The concrete mixture, the method of obtaining concrete products concrete mixes and production line for their manufacture

 

(57) Abstract:

The invention relates to the construction, namely, concrete mixtures, methods of producing elements of the concrete mixture and technological lines for production. According to the invention, a concrete mix containing Portland cement, sand with fineness modulus of not less than 2 mm, the filler in the form of crushed stone, dye and surface active additive, the ratio of components, wt.% is: Portland 15oC23, sand 20oC30, filler 47oC48, dye 0,7oC1,1, surface active additive 0,04oC0,06, water the rest, while the grain size of the crushed stone corresponds to 3-10 mm. To obtain concrete products in the way, including the laying of the concrete mixture in a plastic form, vibroplate mixture, exposure otterbine products in the forms to set Stripping strength and their removal, according to the invention the concrete mixture produced in the forms treated antistatic, vibroplate mixture produced in the forms in the process of filling and removal of the products is done heating forms to the temperature of the separation of the latter from the products. In addition to the technological line for production of concrete izdelie extracts molded product and Stripping installation, connected at the output of waste forms, according to the invention additionally an installation between as exposure and Stripping installation and training post form contains the installation of anti-static processing, the setting for the antistatic treatment of forms made in the form of two baths for a solution of the antistatic agent and rinse water, respectively. 3 C. and 24 C. p. F.-ly, 3 ill.

The invention relates to the construction, namely, concrete mixtures, methods of producing elements of the concrete mixture and technological lines for production.

Famous concrete mixture containing the following component ratio, wt. %: Portland 21-50; siliceous component 17-52; stabilizer gas dispersion on the basis of neonols; modified lignosulfate sodium in the ratio of 1:1 to 0.35:1,5; water the rest.

The disadvantage of the mixture is increased gas content, leading to porosity of building elements and of the limits of the latter.

Famous concrete mix suitable for making extended class of building elements containing Portland cement, sand with fineness modulus of not less than 2 mm, crushed to a grain size haste to 0.2% by weight of cement and dye.

The disadvantage of this mixture is a low plasticity and, consequently, the difficulty of fabrication of her building elements with smooth surface.

A known method of manufacturing building products of concrete mixture, comprising the laying of the concrete mixture in a steel or wooden forms, vibroplate mixture by exposure to vertical vibration oscillations with a frequency of 45 to 50 Hz and an amplitude of 0.35-0.40 mm, shutter speed, compacted mixture in the moulds to set Stripping strength and the dismantling of matured products.

The disadvantage of this method is the difficulty of removing air bubbles from the mixture and the adhesion of the mixture to form, resulting in insufficient strength and lower quality of building elements due to the irregularities formed on the surface.

A known method of manufacturing a construction element, comprising the laying of the concrete mixtures in metal molds, vibroplate mixture forms a joint impact on the mix of horizontal and vertically directed vibrations simultaneously pressing the shutter molded product to a set of Stripping strength and the dismantling of the latter.

Lack of izvestnogo due to defects, due to the adhesion of the mixture to the forms, and the need for mechanical cleaning of forms after use.

Known production line for the manufacture of concrete products, including consistently established and technologically connected with the mixer, molding, post, post excerpts molded product in a steel or wooden forms and Stripping installation that is connected on the output of waste forms with the second input forming the post through the post mechanical treatment forms from the disadvantages of concrete.

A disadvantage of the known process line is the use of metal and wooden forms, the presence of post mechanical treatment form from the remnants of the concrete, leading to the need for additional finishing the surface of concrete after form removal, the difficulty of their production technology and increased energy consumption for the production of concrete products.

The objective of the invention is the creation of a concrete mix, the method of obtaining from it the building products and technologies for their production, to improve the quality, durability and simplify the technology of their manufacture.

