Method of coating
(57) Abstract:Usage: the application of doped metal and polymer coating for protection against corrosion and wear of metal and pipes. The inventive method of coating in which the coating material is used in the form of a stream of small particles, and this thread reported supersonic speed shot or automatic all shots. The coating material used in the form of granules, powders, suspensions, two-phase ow or ultrafine particles and droplets, including charged. The method provides improved performance and quality of the coating, in particular on products having the form of a rotation. 4 C.p. f-crystals, 2 Il. The invention relates to a method of coating and device for its implementation and can be used when applying the doped metallic and polymeric coatings for protection against corrosion and wear of metal and pipes.There is a method of repair parts welding friction powder materials. Welding friction with the powder material is the process of applying on the face or lateral surface of the lower-melting point material. Napaul the beginning of the rotation is brought into contact with the product. On the surface contact friction forces arise from the dissipation between the surface and the briquette. The rotation is stopped as the build layer thickness. Known methods of deposition based on the friction welding under pressure, in which the welded or fused blanks are heated in the mechanical friction of their mating surfaces.Machine for welding and surfacing of friction involves complex mechanical, electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic devices for securing the joined blanks, heating and plastic deformation of the heated metal to form a weld or a weld connection or coverage.Device for welded or weld connection or coating includes: a rotation mechanism, a braking mechanism, the drive force, the drive rotation of the power head, a stationary clamp blanks, carriage, carriages, tracking device, sedimentary matrix.The disadvantages of existing methods prototype is a significant warming of the details inland from the contact areas and possible warping parts, metal products, pipes, the complexity of the process and its regulation, the difficulty of applying the continuity of the>The disadvantages of existing devices is the relative complexity of construction, devices, and process control.The aim of the invention is to improve the technological process and the simplification of the device, increasing corrosionresistant protective coating on the metal asymmetric shapes of parts, pipes and tanks, including products and forms of rotation, i.e., circular symmetric cross-section, increasing productivity and quality of the coating, the controllability of the process.The essence of the method consists in obtaining and applying protective coatings on metal products of arbitrary shape welding friction metal or polymer-dispersed flow of gas or slurry with supersonic speed dynamic flow directed at an angle optimum friction to the protected surface. Usually this is the angle from 7 to 70o. The limit of the 90o.Surfacing of friction in the present invention is made of metal or polymer dispersed dynamic flow. Depending on the angle of attack, in General varying from 0 to 90othat is, the deceleration of the gas stream carrying the dispersed particles of metal or polymer in the form of two-phase ow, such as zinc dust or then threw particles, which can be from the colloidal dispersion to form a powder, or may be in the form of aerosol particles of metal. At the moment of contact of the gas-dynamic friction with the surface of the metal heat friction, particles melt, forming a deposited protective layer. Thus, the friction part in the present invention is polydispersed gaseousness or slurry resulting from the Laval nozzle with supersonic speed.Polydisperse suspension of metal or plastic (polymer milled hardened epoxy resin or polyvinyl chloride) can be suspended in the cylinder or in the form of a slurry, which is fed into the throat of the Laval nozzle (or nozzle is injected) at the exit of the nozzle, the droplets of the slurry at supersonic speeds instantly vzryvoobrazno boil and evaporate, zinc dust, which is, for example, in slurry, gains additional momentum, and with supersonic speed particles of zinc RUB the surface of the protected surfaces of metal products, pipes or steel tank, releasing heat, sufficient to melt the metal particles and the formation of the deposited coating. Thus, the Laval nozzle can job and deposition tetrachloride on a protected surface and suck gaseousness, or slurry, or metal dust or powder (aluminum, titanium), carrying the dispersed particles at supersonic speeds, providing a welding gas-dynamic friction, which is after cooling, protective of the deposited coating, the obtained gas-dynamical friction, and not mechanical, like the prototype. This is seen as a novelty and usefulness, since the gas flow is easily controlled by changing the angle of attack and the flow rate or the concentration of polydisperse metal or crushed waste plastics-polymers.The method also does not exclude the operation of the Laval nozzle flow polydisperse two-phase ow with access to the nozzle of Laval polydisperse particles of metal or plastic with supersonic speed and melting their gas-dynamical friction caused by contact of the material with the surface to be protected with the formation of the deposited protective coating that protects the base metal from corrosion and wear.To obtain high-quality coatings coating deposited gas-dynamic friction coating may be carried out in a vacuum. For applying refractory