The method of preparation of nickel catalyst for hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats
(57) Abstract:The invention relates to the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts used in hydrogenation processes. The method of preparation of the catalyst is deposited on a carrier of Nickel salt and soda ash, which gradually poured to 10-15% increase of Nickel salt solution, followed by filtering, washing, drying, recovery in the hydrogen-containing gas and the passivation of nitrogen-air mixture. The deposition of lead from 20-80% suspension containing both salt of Nickel, and soda ash, in a molar ratio to the Nickel salts, equal to 1.0 to 1.5. The proposed method allows to increase the activity of the resulting catalyst in the process of hydrogenation of oils and fats by 30-40%. In addition, it simplifies the technology of deposition and reduced water consumption for washing the precipitated mass. table 1. The invention relates to the preparation of heterogeneous catalysts used in hydrogenation processes.Known method of preparing precipitated catalysts, including the dissolution of the original salt with subsequent sedimentation /1/.A known method of producing catalyst for the hydrogenation of organellar with subsequent processing, includes stage filtration, washing, drying, calcination at 380-420oC, tabletting and recovery in an atmosphere of hydrogen containing gas /2/.The disadvantage of this method is the low activity of the obtained catalyst and large water consumption when washing the precipitated mass of the catalyst, which entails the formation of wastewater containing heavy metal.The closest technical solution of the essence and the achieved effect is a method for preparing a catalyst for hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats by deposition of Nickel on a carrier of 10-12% aqueous solution of Nickel sulfate 30% sodium carbonate solution followed by washing, drying, recovery in the hydrogen-containing gas at 350-500oC and passivation of nitrogen-air mixture /3/. The soda ash solution is added to a solution of Nickel salts at stirring speeds of 10-20 ml/minThe disadvantage of this method is the low activity of the catalyst in the hydrogenation of unsaturated bonds in vegetable oils (50%).In addition, in the cooking process produce large quantities of wastewater, and the catalyst contains impurities of neumuhlen to increase the activity of the Nickel catalyst in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats and simplifying the technology of preparation of the catalyst.This technical effect is achieved by deposition of a basic carbonate of Nickel on kieselguhr from a more concentrated solution of Nickel sulfate in the presence of sodium carbonate at a molar ratio of baking soda to the salt of Nickel, 1.0-,1,5.The invention is illustrated by the following examples.Example 1. Prepare 1 l of a suspension containing 60g salt: with NISO47H2O 400g, Nickel sulfate Na2CO3H and SiO274g.For precipitation, the suspension is heated to 85oC and mix until reaching a pH of 9-10. The resulting mixture is poured into distilled water (1l) and decanted, and then filtered. The precipitate is washed from the ions SO-4-and Na+distilled water, dried, restore in hydrogen at 400-420oC for 2 hours, then Passepartout 5 hours in a nitrogen-air mixture at a temperature of not more than 100oC. the catalyst in the number 150g contains 55% Ni. The activity of this sample in the hydrogenation of sunflower oil is determined by the following method.In a glass reactor placed 50g refined sunflower oil and 0.15 g of the catalyst fraction of 0.9 μm. Next raise temperature control for reducing the refractive index of the hydrogenated feed is cut compared to the original oil. The degree of saturation of the ethylene linkages mixture of triglycerides (A) determined by the formula:
< / BR>where A degree of saturation,
P600the refractive index of the mixture of triglycerides at 60oC;
P6g0the refractive index of the hydrogenated feed is cut at 60oC;
1,4470 refractive index fully gidrirovannoe mixture of triglycerides (tristearin) at 60oC.The degree of saturation of the received section of hydrogenated feed was 78.0%
The other catalyst samples were obtained by analogy with example 1. The test results of these samples in the hydrogenation of sunflower oil in the table.As can be seen from the table, the inventive method of preparing a Nickel catalyst can increase the activity in the hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats by 30-40%
When conducting a deposition under these conditions (at high concentration source of salts in solution) in the structure of the obtained basic Nickel carbonate ions are not introduced sulfate and sodium that allows about 10 times to reduce water consumption by washing the precipitated mass from these catalytic poisons.In addition, the method allows to simplify the technology of USAID nerastvorim sodium carbonate.The inventive method will be implemented in enterprises that produce nicelyslightly catalyst for hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats (Ufa refinery and Novokuibyshevsk neftekhimkombinat). The method of preparation of Nickel catalyst for hydrogenation of vegetable oils and fats by deposition on kieselguhr Nickel sulfate soda ash, followed by filtering, washing, drying, recovery in the hydrogen-containing gas and a passivation attivazione mixture, characterized in that the deposition of lead from 20 to 80% suspension containing both Nickel sulfate and soda ash in a molar ratio of soda sulphate of Nickel, 1.0 to 1.5.
FIELD: composition and structure of composite metal semiconductor meso-porous materials; titanium-dioxide-based catalyst for photo-chemical reactions.