This is achieved by the fact that betond the l and surface-active additive according to the invention, the concrete mixture contains the following ratio of components, wt.%:

Portland - 15-23

Sand - 20-30

Filler - 47-48

Dye - 0,7-1,1

Surface-active additive - 0,04-0,06

Water - the Rest,

the size of the grains of gravel corresponds to 3-10 mm

It is desirable as a filler to use crushed natural stone or gravel, and as surface active additives - gidrofobiziruyuschey liquid-based crasneanscki connections.

In addition, it is useful as a dye to use redoxide, red iron oxide or iron oxide pigment to obtain a red color. For the yellow color as a colorant, it is desirable to use zheleznodorolny pigment. For green as the dye used chromium oxide and phthalocynine pigment in a ratio of 16:1.

The task is achieved by the fact that in a method of producing concrete products, including concrete mixture into the form, vibroplate mixture, exposure molded product in the form to set Stripping strength and their removal, according to the invention the concrete mixture produced in plastic forms, treated antistatic, vibroplate mixture forms produced in the process of phasing the products.

This object is achieved in that in a process line for the manufacture of concrete products containing consistently established and technologically connected with the mixer, molding, post, post excerpts molded product and Stripping installation that is connected on the output of waste forms with the second input forming post after post preparation forms, according to the invention additionally introduced the installation of heating forms, installed between the post excerpts and Stripping installation and training post form contains the installation of anti-static processing, the setting for the antistatic treatment of forms made in the form of two baths for a solution of the antistatic agent and rinse water, respectively.

According to the invention rational selection of the composition of the concrete mixture and particle size of the filler improve the concrete mix for the extended class of concrete products and building elements of road surfaces to elements of the covers to building structures. This provides the possibility of increasing the durability and quality of the front surface of concrete products with relatively simple technologies, protugal surface quality of concrete products by eliminating adhesion of concrete to the forms.

Vibroplate mixture forms as a result of gradual form filling mixture removes air bubbles from the front layer and, consequently, increases strength and durability of the products, the quality of their front surface (excluding sinks).

Heating forms before dismantling products, you can ensure tipanie forms from concrete products due to the difference of thermal expansion coefficients of the plastic and concrete. This excludes the defects of the surface of concrete products associated with the adhesion of concrete to the forms with known technologies, facilitated the dismantling of products and eliminates the need for costly mechanical waste forms from adhering concrete, typical of known technologies of manufacturing of concrete products.

In General, these benefits help to improve the quality, durability of concrete products and to simplify the technology of their production and, thereby, to achieve the task.

In Fig. 1 presents a functional diagram of a process line for the manufacture of construction products; Fig. 2 is a functional diagram of the device antistatic treatment of plastic four positions indicated:

1 - mixer;

2 - post molding;

3 - post excerpts molded product;

4 - installation of heating forms;

5 - Stripping installation;

5.1, 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.5 - supporting frame, a movable frame, a vibrator, a receiving table, a removable matrix installation 5, respectively;

6 - device anti-static processing of forms;

6.1, 6.2 bath solution of the antistatic agent and the tub for wash water device 6, respectively.

The best variant embodiment of the invention.

Raw mix for the preparation of building concrete products includes the following components, wt%:

Portland - 15-23

Sand with fineness modulus of not less than 2 mm 20-30

Gravel with a grain size of 3-10 mm - 47-48

Dye - 0,7-1,1

Surface-active additive - 0,04-0,06

Water - the Rest

As concrete dye mixture contains mineral and organic pigments in accordance with the data table. 1.

As plasticizing additives concrete mixture contains gidrofobiziruyuschey liquid (product 134-342) according to GOST 24211, GOST 26633.

Examples of the component composition of the concrete mix for different variants of construction products are shown in table 2.

