for supplying electric power to the electric motor 2, switching to automatic devices 40 (Fig. 7), flexible hoses 34 - 36 and 45.

Cover 17 is supplied to the housing 11 and is attached to the centering pin 39, through the pipe 25 is shown switching to automatic devices 40, through pipe 26 to a cable for supplying electric power to the electric motor 2, the nozzles 27 and 28 are connected respective flexible hoses, coolant and cooling water 34 - 36 and 45.

Then cover 17 is applied against the flange 16 to the flange 14 of the housing 11 and the connection is sealed with bolted connection 15. Switching devices 40 and the cable supplying electricity to the electric motor 2 is summarized Salnikov seal (Fig. 7).

When open, the blower adjust the housing 11 is fed required mass of gas to a pressure Prmore ambient pressure POSthat is controlled by the readings of the pressure gauge 19.

After reaching a specified Pr/POS, AHM is introduced into the work known sequence of operations and operates in automatic mode. When there is a leak of ammonia gas pressure in the housing 11 increases, that captures the 19 gauge and pressure switch 48, the latter stops the compressor 1. When the accidental release of ammonia into the housing 11 fire safety valves 18.

In the housing 11 with an inert gas from the cylinder 21 may be generated pressure Prmore pressure in AHM that generally eliminates the leakage of ammonia from AHM; this mode is valid when using AHM in industries and areas where leakage or emission of ammonia is invalid (for example, in air conditioning systems, supermarkets and so on).

If necessary, preventive inspection or repair through the valve 24, the inert gas is discharged into the environment before reaching the Pr= POS(19 gauge) and the dismantling of AHM is carried out in the reverse order of mounting. (If necessary, are dismantled from the frame 5, the main elements of AGM).

Thus, the claimed ammonium hold by creating around the components of the system AHM atmosphere of inert gas pressure, equal to or greater than the pressure of the ammonia on the high pressure side in AHM;

when the accidental release of ammonia from AHM through the pressure relief valves and emergency pipeline in the environment resets the mixture of inert gas and ammonia concentrations, precluding the formation of explosion or fire in the immediate vicinity of the exploitation of AHM.

Thus, the proposed AHM has a high degree of environmental safety for the environment.

1. Ammonia refrigerating machine containing successively installed on the frame in a closed refrigerant circuit, the compressor motor, condenser cooling, throttle valve, an evaporator, equipped with automatic protection devices and control, characterized in that the frame with the compressor, motor, condenser, throttle valve, the evaporator and the devices placed in a hermetically sealed enclosure with removable cover, and the case is included in the communication capacity of the inert gas, is equipped with safety valves, electric contact pressure gauge and line of communication with the environment, connected to a pipeline emergency release of ammonia from the safety valves.


to the water system and the evaporator to the coolant system.

3. Machine under item 1, characterized in that the discharge line after the compressor also includes a differential pressure switch, with one of the sensing elements pressure switch connected to the discharge pipe of the compressor, the other to the gas volume of the sealed casing.

4. Machine under item 1, characterized in that the frame is made movable with wheels and mounted on the guides, housed in a sealed casing.

 

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