Hydropower construction

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in hydraulic engineering, namely, during the construction of hydropower installations. The inventive hydropower facility consists of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device that is made in the form of short, flood-prone spurs length l = l1+ l2where l1- the root portion spurs, consisting of two or more layers of gabions, with l1l2where l2- the length of the flexible head portion spurs, consisting of a single layer of gabion, front and top which is attached a flexible concrete lattice, with l2l2hpwhere hp- the maximum depth possible erosion of the riverbed below the base of the head part of the spurs. Spurs are located at the foot of the dam at a distance from each other and their root parts embedded in the reinforced slope of the dam. 3 Il.

The invention relates to hydraulic structures, namely, Bank protection structures.

Known hydropower construction, consisting of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device of the gabion and the aqueous facilities requires considerable material and labor costs. Require a large number of assorted stone, gravel and pebbles, metal mesh and concrete grids, as protivorvotnoe device (plate) is arranged along the entire length of the structure. In addition, significant labour (human) resources to perform much of the manual work on the construction of protivogrippoznogo device.

The purpose of the invention is to reduce material and labor costs in the construction of coastal defences.

This goal is achieved by the fact that in hydropower construction, consisting of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device of gabions and precast concrete elements, protivorvotnoe device made in the form of short, flood-prone spurs length l = l1+ l2where l1- the length of the root portion spurs, consisting of two or more layers of gabions, with l1l2where l2- the length of the flexible head portion spurs, consisting of a single layer of gabion, front and top which is attached a flexible concrete lattice, with l22hpwhere hp- the maximum depth possible erosion of the riverbed below the base of the head frequently is fortified slope of the dam.

In Fig. 1 shows a cross-section of the dam continued along the longitudinal axis of the spur of the gabion and precast concrete elements Fig. 2 - hydropower construction in plan; Fig. 3 is a cross section of the dam continued along the longitudinal axis of the spur of concrete cubes.

Hydropower facility consists of loose dirt dam 1 with a combined face mount, including concrete slabs 2, gabion 3 and filter preparation 4, made of sand-gravelistoe material. Concrete slabs 2 and gabion 3 are arranged in parallel rows (or staggered) on the slope and interconnected articulated through the mounting loops. At the foot of the dam 1 is embedded in its fortified slope and spaced from each other a short protivorvotnye spurs 5, consisting of gabions installed horizontally and aimed in the direction of the river channel 6. Spurs 5 is made of stepped form with the location of the gabion in one, two or more rows vertically.

The lowest (first) level forms the head part 7 spurs 5, the remaining steps are the root part 8 spurs 5. Steps should be two or three. The gabion (first step), a head part 7 spurs obom weaving.

Gabions consist of a mesh shell 10 and filler 11 of gravel, pebbles and cobbles. The mesh for the shell 10 is made of galvanized or coated with a protective plastic steel wire. Gabion head part 7 stops in two or three places tightly bound with galvanized reinforcing wire 12 with a diameter of 10-12 mm To the wire 12 is attached concrete lattice 9 with adjustable ties 13.

Spurs 5 perform with a slope of (0.05 to 0.1) and the direction against the flow at an angle of up to 30othe normal to the axis of flow in the river 6 (Fig. 2).

Protivorvotnye spurs 5 can be made of pure concrete cubes 14 (Fig. 3), pivotally interconnected with reinforcing wire 15 with a diameter of 14-16 mm

Bank protection structure is constructed as follows.

It falls dam 1 of the local soil and planned its slopes and crest, developed trenches spurs 5, are mounted boxes of metal mesh shell 10 under the first layer of gabion, then these boxes are filled with assorted stone, gravel and pebbles, on top of the filled boxes are closed by a metal grid attached to the side walls of the box, thus going gabion PU 12 in the places of attachment of the hinge links 13 concrete lattices 9. Next, mount the mesh boxes of the second layer (the root part 8) spaces and fill them with the above-mentioned filler, then the top is also covered with a grid. The gabion head part 7 spurs 5 front and top attach concrete lattice 9 collected from individual units (garlands), connected with hinges. Have them so that each link or through one followed the line of the reinforcing wire 12 to be pivotally attached to the wire 12. Next, going a combined fastening on the slope of the dam 1 from reinforced concrete slabs 2 and gabion 3.

