(57) Abstract:Usage: for space heating. The inventive electric heater includes a housing 8 within which is placed the capsule 1, at least 95% of the inner volume of which is filled with a eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium. In the center and around the capsule 1 is installed tubular electric heating elements 6. Capsule 1 inside can be provided with longitudinal metal edges 5 and the safety valve 7. The space between the casing 8 and 1 capsule filled with insulation 9. The design ensures safe operation. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il. The invention relates to energy and can be used for space heating.Known thermal storage heater with phase thermal storage unit on phase transitions sealed capsule, in which the heat storage medium used by a mixture of salts of sodium, potassium or magnesium. The unit is installed in the housing and covered with insulation. The heater has an electric heating element.When working in the mode of accumulation of heat include electric heating element. When cirkuliruet around the casing of heat-retaining heater, removing heat from thermal storage unit. thermal storage unit can be directly washed by the stream of air moving under the action of natural or forced convection. This electric heater has been manufactured and tested. In the process of testing revealed a feature of this mixture of salts of sodium, potassium and magnesium associated with the retention of magnesium hydroxyl group in the period of preparation of salt and fill. In the process, sealed capsules hydroxyl group stands out and is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is a gas cavity of the capsule, and the oxygen reacts with KCl and forms KClO3.In subsequent cycles, the conditions for the decomposition of KClO3and a sudden release of oxygen into the cavity filled with hydrogen. This forms a mixture that explodes. In the experiments, it was noted case of explosion, accompanied by destruction of the capsules and discharge salt into the room.The authors of the present invention consider the use of potentially dangerous drives heat on a mixture of salts of sodium, potassium and magnesium invalid and put forward a proposal to create a safe drives heat on phase transitions segregates by introducing into the heater mixture of salts of sodium and calcium and the safety valve.The technical result is ensured by the fact that in an electric heater, comprising a housing inside which is located the capsule, at least 95% of the inner volume of which is filled with a eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium at the operating temperature 500oC.In the center of the capsule or around it installed tubular electric heating elements.Co-axial location along the axis of the capsule of the tubular element (ten) provides almost complete (except for end of input Coils) surrounded by a heat storage medium of the heat source. All the heat generated by the heating coil, is passed to the heat storage medium through the pipe wall. In addition, to provide more effective heat thermal storage environment temperature of the Heater can be increased without fear of additional heat loss to the environment. The heater is placed in a stainless steel pipe to improve the reliability of its work, taking into account the increased temperature compared to the melting point of the heat storage substance. The heater of the heating coil is not electrically contact with the heat storage substance, removing the requirement of its elektroprovodnosti. Heater does not corrode in Croswell to accelerate the heating of the room when turned on cold heater and adjust the heat flow from the storage tank into the environment. The serial off the heater reduces the flow of heat. Inside the capsule from melting core set of edges of the heat-conductive material, e.g. steel, which reduces the temperature difference in the cross section of the capsule and the temperature of the heater. The heat storage substance is an electric mixture of chloride salts of sodium and potassium, 33 NaCl, 67 CaCl2; melting point of the mixture of salts is equal to TPL500oC.Filling the internal cavity of the capsules at a value not greater than 95% of the volume at maximum operating temperature, for example, 550oC caused by the need to maintain gas in the cavity to the low pressure when the volume of thermal storage substance in the phase transition and subsequent heating. The safety valve is designed to limit excessive pressure in the gas cavity capsules safe amount equal to 1oC 2 ATM.The drawing shows the design of an electric heater.It consists of a steel cylindrical capsule 1 filed thermal storage material 2, a tubular electric heater 3 is inserted into the pipe 4, which is fixed at the center of the capsule. Inside the capsule is installed ribs 5. Around the lake. 7. The space between the capsule 1 and the housing 8 is filled with insulation 9.Is the electric heater as follows.When the electric power supply to the electric heater is heat, which is transmitted through the wall of the pipe to the heat storage substance. The substance is heated and gradually melted in the radial direction. After complete melting heat storage substance accumulation of heat ends and the electric heater is turned off. Stored heat is transferred through the outer, mostly cylindrical wall of the housing. The thickness of the insulation in the cylindrical part of the heating element is selected so that the flow through it ensured the flow of stored heat evenly over time discharge when solidification takes place thermal storage substance from the walls to the center. After complete solidification of the heater ready for the next cycle.Specified electric heater is manufactured as follows.thermal storage substance composition in mol.%: 33 NaCl, 67 CaCl2melt and fill them with steel capsule. When the maximum is Hledat.Teng performed with one-way supply of electricity, installed in the pipe of the capsule. The capsule with the help of distanciation installed in the housing. The cavity between the capsule and the housing is filled insulating material. 1. Electric heater, comprising a housing, inside which is placed a capsule filled with 95% of the volume of the heat storage substance with the phase transition in the area of operating temperatures, and electric heating elements connected to a power source, wherein the capsule comprises a heat storage substance eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium.2. The heater under item 1, characterized in that the capsule contains inside edges of the heat-conductive material such as steel.3. The heater on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the capsule relief valve.4. The heater on PP.1 to 3, characterized in that one or more electric heaters placed around the ampoule.