protective coatings on metal polydisperse particles of metal or other m is static) by the outer winding of the Laval nozzle solenoid coil, the shape of the Laval nozzle.Alternatively deposited gas-dynamic friction coating can be applied by all shots polydisperse, powdered or granulated protective material from the automatic device on the protected metal surface. However, the performance of protective coatings welding gas-dynamical friction will depend on the firing rate of the protective powder or granular material placed in the sleeve (or other device) and the angle of attack to the surface of the protected metal. The automatic device can be used for automatic firearms: rifles and machine guns, cartridges, cartridges are loaded with powder or granule surfaced protective material. For the application of the deposited coatings of gas-dynamic friction can be primarily used fusible materials or metals: zinc, aluminum, titanium, plastic, solid epoxy resin, etc.For applying critical of the deposited protective coatings on the surface of the metal: parts and pipes, the deposition process is carried out in vacuum with a residual pressure of not b the gas, the air. Contact friction is carried out by gas-dynamic angle of attack polydisperse flow 7-90o.A device for deposition of coatings of gas-dynamic friction polydisperse flow on the surface of a metal product includes a nozzle 1 with a Laval nozzle 2, the cylinder 3 with polydisperse protective material in a state of gas or slurry under pressure of the compressed gas from the compressor 4, the distribution perforated comb 7, the vacuum chamber 8, the adjustment valve 9, metalloizdelia 10.For additional acceleration of the particles of the Laval nozzle is placed inside the solenoid 5 (solenoid coil), the shape of the Laval nozzle, through which is passed a current from the current source 6.As polydisperse protective material applied metal powder, metal dust, granules, aerosols, colloidal-disperse suspension of metals, their oxides and hydrosols, hydroxide, and polydisperse powder is fed in the form of two-phase ow, or, and, suspensions of colloidal dispersed particles in water or other liquid.The device operates as follows. In the Laval nozzle 2 nozzle 1 is placed in the compressed gas from the compressor 4. The gas flow in the conference is the first of the flow increases in the throat of the Laval nozzle and the diffuser him to supersonic and higher equal 1-20 speed of sound. Polydisperse protective material in the container 3 is in suspension in the form of a gas or slurry, such as colloid-dispersed metallic dust by compressed gas and the distribution of the perforated combs 7 and is filed (sucked) into the Laval nozzle 2, coming from the diffuser part of the Laval nozzle with supersonic speed polydisperse flow in contact with the surface to be protected metal angle 7-90o. In the gas-dynamic friction and braking polydisperse polydisperse flow protective material due to heat of friction is melted and fused onto the surface of a metal product. The thickness of the fused coating is easily adjustable speed polydisperse flow, its consistency (concentration of particles and their diameter) and the contact angle of friction.For additional acceleration of particles in polydispersed material opens the electrical circuit between the solenoid 5 and the current source 6, while on the particles acts electromagnetic field, eject polydisperse particles out of the solenoid and the Laval nozzle.A diagram of such a device is shown in Fig. 1.Another variant is ASS="ptx2">In the combustion chamber 1 is supplied as a fuel gas, for example methane or petroleum gas, and the oxidant oxygen through the respective nozzles 2 and 3. In the camera 1 is installed electronica-igniter 4. The mixture is ignited and the products of combustion at supersonic speed expire from Laval nozzle, where the flow path is injected polydisperse material that can be carried out in the diffuser part or on the way out of it. Next polydisperse flow is directed to metalloizdelia, where due to gas dynamic friction and braking polydisperse flow generates heat sufficient to deposition of the protective coating material on metalloizdelii 5. The vacuum chamber 8.For additional acceleration of particles and combustion products from the Laval nozzle of the combustion chamber 1 is placed in the solenoid connected to the current source 6.By the third variant protecting layers on metalloizdelia is gas-dynamic friction shoot sick and fast protective material by a burst of automatic rifle or rocket weapons under the contact angle of friction 7-90o. For this purpose polydisperse protective material in the form of powder or granules is poured in a combat cartridge, zalium material, located in the cassette, which is served in the rifle barrel automatic weapons such as machine gun, rocket and jet-type weapon "Katyusha", and shot on target - metalloizdelia under the contact friction angle 7-90o. At metalloizdelii forms a deposited layer of protective material. Combat cartridge in addition to the protective material in powder or pellet form contains an explosive such as gunpowder, and primer. The cartridges in the form of tapes used, for example, in the castle part of the trunk, where by drummer detonates the primer and is gas burning powder with pressure to disperse and polydisperse protective material. Thus, in the third variant, the device includes a combat cartridge filled with a protective material, or cartridges, available in tape or disk cassette and sent into the barrel of the automatic rifle guns, such as a machine or a machine