Hydropower construction operates as follows.

The main burden of the flood flow is perceived short protiwaritmicakimi spurs 5. And most of hydrodynamic and abrasive effects of the flow exerts on the head part 7 spurs 5, so she and reinforced concrete bars 5 to protect the retina 10 gabion from destruction under the influence of sediment transported deposits. The root part 8 spurs 5 (second stage) is significantly higher zone, which contains intensely moving large carrying the load, so it is not reinforced concrete lattice provide a deflection surface of the coastal jet stream from the dam 1 (the Bank) towards the main river channel 6, because spurs 5 operate as weirs and flow through them is set perpendicular to their axes, while reducing unit costs by the length of the spurs 5 distributed ascending from the root portion 8 to the head part 7 (Fig. 1 and 3). And coastal benthic stream is split about the headroom spurs 5 and enters the gaps between spurs 5, forming a zone of turbulence flow with a sharp drop in its speed, resulting in these areas is the deposition of bottom sediments, i.e., the areas between the spurs 5 work on sedimentation. Most Padmini channel will occur at the heads spurs 5, and in crater erosion under the action of its own weight will fall head part 7, spurs 5 (gabion reinforced concrete bars). When the maximum possible erosion of the channel head 7 spurs 5 must lie along the line of repose collapse of underlying soils, for this length l2the head part 7 spurs 5 must be at least hp/tg - angle of repose of the soil, h0- the depth of maximum scour of the riverbed), i.e. l 2hp( - 25-30o). In this case, streambed scour will not extend further towards the dam 1 (coast) because of the flexibility and strength of the gabion reinforced concrete bars 9. the m and protect the dam 1 and its mount from the erosion of flood flow. Length l1the root portion 8 spurs 5 must be at least length l2the head part 7, on average, l1- (1-3) l2the greatest height spurs 5 on the site mate with dam 1 - h2= - Hmaxwhere Hmax- maximum depth of flood flow, and the minimum height of the head part 7 - h2= 1/3 - Hmaxin any case, h2must be at least 1 m Width spurs 5 is determined from the condition to ensure its stability against shearing effects of the flood flow.

For a considerable length of dam 1, its working slope at the intermediate straight sections can be protected by a simple fastening of the gravel-pebble sketches, because the main load flow perceive spurs 5.

This hydropower facility is intended for foothill meandering river reaches with gradients i = of 0.001 to 0.15, flood flows which are characterized by high transport and scour velocities.

Dam with a combined fastening and protiwaritmicakimi spurs provides reliable protection of the shore (where they can be located settlements, industrial and agricultural fields, roads etc) from flooding and erosion under any applicatio is to be used as vypravitelnye construction to keep the flow of the river project on track.

Bank protection structure consisting of loose dirt dams with a combined slope mount and protivogrippoznogo device of gabions and precast concrete elements, characterized in that protivorvotnoe device made in the form of short, flood-prone spurs length l1+ l2where l1the length of the root portion spurs, consisting of two or more layers of gabions, with l1l2where l2the length of the flexible head portion spurs, consisting of a single layer of gabion, front and top which is attached a flexible concrete lattice, with l22hpwhere hp- the maximum depth possible erosion of the riverbed below the base of the head part of the spurs, while spurs are located at the foot of the dam at a distance from one another and their root parts embedded in the reinforced slope of the dam.