FIELD: energy transformation.
SUBSTANCE: sun power plant intends for conversing solar energy to thermal energy for using thermal energy for domestic appliances. Hot water supply sun power plant has at least one solar battery made of thermal collectors in form heat-insulated flat box-shaped cases. Top flat light-transparent panels are disposed in perpendicular to direction of sun light. Light-transparent panels are disposed above membranes-absorbers which absorb solar radiation. Membranes-absorbers are provided with temperature transducers. Membranes-absorbers have parallel lateral metal pipes for liquid heat carrier. Pipes are connected together in any membrane-absorber by longitudinal tubular collectors. Collectors are connected together by branches in series through drive stop valves which are connected to pipeline of water discharge of warmed liquid heat carrier which is connected with top area of heat-accumulating container. Lower area of container is connected with longitudinal tubular collector of membrane-absorber of one of end heat collector by means pipeline for supplying cooled liquid heat carrier through circulation pump. Heat water supply and heating system heat exchangers are disposed at top area of heat-collecting container one above another. Heat exchangers are connected with central heating system pipeline and with pipeline for supplying warmed running water. Program electron unit of the plant is connected with temperature transducers of membranes-absorbers, which unit controls operation of thermal transducers, circulation pump electric motor and drives of stop valves. Sun power plant is provided with heat-proof heat-accumulating members that are disposed uniformly in lower area of heat-accumulating container. Heat-accumulating members are filled with liquid having positive solidification temperature. Program electron unit is provided with mechanisms for tracking perpendicularity of solar energy to surface of top light-transparent panels of thermal collectors. Heat-insulated flat box-shaped cases of collectors are made for rotation around horizontal axes disposed at two mutually perpendicular vertical planes. Any membrane-absorber is made in form of thin-walled metal plate with gofers which embrace parallel lateral metal pipes for liquid heat carrier. Space V of heat-insulated working cavity of heat-accumulating container exceeds total space Vtot of cavities of membranes-absorbers of heat collectors for liquid heat carrier, space V1 of hot water heat exchanger for domestic appliances, space V2 of heating system heat exchanger and total space Vh-am of heat-collecting member for 50-400, 100-120, 20-30 and 10-20 times correspondingly. Total area Stot of external surfaces of the heat exchangers is 3-8 times larger than areas Sm of top surfaces of rigid membranes-absorbers. Solidification temperature T of liquid which fills heat-proof heat-accumulating members equals to 35-600C.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of heating process; lower speed of heat carrier cooling.
7 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydrophysical cavitation heater comprises induction motor whose shaft is insulated from the hydrophysical cavitation heater by means of the heat insulating coupling. The blades of the cavitation member, shaft, and bearings are made of special materials.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to power supply systems of buildings, with a structure closed on the periphery, with a courtyard covered by a cupola. The power supply system for stand alone buildings with a courtyard covered by a cupola, is provided with high- and low-temperature heat accumulators, energetically linked with exterior and interior alternative sources of energy (for example windmill, solar cells, solar collecting panels, isotope heat sources, low-temperature sources - air, ground, water etc.), as well as with users of heat and electrical energy in the stand alone building, generated by an electrical generator, powered by a controlled steam power installation with a steam generator, thermally linked with at least a high-temperature heat accumulator, steam engine and a condenser. At the centre of the courtyard of the building, there is a multi-channel pipe support with outlet channels for air from under the cupola and channels for inlet of air from the atmosphere, kinematically linked to the cupola and thermally linked with a heat exchange device, for example heat exchangers, heat pipes, heat pumps and a low-temperature heat accumulator, provided with an extra low-temperature section. The condenser of the steam power installation is thermally linked to this extra section at, for example below zero temperature on the Celsius scale, which, through the heat from the main heat pump, powered mainly by the steam power installation, is thermally linked with the primary section of the low-temperature heat accumulator.
EFFECT: increased efficiency of the power supply system of low-rise closed buildings, increase in light energy coming into the building and its conversion to electrical energy, increase in environmental friendliness of the power supply system and the interior of the building itself.
8 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: general-purpose self-contained life support complex (GSLSC) consists of free power sources, converters of the above energy to electric energy, electric and heat energy accumulators, synchronisation device as to frequency, phase and voltage. Complex is made in the form of general-purpose set consisting of free energy sources, converters of the above energy to heat energy and to electric energy, backup energy sources, controlling, regulating and accumulating instruments and devices for engineering support systems of the buildings, in which various versions of design and completeness are provided, sources of free energy are doubled and equipped with wind-heat generator, hydraulic heat generator of rotary type, which contains turbine blade wheel of hydromechanical thermal power plant with water-lifting device, which in their turn are connected to electric generators. As reserve energy source there used is thermal power plant containing rotary-type heat generator and electric generator driven from internal combustion engine (gasoline, diesel or gas piston engine).