gun. For the production of high-quality coatings obtained by overlaying the gas-dynamic friction of the protective material on the surface of a metal product, shots a turn is carried out on the protected metalloizdelia in vacuum with a residual pressure of not more than 1.2 10-Olee high flow rates and emission of harmful gases from the fused material at the moment of contact friction, including at impact.The invention is illustrated by the following examples.Example 1. In the nozzle 1 with the Laval nozzle 2 is supplied with gas under a pressure of 0.5 MPa, and the tank 3 is sucked colloid-dispersed material in the form of metallic zinc dust suspended in the water. In the diffuse part of the Laval nozzle suspension of polydisperse zinc material with a particle size of 1-10 μm is sprayed to the particles of a liquid, for example water or NGL-94 containing metal particles and supersonic speed is 400 m/s, polydisperse gas-dynamic flow carries the contact friction with applying a protective coating layer due to melting of the particles due to friction and braking gasdynamic flow on the surface of the metal at different angles of attack ranging from 7 to 90o. This processemployee coating after cooling, the deposited layer formed at a contact angle of attack equal to 30-90oand at angles of attack 7-30oformed less strongly linked deposited coating. Consumption of polydisperse suspension of zinc dust was 5-10 g/C. the distance from the nozzle of Laval to the surface metal of the steel Article.20 was 100-200 mm coating Thickness welding sastavljam the friction of the particles of aluminum dust, applied to metalloizdelia in the form of two-phase ow from the cylinder 3. The coating prevents corrosion of steel in water at 99%
Example 2. The condition is the same as in example 1, but the deposited layer is applied from a polydisperse aluminum oxide (Al2O3) with a particle size of 1-10 μm on metalloizdelia in view of the part of the steel Article.20 rectangular shape. The application of the deposited coating of aluminum oxide made by polydisperse flow of air into the vacuum with a residual pressure of 1.2 10-2PA. The thickness of the coating after cooling surfacing to room temperature, equal to the environment amounted to 5-10 microns. The velocity of the gas flow was increased to 480 m/s Degree of protection steel aluminized metal filler layer made from corrosion in saline formation water potassium chloride type with a salinity of 30 g/l 100% Coverage inched when the angle of attack 70owith metalloizdelia.Example 3. In the combustion chamber made in the form of a Laval nozzle, served methane and oxygen. The combustible mixture is ignited by electrocatalysis (electronicos). The supersonic speed of the combustion products is achieved through a Laval nozzle. Suction polydisperse material ensures Radka 660 m/s (Mach 2). As a protective polydisperse material applied titanium powder TiO2, size 10-1 μm. The deposited protective coating applied to the part of the steel Article.20 at a distance of 200 mm from the nozzle (cone) angle of contact friction 70o. The thickness titaniumand protective floating layer was 15 μm with the effect of corrosion protection in formation water in example 2, 100%
Example 4. Conditions are the same as in example 3, only the Laval nozzle is placed inside the solenoid, repeating the shape of a Laval nozzle, through which is passed a current from the current source. The speed of polydisperse gas-dynamic flow increases to 990 m/s (ZM), and the thickness of the coating at the contact friction angle 70obecomes equal 27-37 μm with the effect of protecting from corrosion and abrasive wear in formation water 100%
Example 5. In a combat cartridge is filled protective polydisperse material in the form of a metallic powder 10-50 µm Al2O3and shot from a machine on metalloizdelia angle 90owith a rate of fire of 600 rounds per minute, with an initial speed of polydisperse flow is about 900 m/s the Distance to the surface of the metal is 5 meters While tashinami and abrasive wear in formation water in example 2 in the presence of sand in the particle size of 0.25 mm at a speed of produced water 2 m/s was 100% While the adhesion of the deposited aluminum coating so high, that did not resist even a hammer. Apparently formed naplavlena-welded with the base metal of the steel Article. 20 aluminum protective coating.Example 6. The same conditions as in example 5, only the protective material in the form of granules 2-5 mm filled into cartridges superovulate in the cartridge gun and fired at an angle of 70oto protect the surface of a metal product in the form of a sheet mounted on the frame. Pellets are made of plastic and are emitted under the action of gas-dynamic flow with a velocity of 850 m/s, metalloizdelii formed weld plastic protective coating thickness of 140 μm. 1. The method of coating in which the coating material is used in the form of a stream of small particles, which reported supersonic speed, characterized in that the supersonic flow rate reported by the shot or automatic all shots.2. The method according to p. 1, characterized in that the coating material used in the form of granules, powders, suspensions, two-phase ow or ultrafine particles and droplets, including charged.3. The method according to PP.1 and 2, characterized in that the coating material is applied to the product at an acute or right angle.4., is eramic or plastic.5. The method according to PP.1 to 4, characterized in that shot or automatic all shots are made from the fixed device, and the product move, to or from a mobile device on a stationary product.