 

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Block // 2059033

The invention relates to a protective mounting slopes of hydraulic structures from ratmanova impact water flows, including self-protection of the building from the impact ratmanova

The invention relates to hydraulic construction and can be used for mounting slopes of soil and slag materials

FIELD: building, particularly hydraulic structure reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed in two-stages. The first stage involves forming vertical elongated flat ground massifs secured by hardening material. Massifs are created in crest embankment area and in upper area of embankment slope so that massifs are spaced minimal available distance from crest and pass through embankment body, including land-sliding upper embankment slope area. Massifs are anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and are arranged at least in three rows and there are at least three massifs in each row. Method for massifs forming involves driving double-slotted injectors directly in embankment ground or in wells formed in embankment and having plugged wellhead; orienting injector slots perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced; injecting hardening material under increased pressure across horizons from top to bottom or in reverse direction, wherein injection is initially performed under 5-15 atm pressure and at minimal rate in each second injector of one outermost row beginning from extreme ones; feeding hardening material in previously missed injectors in this row; supplying injectors of another extreme row with hardening material in the same way; feeding hardening material to ejectors of medium rows under 10-20 atm pressure; performing the second reinforcement stage as material hardens to obtain 70% strength. The second reinforcement stage involves forming vertical elongated flat massifs of secured ground anchored in mineral bottom by lower edges thereof and arranged at least in three rows, wherein each one includes at least three massifs. Massifs extend at the angle exceeding embankment slope angle to horizontal line. Massifs are formed with the use of double-slotted injectors in remainder embankment area. Injector slots are directed perpendicular to hydraulic pressure head vector direction in embankment area to be reinforced. Hardening material is ejected in above succession, wherein hardening material pressure is equal to design process pressure enough for direction of feeding hardening material through injector slots and lesser than hardening material injection pressure of the first reinforcement stage.

EFFECT: increased reliability of structure reinforcement; prevention of land-slide on structure slopes.

3 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river channel bed reinforcement.

SUBSTANCE: means includes netted metal cylinders connected one to another to form integral reinforcement structure. Netted cylinders are made as cylindrical frames filled with shrubs or tree branches and secured by anchors to preliminary prepared base. Lower part of structure is deepened for depth increasing depth of possible bed erosion. Cylindrical frames may be oriented in transversal or longitudinal direction relative stream direction and may be formed of mesh grid wound around metal rings and connected to them or of rigid net having wire twisted in two-for-one manner between cells.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bed protection against erosion, increased service life, reduced cost for structure erection and maintenance.

5 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for river or channel banks and slopes consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: wall includes gabions formed of net and stones and laid in layers. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders oriented transversely or along flow direction and connected one to another so that gabion ridges of upper layers are offset relative that of lower ones to which they are connected. Wall is covered with concrete from one side. Parabola in the base of parabolic cylinder is described by the following equation: Y = (4·hg·X2)/Bg , where X and Y are parabola abscissa and ordinate, hg and Bg are correspondingly gabion width and height, here Bg = (2 - 4) hg. Wall may be reinforced with reinforcing cage from another side. In particular cases net may have cross-section of stepped shape with decreasing steps width in upward direction or L-shaped cross-section.

EFFECT: increased reliability, reduced cost for foundation building, increased service life.

5 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic building, particularly for river and channel banks consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves laying gabions filled with stones on prepared base located on slope along river bed. Gabions are made as gabion mats consist of connected elliptical tubular members. Tubular member bases are described by the following equation: (4·X2/B

2g
)+(4·Y2/h2g
)=1, where X, Y are abscissa and ordinate of parabola defining tubular member base; Bg and hg are gabion width and height correspondingly, Bg = (1 - 2)hg. Gabion mats are preliminarily made with the use of matrixes filled with stones and made as two nets, namely upper and lower ones. Neighboring tubular members are sewed up in straight line by connection wire. Gabion mats are connected one to another to form single unit having apron. Apron is anchored to slope. Connection wire is twisted by wire twisting means. Gabion mats may be laid on slope with longitudinal or transversal tubular members orientation relative stream direction. In particular cases gabion mats are laid on slopes so that tubular member orientations alternate in staggered order. Gabion mats also may be laid on slope on gravel base having thickness of hb > hg/2, where hb is gravel base height, hg is gabion height.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and reliability of slope protection against erosion, increased service life.