EFFECT: creation of economically reasonable and practically available complex for generation of heat and electric energy with changeable completeness for a certain consumer, which is general-purpose to be used in climatic, geological and other environmental conditions acting on the human life support, with possibility of quick development and start-up.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to autonomous life support systems (ALSS). The method characterised by installation of heating systems, the base of which is a high-voltage induction electric boiler, with installation of pipeline utilities from it to residential buildings or a tent town, differing by the fact that for power supply of the induction electric boiler they use a diesel generator, fuel to which is delivered with a cistern, some of generated electric energy of the diesel generator is distributed through utilities to residential buildings or the tent town, the coolant of the induction electric boiler is water delivered to the place of ALSS deployment by the cistern, besides, the induction electric boiler is arranged as comprising a circulating pump, through vertically installed tanks, every of which is insulated from each other by means of through ceramic insulators, to which voltage is supplied, and the inductor is represented by electrodes from stainless steel, which are installed inside each vertically installed tank as capable of submersion inside the tank at different depth.
EFFECT: possibility of mobile and efficient deployment of an ALSS for a long period of time, not requiring any start conditions, to provide the ALSS with heat, hot water and electric energy, making it possible to control heating capacity and not strict to selection of electrodes, which may be any steel pipes.
6 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended to maintain comfortable air parameters in low buildings, mainly in cattle farms. Solar heat and cold supply system includes south air duct made of material absorbing solar radiation and north air duct, located at respective building sides, heat collector, together with the building floor forming a subfloor air duct connected to the south air duct, and heat exchange and underground air ducts positioned one over the other below the heat collector, where heat exchange air duct is connected to the north air duct, and underground air duct is equipped with underground heat transfer pipes; the system features a vortex tube in the heat collector, vortex tube input connected to subfloor air duct, cold channel connected to transfer piece, and hot channel connected via heat collector to underground air duct; subfloor and underground air duct outputs are connected to cold channel of vortex tube where a filter is installed downstream of air duct connection point; south and north air ducts are opened to ambient air, and heat exchange air duct is opened to indoor space; special feature of the system is the underground air duct made of composite material including metal base, heat insulation and heat accumulation thin-fibre basalt and waterproof layer, where thin-fibre basalt is stretched lengthwise along underground air duct and attached between metal base and waterproof layer.
EFFECT: prevention of heat loss during long-term operation in variable temperature and humidity conditions of ground, affecting elements of solar heat and cold supply system by implementation of underground pipeline out of composite material with fixated thin-fibre basalt stretched lengthwise between metal base and waterproof layer.
SUBSTANCE: heat-accumulating heating device comprises a body, air cavities with convective channels, a heat intensive filler and electric heaters, is additionally equipped with centres of heat energy accumulation, enclosed into a closed air circuit of circulation in the form of a metal box, which represent a solid heat-accumulating element and fluid circulating circuits in the form of circular channels filled with a heat-intensive filler and combined with a central pipe, and fluid circulating circuits at the side of radiation flux impact from the heat-accumulating element has heat-perceiving screens, branches of fluid circulating circuits, and the external part of the box are equipped with ribbing plates, creating spaces in the box and the slot channel to provide dynamics of convective flows.
EFFECT: possibility to accumulate and transmit thermal energy into a heated room by combination of thermal flows created by convection and radiation emission, to create convective flows for intensification of heat exchange process, to provide for quick and even heating of entire surface of a device releasing thermal energy into a heated room.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to devices for alternative power supply systems using combined facilities for generation of heat, cold and electricity by means of wind and solar energy, which are intended mainly for self-sufficient conditioning and hot water supply of residential and industrial buildings. self-sustained power and heat supply system for the building is mounted at the roof inside transparent dome, in the upper dome zone there is a fixed heat carrier storage tank with a container with heat accumulating material placed inside this tank, inside the container there is heat generator coupled kinematically to the shaft of wind generator drive, the storage tank is mounted at support vertical pipe of rectangular cross-section interconnected with heat carrier and insulated thermally at two outer edges, the closed loop is formed by the tank, heating and cooling radiators, pipe of rectangular cross-section and airlift that includes air pump with potential air supply from the pipe interconnected with air layer over hear carrier in the tank to cavity of pipe of rectangular cross-section by means of microporous sprayer, solar ray reflector is made as parabolic cone with vertical axis of optical focus, whereto the vertical pipe is matched, at two edges of the vertical pipe there are Peltier elements equipped additionally with solar absorbers made as finned metal plates, Peltier elements are connected electrically in series and coupled through isolation diodes in parallel to electric generator and magnetizing coil of ferromagnetic rotor to summing supply diode of the air pump and charge stabiliser for buffer accumulator connected through inverter to the power mains, which is connected to mode selector for Peltier elements through regulated current rectifier and switch of the heat carrier heater in the storage tank.