FIELD: portable apparatuses for applying coatings of powder materials by gasodynamic deposition.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes compressed gas source, powder meter, deposition unit in the form of portable manual tool with remote control having supersonic nozzle and gas heater rigidly connected with it. Gas heater includes metallic body inside which electric and heat insulation having through mutually parallel pneumatic ducts with inserted in them heating members. Apparatus also includes pneumatic duct for feeding powder from powder meter to supersonic nozzle, locking devices and unit for controlling deposition process, said units are mutually connected through flexible pneumatic ducts and electric connection wires. According to invention electric and heat insulation of gas heater includes inner and outer cylinders coaxially arranged one inside other. Inner cylinder has central through passage for placing pneumatic duct for feeding powder from meter to supersonic nozzle. Pneumatic ducts along its periphery are in the form of grooves. Inner and outer cylinders of electric heat insulation of gas heater are made of heat resistant material having electric and heat insulated coating on surfaces restricting pneumatic ducts.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities, simplified design, lowered mass, improved capability for repairing works, enhanced operational efficiency.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: finish treatment of precision friction pairs requiring high quality of treatment at retaining starting dimensions, for example, high-precision machines and tools and diesel engine supply equipment.
SUBSTANCE: friction surface is degreased, dried and technological medium is applied to it by means of brush, for example. Brass rod is fitted at angle of 45-60 deg. relative to surface being treated. When rod is pressed at simultaneous switching-on of electric machine, it forms shocks over surface being treated; energy of shock is equal to 0.5-0.7 J.
EFFECT: improved quality of coat at low porosity.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: machine engineering, other branches of industry, namely deposition of coatings of powder materials for imparting different properties to coated surfaces.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes deposition unit having electric heater of compressed gas and supersonic nozzle. The last is rigidly joined with outlet of electric heater and has member for introducing powder to nozzle. Apparatus also includes control unit connected with electric heater of compressed gas by means of flexible pipeline and electric cable; powder feeder whose outlet is connected with member for introducing powder to nozzle by means of flexible pipeline. In order to enhance operational safety of apparatus due to lowered temperature of outer members of electric heater of compressed gas, the last includes casing in which metallic housing is arranged with gap filled with heat insulator. Fuel member is arranged in metallic housing having openings for blowing non-heated gas through casing. Member for introducing powder to nozzle is provides powder feeding to supercritical portion of supersonic nozzle at inclination angle relative to its axis.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of apparatus due to uniform distribution of powder along nozzle.
39 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: equipment for plasma-powder fusing or deposition of powders.
SUBSTANCE: powder feeder comprises casing-chamber, powder hopper arranged in upper part of casing-chamber and equipped with discharge opening, which is aligned with annular charging channel of rotating disk provided within casing-chamber, and drive arranged in lower part of casing-chamber. Ejector is disposed on casing-chamber at opposite side of hopper and equipped with supersonic nozzle and intake branch pipe of intake chamber. Intake branch pipe is aligned with annular charging channel of rotating disk. Agitator mounted within powder hopper is equipped with drive.
EFFECT: improved quality of coating deposited.
FIELD: application of coat on rocket engine manifold.
SUBSTANCE: coat is formed on at least one backing by feeding particles of metal powder through sprayer nozzle; size of particles is sufficient for excluding blowing-off by front of shock wave up to 50 mcm. Particles are passed through sprayer nozzle at rate sufficient for arising of plastic deformation of metal powder particles on at least one surface of backing. Carrier gas is fed to nozzle at flow rate of 0.028 to 1415.84 dm3/min.
EFFECT: avoidance of swelling after soldering at high temperature.
