Nuclear power plant

 

(57) Abstract:

Usage: in transportable and stationary nuclear paroprovody installations. Essence: the case of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits installed on the lid of the reactor and provided with an additional heat exchange surface, which is connected with located above the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits air heat sink, the area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air cooler, is selected to be not less than 0.75% of the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits. The area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air cooler, can be chosen equal to not more than 1.0% of the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits. 1 C.p. f-crystals, 1 Il.

The invention relates to the field of nuclear technology and can be used to create transportable and stationary nuclear paroprovody installations.

Known nuclear power plant (NPP), containing water-integrated water nuclear reactor with case and cover, at least three circuits of circulation heat exchangers installed between the contours on the UNT RF N 2040051, CL G 21 1/02, 1992 (BI N20, 1995)).

In marked NPU mode of natural circulation of the coolant is arranged in the first two circuits, so its reliability is higher than that of similar systems with forced circulation of coolant in all paths.

Using NPU mode of natural circulation due to the desire to achieve maximum reliability and simplicity of construction of the NPP due to reduction of active elements with constantly moving mechanical parts of the circulation pumps, dependent besides on external energy sources, and energy consumption for own needs.

In addition, because in this NPS, the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits as close as possible to the reactor, the length of the piping of the secondary circuit is reduced, and the pipelines are located in a rugged reactor and the housing of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits, the risk of seal failure and cessation of circulation in the second circuit is small, which makes the installation more secure.

However, the absence of the NPU system emergency cooling designed for decay heat removal from the active zone, leads to a decrease in safety.

Most similar in its characteristics to the proposed nuclear power is nuclear power installation comprising a water-integrated water nuclear reactor with case and cover, at least three circuits of circulation heat exchangers installed between the paths for heat transfer, and emergency cooling chamber connected with one of the circuits (the journal "Nuclear energy", T. 48, vol. 4, April, 1980, S. S. 224 228.)

Constructive implementation of the first circuit in the specified NPU placement of the heat exchanger and the first and second contours above the active area provides cooling of the active zone and the heat transfer in the heat exchanger and the first and second contours due to the natural convection of the coolant, thus avoiding the inclusion in the equipment of the contour of the funds needed to create a forced circulation. However, to ensure the circulation of the coolant in all the other paths have to use pumps with moving parts.

In the specified NPU has an active emergency cooling, which comes into operation by switching on the Armat is because the inclusion is accompanied by a performance of the number of necessary operations, with some possibility of equipment failure in their implementation, the inertia of sequentially occurring events and generally delay the process of cooling, which is undesirable for security.

In addition, the emergency cooling system is connected to the piping of the third circuit, therefore, because of the distance from the active zone and the great length of the pipelines of the second and third circuits is greatly reduced reliability cooling NPU and deteriorating environmental situation around her.

Also a negative impact on the reliability of NPP danger shut off the circulation pump, which is equipped with all except the first, the contours of the circulation, since the failure of the pumps of the second and/or third paths will lead to the termination of the heat and make useless alarm system cooldown even after enabling it.

In addition to the above disadvantages of this NPP, mention should be made of great length and very substantial weight and size characteristics of contours, which leads to large losses of heat transfer from the place of generation to the consumer, nigeriana is to increase the safety and reliability of NPP by continuous heat dissipation and simplify the system of emergency cooling of the reactor, improvement of ecological purity of the nuclear power plant.

This objective is achieved in that in a nuclear power plant, containing water-integrated water nuclear reactor with case and cover, at least three circuits of circulation heat exchangers installed between the paths for heat transfer, and emergency cooling chamber connected with one of the circuits, the housing of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits installed on the lid of the reactor and placed additional heat exchange surface, coupled with located above the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits air heat sink, and the area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air cooler, is selected to be not less than 0.75% heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits, and, in addition, the fact that the area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air cooler, is selected to be not more than 1.0% of the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third paths.

The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a structural diagram of a NPP.