EFFECT: improved degree of usage of energy sources.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator of gas heaters, possibly used for constructing Cowper and ohmic gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: heater includes heat accumulating adapter arranged in housing with gas-tight cylindrical outer surface and electric current supply leads of resistive heating member. Heat accumulating member of adapter is zigzag-shaped and it is made of thin strip of sheet material; said member has vertically arranged lamellae mutually spaced by the same distance and placed along axis of heater. Ends of said strip are connected to electric current leads. Annular mutually joined flanges are arranged on ends of adapter. The last has rods arranged between flanges on cylindrical surface; said rods are electrically isolated from flanges and they serve as supports for lamellae of heat accumulating member. Each flange of adapter has three parts (upper ring-half and two lower ring quadrants). There are gaps between parts of rings and casing for providing displacement of ring parts one relative to other and relative to casing by value of length change of lamellae of heat accumulating member at heating and cooling them.
EFFECT: enlarged using range of hot-blast heater due to its simplified design and lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heat engineering, namely accumulator type gas heaters, possibly used at developing hot blast gas heaters for aerodynamic tubes.
SUBSTANCE: gas heater includes cylindrical heat accumulating adapter sealed in housing near end of gas outlet. Novelty is that heater includes rod arranged along axis of heat accumulating adapter, supporting grid and cylindrical gas-tight casing. Heat accumulating member of adapter is made of thin corrugated strip whose one end is secured to rod. Corrugated strip is twisted around rod in the form of compact coil arranged together with supporting grid in casing. Height of strip corrugation is equal to thickness of strip.
EFFECT: improved design of heater due to its lowered hydraulic resistance.
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat exchange devices used for heat or cold transfer in the processes using liquid or gas flows, and can be used in heating and ventilation systems, in chemical, food and other industries. Heat exchange method in gaseous and liquid media consists in transfer of heat or warm liquid (gas) from upper layers of medium to lower ones by means of capsules consisting of cover with heat insulation in which there is tank filled with heat-absorbing material or liquid (gas) and flotation chambers with movable partition brought into operation with temperature drive in the form of bi-material. Capsules are retained on bottom till heat transfer is completed owing to magnet or thermomagnetic material installed in capsule, and electric magnet installed in lower layers; at that, current for electric magnet is generated when capsule with magnet passes along current-conducting spiral located along capsule movement.
EFFECT: proposed invention will allow, by using internal heat, performing heat exchange between upper and lower layers of liquid (gas), as well as producing electric power.
5 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: heating systems.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for water heating and can be used in power engineering. Device includes boiler, expansion tank, heat exchanger, hydraulic air heat exchanger, pipelines, including pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to the bottom of expansion tank, safety valves, capacity and tank. Boiler, tank, expansion tank and pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank have common longitudinal axis in vertical plane, heat exchanger and capacity are coaxial, and their axis is parallel to axes of tank, pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank and expansion tank; at that, heat exchanger is connected through the cock to pipeline connecting the upper part of boiler to bottom of expansion tank; in space between boiler internal walls and external walls there located are heat energy sources and heat-accumulating matters.
EFFECT: invention provides use of heat of phase transition of heat-accumulating matter.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger includes casing with through openings on its opposite sides, phase transient working medium and heat carrier. Phase transient working medium is made in the form of frameless heat exchange elements from form-stable composite heat accumulating material, which are fixed inside casing with possibility of their being freely streamlined with heat carrier. In order to improve heat carrier to the space between adjacent heat exchange elements, elastic corrugated metal ribbed plates are installed. When using the heat exchanger as electric heating device, electric heaters are added to its composition.
EFFECT: improving mass and dimensions parameters of heat exchange devices at simultaneous increase of their power capacity, simplifying the design, increasing energy saving level and improving energy characteristics of the systems operating in peak actuation modes.
5 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering, more specifically, to facilities for accumulation, storage and release or conversion of heat energy. The heat energy accumulator comprises at least one control element and a working body, providing for accumulation of thermal energy and capable of releasing thermal energy as a result of action of at least one control element. At the same time according to the invention, the working body represents amorphous particles of refractory material, providing for accumulation of thermal energy when in condition of metastable highly destabilised defect-saturated condensed phase and release of thermal energy during phase transition from the defect-saturated destabilised condensed condition into condition of crystalline order.
EFFECT: proposed accumulator has higher energy intensity in comparison with analogues available at the current level of engineering.
5 cl, 1 dwg