SUBSTANCE: proposed catalyst is meso-porous titanium-dioxide-based material containing crystalline phase of anatase in the amount no less than 30 mass-% and nickel in the amount no less than 2 mass-%; material has porous structure at average diameter of pores from 2 to 16 nm and specific surface no less than 70 m2/g; as catalyst of photo-chemical reaction of liberation of hydrogen from aqua-alcohol mixtures, it ensures quantum reaction yield from 0.09 to 0.13. Method of production of such catalyst includes introduction of precursor - titanium tetraalkoxyde and template of organic nature, holding reagent mixture till final molding of three-dimensional structure from it at successive stages of forming sol, then gel, separation of reaction product and treatment of this product till removal of template; process is carried out in aqua-alcohol solvent containing no more than 7 mass-% of water; at least one of ligands is introduced into solvent as template; ligand is selected from group of macro-cyclic compounds containing no less than four atoms of oxygen and/or from complexes of said macro-cyclic compounds with ions of metals selected from alkaline or alkaline-earth metals or F-metals containing lithium, potassium, sodium, rubidium, cesium, magnesium, calcium, strontium, barium, lanthanum and cerium; mixture is stirred before forming of sol maintaining its temperature not above 35°C till final molding of three-dimensional structure from reagent mixture; mixture is held in open reservoir at the same temperature at free access of water vapor; after removal of template from three-dimensional structure, mixture is first treated with nickel salt solution during period of time sufficient for withdrawal of nickel ions from solution by pores of structure, after which is it kept in hydrogen-containing medium during period of time sufficient for reduction of nickel ions in pores of structure to metallic nickel.
EFFECT: enhanced sorption and photo-catalytic parameters; reproducibility of catalyst properties.
7 cl, 68 ex
FIELD: chemical technology, catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a nickel-containing catalyst and to a method for the oligomerization reaction of ethylene to a mixture of olefin products with high degree of linearity. Invention describes a composition of catalyst comprising product prepared by interaction of the following components in a polar organic solvent in the presence of ethylene: (a) bivalent nickel simple salt with solubility at least 0.001 mole per liter in indicated polar organic solvent; (b) boron hydride-base reducing agent; (c) water-soluble base; (d) ligand chosen from o-dihydrocarbylphosphinobenzoic acids and their alkaline metal salts; (e) trivalent phosphite wherein the molar ratio of ligand to phosphite is in limits from about 50:1 to about 1000:1. Also, invention describes a method for preparing the catalyst composition and a method for synthesis of a mixture of olefin products showing the high degree of linearity. Invention provides preparing the economically effective catalyst useful in synthesis of olefin substances showing the high degree of linearity.
EFFECT: improved and valuable properties of catalyst.
10 cl, 2 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: petrochemical process catalysts.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to determining polymerizing activity of catalysts that can be used for hydrogenation of unsaturated compounds contained in liquid pyrolysis products. As a variable reflecting polymerizing activity of hydrogenation catalysts, optical density value of liquid mixture is used, said mixture containing unsaturated compounds and being kept in contact with catalyst at elevated temperature for a predetermined period of time. Determination of polymerizing activity is accomplished by comparing optical density of liquid mixture containing unsaturated compounds before and after its contact with catalyst. In order to measure optical density of liquid mixture, standard laboratory equipment (photocolorimeter and spectrophotometer) may be utilized.
EFFECT: enabled comparison of polymerizing activity of catalysts directly with respect to industrial feedstock.
3 cl, 2 dwg, 3 tbl, 38 ex
FIELD: gas treatment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to improved method for removing acetylene compounds from hydrocarbon streams, which method comprises bringing hydrocarbon stream containing a first concentration of acetylene compounds and olefins with catalyst being consisted either of supported non-sulfided metallic nickel or the same modified with metals such as Mo, Re, Bi, or mixture thereof, said non-sulfided nickel being present on support in quantity by at least 5% superior to quantity required for selective hydrogenation of acetylenics. Hydrogenation is carried out in first reaction zone at temperature and pressure as well as hydrogen concentration favoring hydrogenation of acetylenics, after which hydrocarbon material is discharged containing second concentration of acetylenics inferior to its first concentration.
EFFECT: improved acetylenics removal selectivity and increased yield of target olefin compounds.
20 cl, 10 dwg, 1 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: chemical industry; petrochemical industry; hydrogen power industry; metallurgy industry; coke industry; other industries; methods of production of hydrogen and the nanofibrous carbonic materials.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is pertaining to the catalytic productions of hydrogen and the carbonic materials of the nanofibrous structure out of the hydrocarbon. The invention may be used in the chemical industry, the petrochemical industry at utilization of the hydrocarbon gases, and also in the hydrogenous power industry, in metallurgy and the carbonic productions. The method of production of hydrogen and the nanofibrous carbonic material includes decomposition of the hydrocarbon material at the heightened temperature on the catalyst containing nickel, copper and the hard-to-restore oxides. In the capacity of the hydrocarbon material use methane and decomposition is conducted at the temperature of 700-750°С or use the gaseous hydrocarbons with the monatomic ratio of hydrogen : carbon - within 2-3 and decomposition is conducted at the temperature of 500-600°С. The invention allows realization of the catalytic decomposition of the gaseous hydrocarbons with production of hydrogen and nanofibrous carbon.
EFFECT: the invention ensures realization of the catalytic decomposition of the gaseous hydrocarbons with production of hydrogen and nanofibrous carbon.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl, 9 ex