Electric heater

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: for space heating. The inventive electric heater includes a housing 8 within which is placed the capsule 1, at least 95% of the inner volume of which is filled with a eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium. In the center and around the capsule 1 is installed tubular electric heating elements 6. Capsule 1 inside can be provided with longitudinal metal edges 5 and the safety valve 7. The space between the casing 8 and 1 capsule filled with insulation 9. The design ensures safe operation. 3 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to energy and can be used for space heating.

Known thermal storage heater with phase thermal storage unit on phase transitions sealed capsule, in which the heat storage medium used by a mixture of salts of sodium, potassium or magnesium. The unit is installed in the housing and covered with insulation. The heater has an electric heating element.

When working in the mode of accumulation of heat include electric heating element. When cirkuliruet around the casing of heat-retaining heater, removing heat from thermal storage unit. thermal storage unit can be directly washed by the stream of air moving under the action of natural or forced convection. This electric heater has been manufactured and tested. In the process of testing revealed a feature of this mixture of salts of sodium, potassium and magnesium associated with the retention of magnesium hydroxyl group in the period of preparation of salt and fill. In the process, sealed capsules hydroxyl group stands out and is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is a gas cavity of the capsule, and the oxygen reacts with KCl and forms KClO3.

In subsequent cycles, the conditions for the decomposition of KClO3and a sudden release of oxygen into the cavity filled with hydrogen. This forms a mixture that explodes. In the experiments, it was noted case of explosion, accompanied by destruction of the capsules and discharge salt into the room.

The authors of the present invention consider the use of potentially dangerous drives heat on a mixture of salts of sodium, potassium and magnesium invalid and put forward a proposal to create a safe drives heat on phase transitions segregates by introducing into the heater mixture of salts of sodium and calcium and the safety valve.

The technical result is ensured by the fact that in an electric heater, comprising a housing inside which is located the capsule, at least 95% of the inner volume of which is filled with a eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium at the operating temperature 500oC.

In the center of the capsule or around it installed tubular electric heating elements.

Co-axial location along the axis of the capsule of the tubular element (ten) provides almost complete (except for end of input Coils) surrounded by a heat storage medium of the heat source. All the heat generated by the heating coil, is passed to the heat storage medium through the pipe wall. In addition, to provide more effective heat thermal storage environment temperature of the Heater can be increased without fear of additional heat loss to the environment. The heater is placed in a stainless steel pipe to improve the reliability of its work, taking into account the increased temperature compared to the melting point of the heat storage substance. The heater of the heating coil is not electrically contact with the heat storage substance, removing the requirement of its elektroprovodnosti. Heater does not corrode in Croswell to accelerate the heating of the room when turned on cold heater and adjust the heat flow from the storage tank into the environment. The serial off the heater reduces the flow of heat. Inside the capsule from melting core set of edges of the heat-conductive material, e.g. steel, which reduces the temperature difference in the cross section of the capsule and the temperature of the heater. The heat storage substance is an electric mixture of chloride salts of sodium and potassium, 33 NaCl, 67 CaCl2; melting point of the mixture of salts is equal to TPL500oC.

Filling the internal cavity of the capsules at a value not greater than 95% of the volume at maximum operating temperature, for example, 550oC caused by the need to maintain gas in the cavity to the low pressure when the volume of thermal storage substance in the phase transition and subsequent heating. The safety valve is designed to limit excessive pressure in the gas cavity capsules safe amount equal to 1oC 2 ATM.

The drawing shows the design of an electric heater.

It consists of a steel cylindrical capsule 1 filed thermal storage material 2, a tubular electric heater 3 is inserted into the pipe 4, which is fixed at the center of the capsule. Inside the capsule is installed ribs 5. Around the lake. 7. The space between the capsule 1 and the housing 8 is filled with insulation 9.

Is the electric heater as follows.

When the electric power supply to the electric heater is heat, which is transmitted through the wall of the pipe to the heat storage substance. The substance is heated and gradually melted in the radial direction. After complete melting heat storage substance accumulation of heat ends and the electric heater is turned off. Stored heat is transferred through the outer, mostly cylindrical wall of the housing. The thickness of the insulation in the cylindrical part of the heating element is selected so that the flow through it ensured the flow of stored heat evenly over time discharge when solidification takes place thermal storage substance from the walls to the center. After complete solidification of the heater ready for the next cycle.

Specified electric heater is manufactured as follows.

thermal storage substance composition in mol.%: 33 NaCl, 67 CaCl2melt and fill them with steel capsule. When the maximum is Hledat.

Teng performed with one-way supply of electricity, installed in the pipe of the capsule. The capsule with the help of distanciation installed in the housing. The cavity between the capsule and the housing is filled insulating material.

1. Electric heater, comprising a housing, inside which is placed a capsule filled with 95% of the volume of the heat storage substance with the phase transition in the area of operating temperatures, and electric heating elements connected to a power source, wherein the capsule comprises a heat storage substance eutectic mixture of chloride salts of sodium and calcium.

2. The heater under item 1, characterized in that the capsule contains inside edges of the heat-conductive material such as steel.

3. The heater on PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the capsule relief valve.

4. The heater on PP.1 to 3, characterized in that one or more electric heaters placed around the ampoule.

 

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EFFECT: improved efficiency of heating process; lower speed of heat carrier cooling.

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1 dwg

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EFFECT: proposed accumulator has higher energy intensity in comparison with analogues available at the current level of engineering.

5 cl, 1 dwg

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