JV is authorized mixture in a plastic form, treated antistatic, vibroplate mixture in the forms of the influence of vertical vibration oscillations with a frequency of 40-60 Hz and an amplitude of 0.3 to 0.5 mm after each regular supplements in the form of a concrete mix before the appearance on the surface of the cement milk, extract compacted mixture in the completely filled forms at 28-30oC to set Stripping strength (not less than 2 days. ), heating the plastic forms on the products to a temperature of otlipaniya last from plastic forms, extract them at the temperature for 1.5-2 minutes and the dismantling of products, which consists in removing from products otopsi plastic forms the influence of vertical vibration oscillations with an amplitude of 1-4 mm and a frequency of 40-60 Hz.

Production line for producing the proposed mixture and of building elements according to the proposed method provides consistently established and technologically connected with the mixer 1, the molding post 2 made in the form of a vibrator, post excerpts 3, installation of heating forms 4, Stripping installation 5, the output of which is spent on forms connected through the installation of the antistatic treatment of 6 with the second input of the molding of the post 2. In the simplest version of the constructive approach is through the installation of heating forms 4 can be made in the form of infrared lamps with reflectors or in the form of a steam generator.

Installing the antistatic treatment of 6 made in the form of two tanks (Fig. 2), for the antistatic treatment of forms 6.1 and wash 6.2, respectively.

Stripping installation 5 is made on the basis of the vibrating table and comprises a frame 5.1, which includes a frame 5.2 with possibility of vertical movement of the receiving table 5.4 with linkage suspension and vibrator 5.3, the output of which is kinematically connected to the frame 5.2. Frame 5.2 features a removable matrix 5.5, which made the reception window (Fig. 3F) with a size and shape corresponding to the size and shape of the longitudinal cross-section of products.

An example of the production line of the proposed method are considered on the example of the production of paving tiles (option 1, PL. 2).

For the selected building products determine the desired composition and quantitative composition of the raw mix for cement mixers 1. At the same time on the post 2 on its vibration table set the appropriate plastic forms, past an antistatic treatment by 6, and Stripping installation 5 install the corresponding matrix 55.

In accordance with the selected component composition of the mixture in the mixer 1 is of its whole volume of the hydrophobic liquid. After mixing in the mixer is loaded into the corresponding ratio of cement, sand, gravel and mixed. At the same time in the rest /1/3/ water mixing enter the appropriate pigment, mix and pour into the mixer 1. The mixing composition of the concrete mixture in the mixer 1 are to obtain a homogeneous, plastic concrete. The resulting concrete mixture placed in layers in a plastic figure form on the vibrating table of the post 1, for example, the first table thickness 10-20 mm Include the vibrating table. Under the influence of vibration to the concrete in the forms on the vibration table, shall be exempt from the inside air. With the full release of the mixture from the large air bubbles, causing the shells on the surface and inside of the product on the surface of the concrete mixture into the form appears cement wash.

The appearance of the surface of the first layer of concrete mix cement milk off vibration table on the post 1 and is placed in a form the next layer of concrete. Re-enable the vibrating table and produce vibroplate total layer of the mixture into the forms. However, the more stages of formation and less than the thickness of the products (thinner fourmeau the main forming product by slow continuous pouring the solution (until they are full) with always-on vibrator. A continuous process of formation while providing high quality products, however, complicates the process of formation due to the necessity of the strict dosage and speed of the Gulf of solution in the form.

For the manufacture of construction products standard thickness of 40-60 mm rather use a simplified molding process (two-step), in which first stage fill forms on half their depth with subsequent vibroplates within 10-15 seconds, and the second phase - fill forms to fill and subsequent vibroplates for 15-20 seconds.

Formed on the vibrating table wares spread out on a wooden pallet height in 8-10 rows. Each row is laid with PVC film and sheet of fiberboard or plastic.

Picked pallet with the product, the molding of the post 2 is transferred with tick capture or hand pallet trucks on post exposure 3.

The post 3 pallets set in a row, the distance between rows 0.5 m of the Pile is covered with a blanket of canvas and served warm. The products can be on the post 3 at 28-30oC in a period of time not less than two days (46-60 h) to obtain the Stripping strength.