5 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used as bank strengthening structures in river and canal courses. Proposed fastening contains gauze metal cylinders with filled-up inner space connected to form solid fastening. Gauze cylinders of parabolic form are made by winding gauze over bush of tree branches laid on prepared base of slope and are secured on slope by anchors over line of contact of gauze and base. Lower part of fastening is dipped to depth exceeding depth of expected degradation. Parabolic cylinders can have crosswise or longitudinal orientation relative to direction of stream. Said parabolic cylinders can be made of woven gauze or rigid gauze with double twisting of wire between meshes.

EFFECT: improved efficiency of protection of banks, increased service life of construction, reduced construction and service expenses.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic engineering, particularly for ground consolidation, namely for embankment slopes protection.

SUBSTANCE: coating is formed of polymeric fiber material and of fertile ground mixed with perennial grass seed. The coating is formed as mats sewed or joined with the use of heat. The mats are filled with mixture including fertile ground, perennial grass seed and polymeric wool taken in amount of 3-5% of fertile ground mass. Fiber material thickness is 2-5 mm, fiber density of the material is 0.01-0.12 g/cm3. Diameter of fiber material and wool fibers is 5 - 40 μm.

EFFECT: reduced cost, increased reliability of slope protection.

1 ex

FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly for slope and river or channel bank consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: support wall includes gabions made of gauze and filled with stones. The gabions are laid in layers. Support wall is fastened with gauze anchors to ground embankment from another wall side. Gabions are made as parabolic cylinders connected one to another so that ridge of each upper gabion is offset relative that of previous lower ones to which above upper gabions are connected. Support wall base is protected against erosion by flexible reinforced concrete apron. The wall is covered with concrete coating from working side thereof. Gauze anchors may be continuous or discrete. Number of continuous anchors is more than one.

EFFECT: increased load-bearing capacity and reduced cost.

4 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: securing of slopes or inclines, particularly for ground slopes and water pool banks stabilization, for artificial water pool building and reconstruction, for minor river recovery and erosive slope consolidation.

SUBSTANCE: method involves performing masonry works of building members by laying building member layers in alternation with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric impregnated with binding material to provide elastic connection areas between stone layers. Ground stabilization device comprises masonry formed of building members alternated with fabric layers. The building members are rough stones, which are connected one to another by fabric to form elastic connection areas between stone layers.

EFFECT: increased environmental safety, improved appearance and technological effectiveness, increased elasticity of stone connection.

16 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex

FIELD: hydraulic and irrigation building, particularly to protect banks of rivers, channels, dam slopes and other structures against erosion.

SUBSTANCE: bank-protection structure consists of shafts fixed in gabions from lower ends thereof. The gabions comprise nets filled with stones and have cylindrical shapes built below eroded zone level. The shafts are vertically installed in the foundations in one or several rows. The shafts are spaced apart and installed in direction parallel to river flow. The shafts are trees or reinforced concrete posts fixed inside the gabion by stones. The cylindrical gabions are connected to net laid along river flow in horizontal plane. Space between vertical shafts and bank may be filler with trees or bushes. Cylindrical gabion tops may be covered with concrete.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bank protection and extended service life of bank-protection structure.

6 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: hydraulic and irrigation building, particularly to protect banks of rivers, channels, dam slopes and other structures against erosion.

SUBSTANCE: bank-protection structure consists of transversal heels created as shafts fixed in gabions from lower ends thereof. The gabions comprise nets filled with stones and are formed as cylindrical foundations built below eroded zone level. The shafts are installed in the foundations in one or several rows. The shafts are spaced apart and installed in direction transversal to river flow. The shafts are trees or reinforced concrete posts fixed inside the gabion by stones. Depth of gabion embedding in ground increases in direction from the bank.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of bank protection and extended service life of bank-protection structure.

5 cl, 6 dwg

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