17 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: application of anti-score coats on sections of oil well tubing.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in rotating the tube along its longitudinal axis and applying the coat on threaded section. Application of coat is performed by at least two air-powder jets. Jets are rectangular in cross-section and are directed in such way that axis of each jet lies in plane passing through axis of tube and is inclined to it at angle of 30-40°. Jets are inclined relative to tube axis to opposite sides. Wide sides of jets have length equal to 0.3-1.0 of length of threaded section; they are positioned along tube axis. Specification contains description of device for realization of this method.
EFFECT: improved quality of spraying due to smooth distribution of metal over thread surface.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: processes for applying coatings by chemical deposition for obtaining hard wear resistant coatings.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of applying onto surface of steel containing carbon, at least 0.2 mass %, preferably 0.7 -1.2 mass % and chrome, 4 - 12 mass % at least one metal of 5-th Group with atomic number no more than 41. Chemical deposition is realized at rotating article in fluid-tight vessel at temperature 870 - 1110° C practically without air provided with source of powder mixture containing at least one metal of 5-th Group with atomic number no more than 41 and halogen catalyst. Said powder mixture contains up to 50 mass % of inert particles for the total mass of mixture. Such method is used for making rollers of chains with hard coating containing chrome carbide, 1 - 3%. Steel for making articles contains, mass %: carbon, 0.7 - 1.2; chrome, 4 - 8; manganese, 0.25 - 0.45; silicon, 0.25 - 0.55; molybdenum, 0.2 - 0.55; phosphorus, no more than 0.03; sulfur, no more than 0.03; aluminum, no more than 0.05; iron, the balance.
EFFECT: possibility for making article with coating highly resistant against shearing and exfoliation.
20 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: metalworking; mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: alloying agent in form of powder is applied to working surface of article by explosion. At explosion application of alloying agent, layer of this agent is placed directly on working surface of article and layer of explosive charge following the shape of working surface is laid over it. Explosive charge is initiated by excitation of sliding shock wave in alloying agent. If it is necessary to enhance wear resistance of working surfaces when increase of hardness is not required, inert gasket following the shape of surface being treated is laid in between alloying agent and explosive charge.
EFFECT: facilitated procedure of method at simultaneous increased service life of parts due to enhanced wear resistance of working surfaces.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: application of coats and production of materials of functional specific properties; application of coats protecting articles against aggressive action of outside medium.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes cold spraying of powders from two or more proportioners operating independently. Control of flow rate of powders from proportioners operating independently is performed according to definite dependence making it possible to obtain functional coats at high adhesive property.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; improved operating characteristics.
4 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: application of anti-friction coats on inner cylindrical surfaces of parts formed by anode-cathode micro-arc oxidation.
SUBSTANCE: workpiece and device are rotated in opposite direction. Reciprocating oscillations are imparted to device along axis of surface being treated at swing and frequency determined by the following formula: Δ=(0.05-0.2)·b, f=(0.4-1.6)(ω1-ω2), where Δ is swing of oscillations of device in axial direction, mm; f is frequency of oscillations of device, Hz; b is width of rubbing member, mm; ω1 is angular velocity of rotation of workpiece, rad/s; ω2 is angular velocity of device, rad/s. Device proposed for realization of this method has body (1) with deforming member (5) and rubbing member (6) mounted on it. Rubbing member (6) is made in form of plate embracing deforming member (5). Body (1) is made in form of hollow cylinder provided with circular threaded bore (2) at the end where elastic member (4) and deforming member (5) are secured by means of thrust washer (3). Elastic member is rigidly connected with body (1) and deforming member (5) provided with oxide heat-insulating coat on its outer surface; it is also provided with circular groove for receiving rubbing member (6). Thickness of rubbing member (6) is equal to Δ=(1.3-2.0)·δ c(D/d)·(B/b), where δ is thickness of rubbing member, mm; δc is thickness of coat being formed, mm; D is diameter of cylindrical surface being treated, mm; d is diameter of outer surface of rubbing member, mm; B is width of cylindrical surface being treated, mm; b is width of rubbing member, mm. Through slot (7) made in body (1), elastic member (4) and deforming member (5) is used for securing the rubbing member to exclude its slippage. Proposed method extends functional capabilities of application of copper-based anti-friction coat on aluminum cylindrical surfaces.
EFFECT: extended functional capabilities; reduced contact pressure in zone of treatment.
3 cl, 2 dwg