Washed from antistatic form serves for forming the post 2 and the process of manufacturing of building materials repeats.

The proposed invention was tested in CJSC "ZHBI-2" and maintains its industrial development.

1. Concrete mix containing Portland cement, sand with fineness modulus of not less than 2, the aggregate of crushed stone, dye and surfactant additive, characterized in that the concrete mix contains the following ratio of components, wt.

Portland cement 15 23

The specified sand 20 30

The placeholder 47 48

Dye 0,7 1,1

Surface-active additive 0,04 0,6

Water the Rest

the size of the grains of gravel match 3 10 mm

2. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that the aggregate of crushed stone obtained from natural stone or gravel.

3. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that as surface-active additives it contains gidrofobiziruyuschey of idsites it contains redoxide, red iron oxide.

5. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that as a dye it contains zheleznodorolny pigment.

6. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that as a dye it contains chromium oxide and phtalocyanine pigment in the ratio of 16 to 1.

7. The mixture under item 1, characterized in that as a dye it contains manganese ore.

8. The method of obtaining concrete products concrete mixture comprising the laying of the concrete mixture into the form, vibroplate mixture in molds, exposure molded products in the form to set Stripping strength and their dismantling, characterized in that the laying of the concrete mixture produced in plastic form, treated antistatic, vibroplate mixture forms produced in the process of phasing fill them, and before dismantling products carry out the heating of the products to a temperature of otlipaniya last from forms and extract them at this temperature until complete otlipaniya products from the inner surface forms.

9. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that vibroplate mixture is conducted in two stages, the first stage after filling mixture forms to one-half of the depth at the second stage after full zapolneniya on the surface of a mixture of cement milk.

11. The method according to p. 10, characterized in that the time of vibrocompaction on the first and second stages is chosen in the range 10 to 15 and 15 to 20 s, respectively.

12. The method according to PP. 8 to 10, characterized in that vibroplate concrete mix are vertical vibration oscillations with a frequency of 40 to 60 Hz and an amplitude of 0.3 to 0.5 mm

13. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the heating of the products carried out with superheated steam.

14. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the exposure molded products spend at least two days at a temperature of 28 to 30oC.

15. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the heating of the forms carry out infrared radiation.

16. The method according to p. 8, characterized in that the heating of the forms carried out by immersing the products form in a bath of warm water to a depth at which the water does not reach the top of the form 3 4 mm.

17. The method according to PP. 15 and 16, characterized in that the heating of the forms is carried out at a temperature of 50 60oWith the surface forms for 1.5 to 2 minutes

18. Technological line for production of concrete products containing consistently established and technologically connected with the mixer, molding, post, post excerpts molded products and St training forms characterized in that it further introduced the installation of heating forms, installed between the post excerpts and Stripping installation and training post form contains the installation of anti-static processing.

19. Technological line for p. 18, characterized in that the installation of heating forms made in the form of baths with hot water device.

20. Technological line for p. 18, characterized in that the installation of heating forms made in the form of steam.

21. Technological line for p. 18, characterized in that the installation of heating forms made in the form of infrared lamps with reflectors.

22. Technological line for p. 18, characterized in that the installation of anti-static processing of forms contains consistently established and technologically connected with the tank for the solution of the antistatic agent and the tank for wash water.

23. Technological line for p. 18, characterized in that the Stripping installation is made in the form of a vibrator with a removable matrix containing Stripping window.

24. Technological line for p. 23, characterized in that the shape and dimensions of the Stripping window is made corresponding to the size and shape of the longitudinal cross sections of Beton the internal unit is supplied adoptive table on a hook suspension, established under Stripping Windows matrices.

26. Technological line for p. 23, characterized in that the vibrating table is made with possibility of vertical vibration in the range of 0.6 to 0.8 mm

27. Technological line for p. 18, wherein forming the post contains the vibrating table, made with a possibility of vertical vibration in the range of 0.3 to 0.5 mm

 

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