This diagram shows the case of water-Vela, located above the active zone 3 and United under mnimi and standpipe piping 4 and 5, respectively, with the heat exchanger 8 of the second and third circuits, in which, for example, over the heat exchange surface 7 of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits placed heat exchange surface 8 of the emergency cooling system connected to the air heat exchanger 9, is equipped with louvered dampers 10.

NPU is as follows.

Heated in the reactor 3, the coolant is supplied to the built-in housing 1 of a nuclear reactor, the heat exchanger 2 and the first and second paths and transfers heat away from the active zone 3 boiling water a working body of the second circuit. Pairs of the second circuit due to the natural convection on the lifting line 4 rises in the heat exchanger 8 of the second and third circuits, condenses on the cold heat exchange surfaces 7 and 8 and flows through the measuring pipe 5 into the heat exchanger 2 and the first and second paths.

In the heat exchanger 8 of the second and third paths from flowing feed water is generated superheated steam down to the consumers of thermal energy (on the turbo-generator and boiler house, for technological needs and so on).

The intensity of the cooling air is adjustable louvered shutters 10, which allows to influence the overall magnitude of the heat sink and to compensate, thus, seasonal fluctuations of the ambient temperature.

The declared system emergency cooling provides the ability to completely turn off consumers without plugging of the reactor, because the lack of pipeline armature, the phase transition teploobmennye environment, the location of the radiator above the heat exchanger of the second and third contours allows us to develop an intensive circulation in the circuit of the emergency cooling through natural convection.

However due to the fact that the area of heat transfer surface 8 is selected to be not less than 0.75% of the heat transfer surface area 7, level allowed for this mode, power is not less than 5% of the capacity of the NPP. The result is the ability to re-commissioning of consumers at a given speed dial capacity. At the same time, because the level of residual heat in pressurised water nuclear reactor And began to to minimize heat loss from constantly working alarm system cooldown, the area of heat exchange surface 8 choose no more than 1% of the heat transfer surface area 7. In this case, the level exhaust system emergency cooling power of the NPP will not exceed 7%

In addition, in the proposed NPP emergency cooldown significantly closer to the cooling circuit of the active zone in comparison with the prototype (in the circulation system formed at emergency cooling of the reactor core, there are no pipelines of the third circuit and reduced as much as possible the length of the pipelines of the second circuit, because in the particular case of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits can be installed directly on the lid of the reactor), therefore decreasing the probability of seal failure and release of radioactive products outside the NPP, and saves generated in the active zone of heat during transportation to the consumer and reduce the cost of electricity for own needs.

Declared emergency cooling system no longer depends on the reliability of the circulation pumps of these paths (as in the first and second circuits is provided by natural CLASS="ptx2">

Thus, the proposed constantly functioning system emergency cooling does not require preparation, monitoring equipment and almost businessone. In addition to the security of the installation due to the performance of their direct functions, the proposed system allows to solve problems automatically display the NPU on the operational parameters to the connection of the consumer. While waste heat from nuclear power is minimized (in particular, by reducing the length of the contours, two-phase heat transfer and others).

Consequently, the use of declared emergency cooling system provides:

improving the reliability and safety of the installation;

improving the environmental aspects of the NPP by cooling, emergency cooling system air, separated from the source of radioactive contamination (primary circuit) two sealed and maintenance-circuits;

the reduction of heat loss when it is "delivered" to the consumer and the cost of electricity for own needs;

the reduction in weight and size characteristics of the NPU.

1. Nuclear power installation comprising a water-moderated integral ateryannye between circuits for heat transfer, and the system of emergency cooling chamber connected with one of the circuits, characterized in that the housing of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits installed on the lid of the reactor and placed additional heat exchange surface, coupled with located above the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits air heat sink, and the area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air cooler, is not less than 0.75% of the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third paths.

2. Installation under item 1, characterized in that the area of heat transfer surface, which is connected with an air radiator is not more than 1% of the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger of the second and third circuits.

 

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